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A refrigerant is a substance or mixture a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle. In most cycles it back again. Many working fluids have been used for such purposes. Fluorocarbons chlorofluorocarbons, became commonplace in the 20th century, but they are being phased out because of their ozone depletion effects. Other common refrigerants used in various applications are ammonia, sulfur dioxide, non-halogenated hydrocarbons such as propane; the ideal working fluid or called refrigerant would have favorable thermodynamic properties, be noncorrosive to mechanical components, be safe, including freedom from toxicity and flammability. It would not cause climate change. Since different fluids have the desired traits in different degree, choice is a matter of trade-offs; the desired thermodynamic properties are a boiling point somewhat below the target temperature, a high heat of vaporization, a moderate density in liquid form, a high density in gaseous form, a high critical temperature. Since boiling point and gas density are affected by pressure, refrigerants may be made more suitable for a particular application by appropriate choice of operating pressures.

A 2018 study by the nonprofit organization "Drawdown" put proper refrigerant management and disposal at the top of the list of climate impact solutions, with an impact equivalent to eliminating over 17 years of US carbon dioxide emissions. The inert nature of many haloalkanes, chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 and CFC-12, made them preferred choices among refrigerants for many years because of their non-flammability and non-toxicity. However, their stability in the atmosphere and their corresponding global warming potential and ozone depletion potential raised concerns about their usage; this led to their replacement with HFCs and PFCs HFC-134a, which are not-ozone depleting, have lesser global warming potentials. However, these refrigerants still have global warming potentials thousands of times greater than CO2. Therefore, they are now being replaced in markets where leaks are by using a fourth generation of refrigerants, most prominently HFO-1234yf, which have global warming potentials much closer to that of CO2.

In order from the highest to the lowest potential of ozone depletion are: Bromochlorofluorocarbon, CFC HCFC. New refrigerants were developed in the early 21st century that are safer for the environment, but their application has been held up due to concerns over toxicity and flammability. Compared to halogenated refrigerants, hydrocarbons like isobutane and propane offer several advantages: low cost and available, zero ozone depletion potential and low global warming potential, they have good energy efficiency, but are flammable and can form an explosive mixture with air if a leak occurs. Despite the flammability, they are used in domestic refrigerators. EU and US regulations set maximum charges of 57 or 150 grams of refrigerant, keeping the concentration in a standard kitchen below 20% of the lower explosive limit; the LEL can be exceeded inside the appliance, so no potential ignition sources can be present. Switches must be placed outside the refrigerated compartment or replaced by sealed versions, only spark-free fans can be used.

In 2010, about one-third of all household refrigerators and freezers manufactured globally used isobutane or an isobutane/propane blend, this was expected to increase to 75% by 2020. Early mechanical refrigeration systems employed methyl chloride and ammonia. Being toxic, sulfur dioxide and methyl chloride disappeared from the market with the introduction of CFCs. One may encounter older machines with methyl formate, chloromethane, or dichloromethane. Chlorofluorocarbons were little used for refrigeration until better synthesis methods, developed in the 1950s, reduced their cost, their domination of the market was called into question in the 1980s by concerns about depletion of the ozone layer. Following legislative regulations on ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, substances used as substitute refrigerants such as perfluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons have come under criticism, they are subject to prohibition discussions on account of their harmful effect on the climate.

In 1997, FCs and HFCs were included in the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. In 2006, the EU adopted a Regulation on fluorinated greenhouse gases, which makes stipulations regarding the use of FCs and HFCs with the intention of reducing their emissions; the provisions do not affect climate-neutral refrigerants. Refrigerants such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and non-halogenated hydrocarbons do not deplete the ozone layer and have no or only a low global warming potential, they are used in air-conditioning systems for buildings, in sport and leisure facilities, in the chemical/pharmaceutical industry, in the automotive industry and above all in the food industry. In these settings their toxicity is less a concern than in home equipment. Emissions from automobile air conditioning are a growing concern because of their impact on climate change. From 2011 on, the European Union will phase out refrigerants with a global warming potential of more than 150 in automotive air conditioning.

