SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Reforestation

'Reforestation' is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands that have been depleted through deforestation. Reforestation can be used to rectify or improve the quality of human life by soaking up pollution and dust from the air, rebuild natural habitats and ecosystems, mitigate global warming since forests facilitate biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, harvest for resources timber, but non-timber forest products. In the beginning of the 21 century more attention is given to the ability of reforestation to mitigate climate change as one of the best methods to do it. A debated issue in managed reforestation is whether or not the succeeding forest will have the same biodiversity as the original forest. If the forest is replaced with only one species of tree and all other vegetation is prevented from growing back, a monoculture forest similar to agricultural crops would be the result. However, most reforestation involves the planting of different selections of seedlings taken from the area of multiple species.

Another important factor is the natural regeneration of a wide variety of plant and animal species that can occur on a clear cut. In some areas the suppression of forest fires for hundreds of years has resulted in large single aged and single species forest stands; the logging of small clear cuts and/or prescribed burning increases the biodiversity in these areas by creating a greater variety of tree stand ages and species. Reforestation need not be only used for recovery of accidentally destroyed forests. In some countries, such as Finland, many of the forests are managed by the wood products and pulp and paper industry. In such an arrangement, like other crops, trees are planted to replace those. In such circumstances, the industry can cut the trees in a way to allow easier reforestation; the wood products industry systematically replaces many of the trees it cuts, employing large numbers of summer workers for tree planting work. For example, in 2010, Weyerhaeuser reported planting 50 million seedlings.

However replanting an old-growth forest with a plantation is not replacing the old with the same characteristics in the new. In just 20 years, a teak plantation in Costa Rica can produce up to about 400 m³ of wood per hectare; as the natural teak forests of Asia become more scarce or difficult to obtain, the prices commanded by plantation-grown teak grows higher every year. Other species such as mahogany grow more than teak in Tropical America but are extremely valuable. Faster growers include pine and Gmelina. Reforestation, if several indigenous species are used, can provide other benefits in addition to financial returns, including restoration of the soil, rejuvenation of local flora and fauna, the capturing and sequestering of 38 tons of carbon dioxide per hectare per year; the reestablishment of forests is not just simple tree planting. Forests are made up of a community of species and they build dead organic matter into soils over time. A major tree-planting program could enhance the local climate and reduce the demands of burning large amounts of fossil fuels for cooling in the summer.

Forests are an important part of the global carbon cycle because trees and plants absorb carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. By removing this greenhouse gas from the air, forests function as terrestrial carbon sinks, meaning they store large amounts of carbon. At any time, forests account for as much as double the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. Forests remove around three billion tons of carbon every year; this amounts to about 30% of all carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels. Therefore, an increase in the overall forest cover around the world would mitigate global warming. At the beginning of the twenty-first century interest reforestation grew over its potential to mitigate climate change. Without displacing agriculture and cities, earth can sustain one billion hectares of new forests; this would remove 25% of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and reduce its concentration to levels that existed in the early twentieth century. A temperature rise of 1.5 degrees would reduce the area suitable for forests by 20% by the year 2050, because it some tropical areas will become too hot.

The countries that have the most forest-ready land are: Russia, Brazil, United States and China. The four major strategies are: increase the amount of forested land through reforestation. Implementing the first strategy is supported by many organizations around the world. For example, in China, the Jane Goodall Institute, through their Shanghai Roots & Shoots division, launched the Million Tree Project in Kulun Qi, Inner Mongolia to plant one million trees. China used 2.4 billion hectares of new forest to offset 21% of Chinese fossil fuel emissions in 2000. In Java, Indonesia newlywed couples give; each divorcing couple gives 25 seedlings to. Costa Rica doubled its forest cover in 30 Years using its system of grants and other payments for environmental services, including compensation for landowners; these payments are funded through nationwide taxes. The second strategy has to do with selecting species for tree-planting. In theory, planting any kind of tree to produce more forest cover would absorb more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

However, a genetically modified variant might grow much faster than unmodified specimens. Some of these cultivars are under development; such fast-growing trees would be planted for har

