Q150 was the sesquicentenary of the Separation of Queensland from New South Wales in 1859. Separation established the Colony of Queensland which became the State of Queensland in 1901 as part of the Federation of Australia. Q150 was celebrated in 2009; the Queensland government and other Queensland organisations celebrated the occasion with many events and publications, including: announcement of the 150 icons of Queensland by the Queensland Premier Anna Bligh placement of a time capsule in the grounds of Old Government House the creation of monuments at significant survey points in Queensland's history by the Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute to honour the many early explorer/surveyors who mapped the state the State Library of Queensland collected stories from notable Queenslanders, as part of the Storylines - Q150 digital stories project. Many local communities celebrated Q150 in various ways. In Coominya, the local heritage society commissioned a series of murals depicting early life at the town.
"Q150". Queensland Government. Archived from the original on 26 April 2010. — Official website Storylines - Q150 digital stories
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its low melting temperature; the alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon ranging from 1.8 to 4 wt%, silicon 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron. Iron alloys with lower carbon content are known as steel. While this technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram. Since the compositions of most cast irons are around the eutectic point of the iron–carbon system, the melting temperatures range from 1,150 to 1,200 °C, about 300 °C lower than the melting point of pure iron of 1,535 °C.
Cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. With its low melting point, good fluidity, excellent machinability, resistance to deformation and wear resistance, cast irons have become an engineering material with a wide range of applications and are used in pipes and automotive industry parts, such as cylinder heads, cylinder blocks and gearbox cases, it is resistant to weakening by oxidation. The earliest cast-iron artifacts date to the 5th century BC, were discovered by archaeologists in what is now Jiangsu in China. Cast iron was used in ancient China for warfare and architecture. During the 15th century, cast iron became utilized for cannon in Burgundy, in England during the Reformation; the amounts of cast iron used for cannon required large scale production. The first cast-iron bridge was built during the 1770s by Abraham Darby III, is known as The Iron Bridge. Cast iron was used in the construction of buildings. Cast iron is made from pig iron, the product of smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.
Cast iron can be made directly from the molten pig iron or by re-melting pig iron along with substantial quantities of iron, limestone and taking various steps to remove undesirable contaminants. Phosphorus and sulfur may be burnt out of the molten iron, but this burns out the carbon, which must be replaced. Depending on the application and silicon content are adjusted to the desired levels, which may be anywhere from 2–3.5% and 1–3%, respectively. If desired, other elements are added to the melt before the final form is produced by casting. Cast iron is sometimes melted in a special type of blast furnace known as a cupola, but in modern applications, it is more melted in electric induction furnaces or electric arc furnaces. After melting is complete, the molten cast iron is poured into ladle. Cast iron's properties alloyants. Next to carbon, silicon is the most important alloyant. A low percentage of silicon allows carbon to remain in solution forming iron carbide and the production of white cast iron.
A high percentage of silicon forces carbon out of solution forming graphite and the production of grey cast iron. Other alloying agents, chromium, molybdenum and vanadium counteracts silicon, promotes the retention of carbon, the formation of those carbides. Nickel and copper increase strength, machinability, but do not change the amount of graphite formed; the carbon in the form of graphite results in a softer iron, reduces shrinkage, lowers strength, decreases density. Sulfur a contaminant when present, forms iron sulfide, which prevents the formation of graphite and increases hardness; the problem with sulfur is. To counter the effects of sulfur, manganese is added because the two form into manganese sulfide instead of iron sulfide; the manganese sulfide is lighter than the melt, so it tends to float out of the melt and into the slag. The amount of manganese required to neutralize sulfur is 1.7 × sulfur content + 0.3%. If more than this amount of manganese is added manganese carbide forms, which increases hardness and chilling, except in grey iron, where up to 1% of manganese increases strength and density.
Nickel is one of the most common alloying elements because it refines the pearlite and graphite structure, improves toughness, evens out hardness differences between section thicknesses. Chromium is added in small amounts to reduce free graphite, produce chill, because it is a powerful carbide stabilizer. A small amount of tin can be added as a substitute for 0.5% chromium. Copper is added in the ladle or in the furnace, on the order of 0.5–2.5%, to decrease chill, refine graphite, increase fluidity. Molybdenum is added on the order of 0.3–1% to increase chill and refine the graphite and pearlite structure. Titanium is added as a degasser and deoxidizer, but it increases fluidity. 0.15–0.5% vanadium is added to cast iron to stabilize cementite, increase hardness, increase resistance to wear and heat. 0.1–0.3% zirconium helps to form graphite and increase fluidity. In malleable iron melts, bismuth is added, on the scale of 0.002–0.01%, to increase how much silicon can be added. In white iron, boron is added to aid in the production of malleable iron.
A tin ceiling is an architectural element, consisting of a ceiling finished with plates of tin with designs pressed into them, popular in Victorian buildings in North America in the late 19th and early 20th century. They were popular in Australia where they were known as pressed metal ceilings or Wunderlich ceilings, they were used in South Africa. Tin ceilings were introduced to North America as an affordable alternative to the exquisite plasterwork used in European homes, they gained popularity in the late 1800s. Durable and fireproof, tin ceilings were appealing to home and business owners alike as a functionally attractive design element, available. Important critics such as John Ruskin, George Gilbert Scott, Charles Eastlake and William Morris debated the implications of faux materials; these critics believed it was morally wrong and deceptive to imitate another material and blamed the degradation of society towards the "art of shamming" rather than honesty in architecture. Tin ceilings lasted longer than plaster ones and were easier to clean.