This will ban potent greenhouse gases such as the refrigerant HFC-134a —which has a G

Bataclan (theatre)

The Bataclan is a theatre located at 50 Boulevard Voltaire in the 11th arrondissement of Paris, France. Designed in 1864 by the architect Charles Duval, its name refers to Ba-ta-clan, an operetta by Jacques Offenbach. Since the early 1970s, it has been a venue for rock music. On 13 November 2015, 89 people were killed in a coordinated terrorist attack in the theatre; the Bataclan originated as a large café-concert in the Chinoiserie style, with the café and theatre on the ground floor and a large dance hall at first-floor level. Its original name was Grand Café Chinois; the French name "Bataclan" refers to the Offenbach operetta, but it is a pun on the expression tout le bataclan, the oldest written use of which predates Offenbach by a century, in a journal entry of 11 November 1761 by Charles Simon Favart. Concerts were held there but it was best known for putting on the vaudevilles of Eugène Scribe, Jean-François Bayard, Mélesville, Théophile Marion Dumersan; the establishment, designed in 1864 by the architect Charles Duval, opened under the management of André Martin Paris on 3 February 1865 and was bought by the singer Paulus in 1892.

In 1892, Buffalo Bill Cody performed there. Over the next several years the building experienced both good and bad luck, many changes in ownership. New fashions after 1910 led to a restoration of the auditorium and a programme dedicated to revues those put on by José de Bérys. Maurice Chevalier had his first theatrical success there, Édith Piaf performed there. Inspired by their new successes, the Bataclan troupe took big shows on a South American tour that proved financially disastrous. In 1926 the auditorium was transformed into a cinema. A fire broke out in the building in 1933; the original building was demolished in 1950 to bring it into compliance with new safety measures in force. In 1969, the cinema the auditorium again became a salle de spectacle; the venue started booking rock acts in the 1970s, many famous performers have played there since. Among them are Soft Machine, Following the terror attacks on 13 November 2015, during the concert by Eagles of Death Metal, the theatre was closed for repairs.

The venue reopened one year after the attack with a Sting concert. The Bataclan is known today for a eclectic programme of events, including rock and pop concerts, comedy and café-théâtre, its façade was repainted in its original colours in 2006. In May 2015, the theatre hosted a "Who Is Malcolm X" event, featuring Muslim rappers Médine, Kery James and Faada Freddy. Jeff Buckley recorded his EP Live from the Bataclan there in 1995. Progressive metal band Dream Theater recorded their 1998 live album Once in a LIVEtime at the Bataclan; the 1972 performance by Lou Reed, John Cale and Nico of the Velvet Underground, long circulated as a bootleg, was released in 2004 as Le Bataclan'72. Camel's 2001 live album. For 40 years, Bataclan had Jewish owners and Joel Laloux, who sold the theatre to new owners on 11 September 2015; the theatre was a target for anti-Zionist activists, since the venue held pro-Israel events. One extremist group called "Army of Islam" threatened the Bataclan in 2011 because its owners were Jews.

Pro-Palestinian activists have protested against the Bataclan's association with pro-Israel activities. A video posted on YouTube shows masked pro-Palestinian militant protesters at the Bataclan in 2008 stating: "We came here to pass along a small message. Be warned. Next time we won’t be coming here to talk." On 13 November 2015, as part of a series of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant terrorist attacks across Paris, three gunmen who were French nationals of Algerian descent conducted a mass shooting at the Bataclan. An Austrian duo, the White Miles, had completed their performance, the American rock band Eagles of Death Metal were in the middle of their performance when three gunmen wearing suicide belts entered the theatre, firing at people at random and taking hostages; the police stormed the theatre and two gunmen killed themselves during the police raid by detonating suicide vests they were wearing. A third was killed by police gunfire. Two of the attackers, Samy Amimour and Omar Ismaïl Mostefaï, were French citizens.