Economy of Manchukuo

This article looks at the economies of Manchukuo and Mengjiang, in the period 1931-1945. The effective Japanese annexation of 1931 led to a colonial system. Japan invested in heavy industry, to a lesser extent, agriculture; the General Affairs State Council retained Japanese control of official economic policy. The Central Bank of Manchou was the national central bank; the Kwantung Army held the highest authority, representing the Emperor of Japan, the respective ministries of the nominal Manchoukou central government were involved. The effective annexation gave Japan an area suitable for farming, such as scarcely existed on the country's islands, or other parts mountainous, of the Empire of Japan; the area was agricultural in character, although with some urbanization. Agriculture employed 85% of the population. Farmers produced many crops on the southern plains. Manchu farms practiced crop rotation with primitive culture methods. Kaoliang and maize, wheat and soy were popular crops. Others in quantity were: alfalfa, apricots, col, cucumber, garlic, giant radish, indigo, millet, onions, opium poppies, pears, rice, rye, sugar beet, sweet potatoes, thyme and others.

In Amur land honey was collected. From kaoliang and corn liquors were made, including vodka, beer, soy juices and vinegar; the modern wheat and flour industry was located in Harbin from Russian times apart from basic mills in other areas. The most intensive farming occurred in a 150–250 kilometres zone, extending from the Liaotung Gulf to the Northwest. In 1934 it totaled between 120,000–160,000 square kilometres; the proportions of the principal crops in 1934 were: Soy: 28% Corn: 9% Other legumes: 2% Wheat: 7% Kaoliang:: 23% Rice: 2% Mice: 18% Other crops: 11% Soy was Manchukuo's principal crop. The first exports were made in 1908 to England; the economic expansion of soy is attributed in great part to the South Manchurian Railway Company, which enabled direct export from Dairen abroad, in particular to China and Japan proper. Manchukuo hosted many types of processing mill. 1933 to 1934 saw a reduction of more than 4,000 square kilometres in cultivated extent and production fell from 4-6 million to 3.84 million tonnes.

The Japanese developed industry with average production of 1,500,000 tonnes. Half was exported to Europe. Crude oil paste for fertilizer and soybeans for food was sent to Japan; the rest of the plant was used in cellulose factories. Manchukuo produced 120,000 kilograms of mediocre quality; the opium poppy was grown to obtain opium. In November 1932 the Mitsui Zaibatsu conglomerate held a state monopoly for poppy farming with the "declared intention" of reducing its heavy local use. Fixed cultivation areas were set up in northwest Kirin. For 1934-35, cultivation area was evaluated as 480 square kilometres with a yield of 1.1 tonnes/km². There was much illegal growing, its high profitability retarded the effective suppression of this dangerous drug."Nikisansuke", a secret Japanese merchant group, participated in the opium industry. This group was formed by: Hoshino Naoki Tojo Hideki Kishi Nobusuke Matsuoka Yosuke Ayukawa Yoshisuke Kuhara Fusanosuke The monopoly generated profits of twenty to thirty million yen per year.

The military prohibited the use of opium and other narcotics by its troops but allowed it to be used as a "demoralization weapon" against "inferior races", a term that included all non-Japanese peoples. One of the participants, Naoki Hoshino negotiated a large loan from Japanese banks using a lien on the profits of Manchukuo's Opium Monopoly Bureau as collateral. Another authority states that annual narcotics revenue in China, including Manchukuo, was estimated by the Japanese military at 300 million yen a year. Similar policies operated across Japanese-occupied Asia. Precipitation: 25 inches Growing season in days: 196 Cultivation area: 22,054 square miles Total percentage of cultivated land: 13-18% Total percentage of arrended peasants: 6% Cultivated area per farm: 7.3 acres Peasant population density in principal farming: 858 square miles Wheat: 18% Maize: 34% Irish potatoes: 10% Oxen: 21% Donkeys: 15% Sheep: 28% Mule: 11% Nuts and pears Precipitation: 25 inches Growing Epochs for days: 150 Cultivation area: 50,000 square miles Total percentage of cultivated land: 5 to 20% Total percentage of arrended peasants:?

