Regalia of Sweden

Sweden's regalia are kept deep in the vaults of the Royal Treasury, underneath the Royal Palace in Stockholm, in a museum, open to the public. The crowns and coronets have not been worn by Swedish royalty since 1907, but they are still displayed at weddings and funerals. Prior to 1907, the crowns and coronets were worn along with royal mantles by the king and other princes at the monarch's coronation, during the opening of the Riksdag, displayed on other occasions. After the death of Oscar II in 1907, the practice of wearing the crowns at the opening of the Riksdag ceased and the crowns would subsequently no longer be worn. After this, the crown of the King and his sceptre were displayed on cushions on either side of the silver throne while the king's mantle was draped over it; the old opening of state would last until 1974. Among the oldest priceless objects are the sword of Gustav Vasa and the crown, orb and key of King Erik XIV; the Crown of Eric XIV, made in Stockholm in 1561 by Flemish goldsmith Cornelius ver Welden, is typical of the Renaissance style of jewelry of his time.

His crown bore four pairs of the letter'E' and'R', the initials of the Latin form of his name, "Ericus Rex", in green enamel, each pair being on either side of the central stones on the front and back of the circlet. When he was deposed by his brother, John III, John had each of these letters covered with identical cartouches each set with two pearls; the Swedish monarchs of the Houses of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, of Hesse and of Holstein-Gottorp preferred to use Queen Christina's crown rather than that of Eric XIV. However, they replaced the original orb and cross at the top of the crown with a new large orb enameled blue with gold star and set with diamond and with a cross of ten diamonds, they replaced the original pearls on the top of the eight large ornaments on the circlet with diamonds and replacing the pearl cartouches with eight diamond rosettes moved the circlet 45 degrees. This is the form. In the early twentieth century this orb and cross and these diamond rosettes were removed and the crown restored to the form it had under John III.

Eric had a scepter, an orb and a key made for his coronation. This key is an item found only in the Swedish regalia, his scepter was made by Hans Heiderick in 1561 and is of gold and set with diamonds and sapphires and still used as the monarch's scepter. It was surmounted by a large round sapphire at the top enclosed by two intersecting rows of pearls; this sapphire was lost at the baptism of Gustav IV Adolf and was replaced by the present dark blue enamelled orb in 1780. The orb is of gold and is unique among European regalia in that it is engraved and enamelled with a map of the earth according to the cartography current at the time it was made. At the top of the orb is a smaller orb in blue enamel and covered with stars, above, a small cross formed of a table cut diamond surrounded by three pearls; the orb was made by Cornelius ver Weiden and engraved by Franz Beijer in Antwerp in 1568. The present blue enamel dates from 1751 and replaces the original black enamel, badly damaged at the coronation of Charles XI.

The original model used for the engraving is not known, but the engraver placed the northern hemisphere upside down, while placing the names where they would have been if the map were right side up. The anointing horn was made in 1606 in Stockholm by Peter Kilimpe for the coronation of Carl IX and is of gold in the shape of s bull's horn supported by a pedestal; the large end is closed by a lip with a chain and on the opposite point of the horn stands a small figure of justice holding a pair of scales. The horn is decorated in ornamental relief work with multi-colored opaque and translucent enamel and set with 10 diamonds and 14 rubies, including 6 Karelian'rubies'; the burial crowns and orbs of King Carl IX and his Queen Christina have been kept at Strängnäs Cathedral. Such items are interred with the bodies but have been exhumed and put on display. On July 31, 2018, thieves escaped on a speedboat; the lost regalia were found on February 2019 in Åkersberga, Österåker municipality. Funerary regalia over the sarcophagus of King Eric XIV in Västerås Cathedral were stolen in 2013, but were soon found and are now on display in a special case there.

Among other burial regalia in Sweden, those of King Carl X Gustav are on display at Livrustkammaren of Stockholm Palace, the burial crown of Queen Louise Ulrica is shown in the Treasury there, the crown of King Eric the Holy was on brief display at Uppsala Cathedral in 2014. As her coronation and state crown Christina of Sweden used the crown that her mother Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg had used as the queen consort of Gustav II Adolph, it was made in Stockholm in 1620 by German goldsmith Rupprecht Miller and had two arches in a fine foliage design in gold with black enameling and set with rubies and diamonds, with a small blue enameled orb and a cross, both set with diamonds. Christina had two more arches added to her mother's crown matching the first two and had more diamonds and rubies added to it to enhance the crown's appearance as the crown of a queen regnant, she added a cap of purple satin, embroidered in gold and set with more diamonds, to the inside