The third attacker, Foued Mohamed-Aggad, was carrying what was thought to be a stolen Syrian passport. As a result of the attacks, 90 people were killed and over 200 were wounded; the band members of Eagles of Death Metal and most of the road crew escaped unharmed, although their merchandise manager was among the fatalities. It was discovered shortly after the news broke of the attacks that the American rock band Deftones had members in attendance at the Eagles of Death Metal Show; the lead singer of Deftones, Chino Moreno, was eating dinner nearby with his family. Deftones had been scheduled to perform at the Bataclan on the following nights. Irish rock band U2 had been scheduled to perform two Paris concerts in the days following the attack, including one to be broadcast live on HBO; the French government cancelled the concert and the members of the band went to the Bataclan the day after the attack, leaving bouquets of flowers in memory of the victims. Lead singer Bono offered the band pledged to reschedule their Paris shows.

On 16 November, the Bataclan management issued a statement that stated that the theatre was closed indefinitely. It read, "No words suffice to express the magnitude of our grief. Our thoughts go to the victims, to the wo

Gavin Roynon

Gavin Devonald Roynon was an English first-class cricketer and military historian. Roynon was born at Sutton in April 1936, he was educated at Charterhouse School, before going up to Worcester College, Oxford where he studied modern languages. While studying at Oxford, he made his debut in first-class cricket for Oxford University against the touring New Zealanders at Oxford in 1958, he made eight further first-class appearances for Oxford. He scored 188 runs in these matches, at an average of 14.46 and a high score of 58. In addition to playing first-class cricket while at Oxford, Ronyon played minor counties cricket for Oxfordshire between 1954–58, making five appearances in the Minor Counties Championship. While at Oxford he was an accomplished rackets player, gaining a blue in the sport. After graduating from Oxford, he became a history teacher at Eton College, a position he held until his retirement in 1999. Following his retirement he wrote several books on history on the subject of the First World War, including the publishing of three diaries from individuals involved in the war.

He died following a four year-long illness in March 2018. He was survived by five children and fifteen grandchildren. Gavin Roynon at ESPNcricinfo

Battle of Big Bend

The Battle of Big Bend was the last major battle of the Rogue River Wars. It began on May 27, 1856 and ended on May 28, 1856; the battle was fought along the Rogue River, eight miles upriver from Oregon. "The battle was fought between one reinforced Army company. Captain Andrew Jackson Smith was the commanding officer of Company "C" during the battle, Chief John, a member of the Dakubetede Indian band, lead all the warriors."Under Smith's Command were 66 enlisted men from Company "C" of the 1st Cavalry Regiment, 30 enlisted men from Company "E" of the 4th Infantry Regiment, 54 enlisted men from Company "G" of the 4th Infantry Regiment. The orders of the G Company were to accompany Smith's forces to Big Bend and return to Oak Flat on the Illinois River. On the morning of the 27th, several Natives came to Smith's camp at Big Bend and alerted them that more Natives were on the way; that morning, a group of armed Natives formed outside the camp. Upon realizing that much of the growing group were followers of Chief John, Smith placed his entire command under arms.

The first shots of the battle were fired at around 11:00am by the Natives. The attackers led a consistent assault throughout the day on Smith's position on the high ground. By the night of the 27th, US troops had suffered 15 wounded. At about 4:00am the next morning, the firing resumed when Natives noticed US troop movements as they attempted to improve their defensive positions. Shooting continued for the next 12 hours. At 4:00pm, Captain Augur's forces from Company "G" arrived at the battle and attacked Native positions, pushing them back. Smith commanded Sweitzer's forces from Company "E" to assault Native positions as well. On the night of the 28th, Natives began to surrender to the US Army. By the 30th of May, 185 Natives had surrendered at Big Bend; the Battle of Big Bend left a total of 17 wounded. Seven of the deaths were from Company "C", one from Company "E", two from Company "G". Of the 17 wounded, 9 came from Company "C", 5 from Company "E", 3 from Company "G"; the number of Native casualties remains unknown as the dead and wounded were taken from the battlefield.