Cultivated surface per farm: 8 acres Peasant population density in principal farming: 800 square miles Wheat: 10% Maize: 15% Soy: 10% Kaoliang: 25% Pears Oxen, heavy horses transported the harvest. Hsingan province worked horses and Bactrian camels, Heilungkiang and Kirin provinces used sled dogs to aid transport. Pack animal: 76% Carts: 38% River boats: 13%The cultivable land was estimated as 300,000 square kilometres principally in the central plain. - Heilungkiang: Percentage total of land cultivated: 5.2% Land cultivated per person: 1.84 acres - Kirin: Percent of land cultivated: 14.4% Land cultivated per person: 1.19 acres - Liaoning: Percent of land cultivated: 16.8% Land cultivated per person: 0.76 acres - Jehol: Percent of land cultivated: 6.1% Land cultivated per person: 0.83 acres - Chahar: Percent of land cultivated: 4.1% Land cultivated per person

Angola–China relations

Angola–China relations date back to pre-independent Angola. Today they are based on an emerging trade relationship; as of 2011, Angola is China's second biggest trading partner in Africa. During Kenya's independence ceremonies in 1963, Chinese Foreign Minister Chen Yi told Jonas Savimbi, the Secretary-General of the Union of Peoples of Northern Angola, that his country would give the UPNA "large-scale military aid". Three years UNITA separatists, led by Savimbi, attacked Portuguese workers in Cassamba. Armed with only ten NATO 7.62 rifles, purchased with Chinese aid, the attack failed to stop timber operations and Portuguese colonial authorities killed several UNITA members. On December 3, 1975, in a meeting with U. S. and Chinese officials, including Vice-Premier Deng Xiaoping, Foreign Minister Chiao Kuan-hua, President Gerald Ford, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft and head of the U. S. Liaison Office in Peking George H. W. Bush Chinese entreaties about U.

S. continued participation in Angola via South Africa, resulted in Kissinger responding that the US is prepared to "push out South Africa as soon as an alternative military force can be created". Yet, the Chinese still supported the FLNA and UNITA against the MPLA. Ford said: "We had nothing to do with the South African involvement and we will take action to get South Africa out, provided a balance can be maintained for their not being in." He said that he had approved US$35 million more in support of the north above what had been done before. Discussions entailed who should support FNLA or UNITA, by which means and in what manner, considering the sensitivities of the neighbouring countries. President of Angola Agostinho Neto condemned the Chinese invasion of Vietnam in February 1979. On August 25, 2012, 37 Chinese nationals, arrested in Angola due to their alleged involvement in criminal acts against Angolans, were extradited and due to be tried in China; the Angolan People's Republic established relations with the Chinese People's Republic in 1983.

As of 2007, Angola was China's biggest trading partner in Africa. Trade between the two countries was worth US$24.8 billion in 2010. In 2011 and in the first 8 months of 2012 it was the second largest trading partner of China in Africa, after South Africa. In 2016, trade between the two countries was worth US$15.6 billion. Chinese exports to Angola amounted to US$1.68 billion and Angolan exports to China amounted to US$13.97 billion Since the first Forum on China Africa Cooperation conference in 2000, Beijing has completed $465 million of official development finance projects in Angola. This includes a $90 million loan from the Exim Bank of China for the rehabilitation of the Luanda railway and the construction of a 45 km electricity distribution line between Quifangondo and Mabubas. Angola has received a $1 billion oil-back line of credit for the China Exim bank to repair the country's infrastructure. Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao visited Angola in June 2006, offering a US$9 billion loan for infrastructure improvements in return for petroleum.

The PRC has invested in Angola since the end of the civil war in 2002. João Manuel Bernardo, the current ambassador of Angola to China, visited the PRC in November 2007. Sino-African relations Angolan Civil War Cardenal, Juan Pablo. La silenciosa conquista china. Barcelona: Crítica. Pp. 144–152. ISBN 9788498922578