Wied il-Miela─ž Window

The Wied il-Mielaħ Window is a limestone natural arch on the north-western coast of the island of Gozo in Malta. It is located at the end of the valley Wied il-Mielaħ north of the village of Għarb; this natural arch is less well-known than the Azure Window, which collapsed in March 2017 following a heavy storm. The Wied il-Mielah Window is at the end of the Wied il-Mielah Valley and is, unlike the more known Azure Window, on the west coast of Gozo; the road from Għarb leads directly to the coast. Directly at the end of the valley, parallel to the old river bed, there is a narrow staircase along the rock to just before the window to the water. Since the ceiling of the window is still thick, you can still enter the window above; the north coast from Gozo to the Xwejni Bay is characterized by a plateau, with steep cliffs, which slope down into the sea, where are many caves. On the plateau, artificial salt pans were used to extract salt from the seawater by evaporation; the hinterland rises here, there is Għarb and the lighthouse Giordan Lighthouse.

In the past, the Wied il-Mielah Valley was responsible for discharging the wastewater from the surrounding municipalities to the Mediterranean directly at the Wied il-Mielah Window. The sewage flag was clearly visible underneath the archway into the open sea. With the help of a 570,000 euro structural project, of which the European Union has financed 85%, the sewage is now cleaned in the sewage treatment plant in Ras il-Hobz and no longer reaches the sea via the valley; as part of the project, the road to the coast was renewed, six bridges replaced, some dams built and trees planted. With these measures one hopes for more visitors at this rock gate; the valley was rehabilitated through the construction of new six small dams allowing better conservation of water. As part of the initiative called'EcoGozo', the area around the arch underwent a major renovation in recent years, allowing better access to the area by the construction of a new road, as well as a wider set of stairs which lead directly to the site next to the arch.

As part of the renovation project, the staircase to the window is to be expanded so that divers can enter the water here. Fences are installed on the western side of the window to allow the climbing of the vertical wall of the cliff. From Għarb a path leads to the window; the Wied il-Mielaħ Window and the Azure Window are seen in a 2017 Hugo Boss advert video featuring David Colturi

H. J. Grasett

Lieutenant-Colonel Henry James Grasett was a Canadian army and militia officer, a Toronto police chief. He is the longest-serving police chief in the history of the Toronto Police, having served for 34 years from 1886 to 1920 as Chief Constable. Grasett was the third son of the Reverend Henry James Grasett, the Rector of St. James Cathedral in Toronto, Sarah Maria Stewart, he was educated at Leamington College for Boys in England. At 19, he joined the Canadian militia, he fought on the Niagara Peninsula during the Fenian raid of 1866 with the 2nd Battalion, Volunteer Militia Rifles of Toronto, In 1867, he joined the British Army serving with The Royal Canadian Regiment in Canada and England and rose to the rank of lieutenant by the time he retired to Toronto in 1875, where he became a partner in a firm of shipping and commission merchants. In 1885, he was given the rank of lieutenant colonel in the militia and put in command of the 10th Battalion Royal Grenadiers which fought in several battles during the North-West Rebellion of 1885.

On December 1, 1886, Grasett was appointed Chief Constable of Toronto. During his command of the Toronto Police he saw. Under Grasett, the police remained British and Protestant in composition. Patrolmen were armed for the first time under Grasett, he oversaw innovations such as the institution of an electric call box and signal system, patrol wagons, bicycles and police cars and reorganized the morality squad and department of detectives. Training and promotion was modelled on the military. Grasett served as vice-president of the International Association of Chiefs of Police in 1902 and as president of the Chief Constables' Association of Canada in 1906. Unlike previous Toronto chief constables, Grasett refrained from making controversial public statements except during World War I when he spoke out against foreigners in Toronto and banned outdoor anti-conscription meetings, he was appointed to the Order of St Michael and St George in 1916 for his contributions to the war effort. In 1918, dissatisfied with wages and work conditions, Toronto police constables unionized, joined the Toronto Trades and Labour Council, went on strike.

At the provincial commission, created to investigate the unrest, Grasett expressed his opposition to one of the union's key demands, promotion by seniority. Grasett retired as chief constable in 1920, at the age of 73, he died of pneumonia at his home in 1930 and was buried in St James' Cemetery