The Army victory at Big Bend brought an end to the hostilities in the Rogue River Valley, with all of the natives being moved from southwest Oregon to the Siletz Indian Reservations during June and July 1856

Sacred Heart Apostolic School

Established in 2005, Sacred Heart Apostolic School is a Roman Catholic minor seminary, a private, all male boarding school in the United States for those who are considering a vocation to the priesthood. It is located within the Diocese of Gary and operated by the Legionaries of Christ, a religious congregation of the Roman Catholic Church; the school is located in the north-central Indiana town of Rolling Prairie. It serves 20-35 students enrolled in grades 7 through 12; the main building of the 51 acre campus was built in 1932-33 by the Congregation of Holy Cross. It was dedicated to St. Joseph. In 1968, they changed its use to an international boarding school called LeMans Academy. LeMans closed in 2003, the property was divided before the Legion bought the main building in 2005; the academic program follows a classical liberal arts model with particular attention to classical and modern foreign languages and American literature and the natural sciences, theology, cultural studies, the fine arts.

The Latin and Greek courses, in particular, encourages all students to be able to read Virgil's Aeneid in the original Latin and be able to translate the Gospel of John from the original Greek by their senior year. The mathematics program begins with pre-algebra and extends to Trigonometry and Calculus with emphasis in theory rather than application. Students are required to take Spanish as a modern foreign language; each student is required to participate in the school’s band and choir program. Religious services such as the Holy Mass and Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament are provided for the students. Students are introduced to Catholic spirituality which takes different elements from various Christian spiritual authors; the school functions as a retreat center for boys and it hosts a month-long summer program for those who are interested in enrolling for the academic year. Official Website of Sacred Heart Apostolic School


Comerica Incorporated is a financial services company headquartered in Dallas, Texas. It has retail banking operations in Texas, Arizona and Florida, with select business operations in several other U. S. states, as well as in Mexico. Comerica is the largest U. S. commercial bank is on the list of largest banks in the United States. The company's largest offices are in Cincinnati, Detroit, Michigan, Auburn Hills and Dallas; the bank sponsors the Comerica Theatre in Phoenix. From 2007 to 2010, Comerica sponsored the Comerica Bank New Year's Parade in Dallas. In 1849, the company was founded in Detroit by Elon Farnsworth as the Detroit Savings Fund Institute, its name changed to The Detroit Savings Bank in 1871 and to The Detroit Bank in 1936, being one of the few area banks to survive the Great Depression. In 1956, the company merged with Birmingham National Bank, Ferndale National Bank and Detroit Wabeek Bank and Trust Company to form The Detroit Bank & Trust Company. In 1973, it formed DetroitBank Corporation.

The current name was adopted in 1982. In 1982, Comerica entered the Florida market. In 1983, it acquired Bank of the Commonwealth of Michigan, it entered the Texas market in 1988. In 1990, Comerica received approval to construct One Detroit Center. In 1991, the bank expanded to California by acquiring InBancshares. In 1992, the bank merged with a similarly-sized Detroit-based bank, Manufacturers National Corporation. In 1996, the bank sold its Illinois operation to LaSalle Bank parent ABN Amro for $190 million. In 1998, the bank signed a 30-year $66 million agreement for the naming rights to Comerica Park in downtown Detroit, home to the Detroit Tigers of Major League Baseball. In 2000, the bank formed an alliance with the company. In 2001, the bank acquired Imperial Bank of California, which had branches in Arizona. On March 6, 2007, the company announced its decision to relocate its corporate headquarters to Dallas to move closer to its customer base in the Sun Belt. In August, the company announced.

The company executives began moving into the new location in November 2007 and the building was renamed Comerica Tower. In January 2008, the United States Department of the Treasury selected the company as the issuing bank for its Direct Express debit card program; the federal government uses the Express Debit product to issue electronic payments, such as Social Security benefits, to people who do not have bank accounts. In July 2011, the bank acquired Sterling Bank of Texas for $1.03 billion. In 2017, the bank announced plans to reduce its office space by 500,000 square feet, saving $7 million in 2018. Business data for Comerica