They encapsulated ideas of democracy, making such decoration available to the middle class majority who supported the machine production. Decorative metal ceilings were first made of corrugated iron sheets, appearing in the United States by the early 1870s, it was during the late Victorian era. Tinplate was made from dipping iron in molten tin in order to prevent rust. Steel replaced iron as the more cost-effective solution. Tinplate was not the only sheet metal used to make stamped ceilings. Copper and zinc were other common Architectural metals in the industry. Between 1890 and 1930 forty-five companies in the United States marketed metal ceilings; the Wheeling Corrugating Company out of Wheeling, West Virginia, became the leading tin ceiling manufacturer in the late 1800s. At that time, Wheeling Corrugating was a large steel mill that made products from their steel sheets such as roofing and siding. Sheets of tin were stamped one at a time using rope drop hammers and cast iron molds. Using this method of production, metal was sandwiched between two interlocking tools.
The top tool, or "ram," was lifted up by a rope or chain dropped down onto the bottom die, smashing into the metal, underneath and permanently embedding intricate patterns into the tin. Someone who saw the merit of this modern machine for its artistic potential was Frank Lloyd Wright. In his articles, "The Art and Craft of the Machine" and "In the Cause of Architecture," the series published by Architectural Record, Wright elaborates on his modern theory of science and art and the role of the machine in the future of art. Tin ceilings were traditionally painted white to give the appearance of hand-carved or molded plaster, they were incorporated into residential living rooms and parlors as well as schools and commercial businesses where painted tin was used as wainscoting. In the 1930s, tin ceilings began to lose their popularity and steel materials became scarce because of the effort to collect scrap metal during WWII. Many sheet metal companies began making other products. In the 21st century, some renewed interest has been shown in tin ceilings.
The increase in interest has stemmed from businesses that were renovating and an interest to return to the nostalgia of the turn of the century. Still to this today there exists a manufacturing company by the name of W. F. Norman Corporation that produces original tin ceilings and ornaments from the same rope drop hammers as it once did in 1898. Several other companies offer conventional tin ceilings as well as panels made to fit into a drop-ceiling grid. Tin ceilings were built to last, in the absence of prolonged moisture damage leading to corrosion, they did. Magazines such as The Old-House Journal were created to offer articles about restoration and installation practices for historic preservation of tin ceilings. Environmental hazards from the lead paint used on turn of the century tin ceilings mean that this is a job for experts in the field. Restoration is achieved by stripping old paint, treating the metal with a protective base coat, patching minor damaged areas, repainting. In some cases, where small sections of a ceiling have been damaged, partial restoration is needed.
Panels can be replaced through companies that still manufacture original design components. If, however, a ceiling requires a historic pattern, no longer in production, good quality panels from the existing ceiling may be used to create a mold and new customized tin can be pressed. If full restoration is needed, meaning no part of the existing ceiling remains structurally sound, a professional can help design a new ceiling appropriate for the period and structure using existing molds or creating reproductions based on photographic evidence or architectural drawings; this latter method can be expensive, is not cost effective, due to the cost of making a custom mold for the panel and the metal trim, used with the original project. More detailed information for repair and replacement of decorative metal ceilings can be found in the National Park Service Technical Preservation Services. Several companies now offer hand-painted finishes f
A door is a panel that makes an opening in a building, room or vehicle. Doors are made of a hard, semi-permeable, hard-to-break substance, but sometimes consisting of a hard frame into which windows or screens have been fitted. Doors are attached by hinges to a frame. Doors egress from a building, room, or vehicle easier to manage; the panel may be moved in various ways to prevent ingress or egress. In most cases, a door's interior matches its exterior side, but in other cases the two sides are radically different. Doors have locking mechanisms to ensure that only some people can open them. Doors can have devices such as knockers or doorbells by which people outside can announce their presence and summon someone either to open the door for them or give permission to open and enter. Apart from providing access into and out of a space, doors can have the secondary functions of ensuring privacy by preventing unwanted attention from outsiders, of separating areas with different functions, of allowing light to pass into and out of a space, of controlling ventilation or air drafts so that interiors may be more heated or cooled, of dampening noise, of blocking the spread of fire.
Doors may have aesthetic, ritualistic purposes. To be given the key to a door can signify a change in status from outsider to insider. Doors and doorways appear in literature and the arts with metaphorical or allegorical import as a portent of change; the earliest in records are those represented in the paintings of some Egyptian tombs, in which they are shown as single or double doors, each in a single piece of wood. Doors were once believed to be the literal doorway to the afterlife, some doors leading to important places included designs of the afterlife. In Egypt, where the climate is intensely dry, there would be no fear of their warping, but in other countries it would be necessary to frame them, which according to Vitruvius was done with stiles and rails: the spaces enclosed being filled with panels let into grooves made in the stiles and rails; the stiles were the vertical boards, one of which, tenoned or hinged, is known as the hanging stile, the other as the middle or meeting stile.
The horizontal cross pieces are the top rail, bottom rail, middle or intermediate rails. The most ancient doors were made of timber, such as those referred to in the Biblical depiction of King Solomon's temple being in olive wood, which were carved and overlaid with gold; the doors dwelt upon in Homer would appear to have been cased in brass. Besides olive wood, cedar and cypress were used. A 5,000-year-old door has been found by archaeologists in Switzerland. All ancient doors were hung by pivots at the top and bottom of the hanging stile which worked in sockets in the lintel and sill, the latter being always in some hard stone such as basalt or granite; those found at Nippur by Dr. Hilprecht dating from 2000 B. C. were in dolerite. The tenons of the gates at Balawat were sheathed with bronze; these doors or gates were hung in each about 8 ft 4 in wide and 27 ft. high. High, covered with repouss decoration of figures, etc; the wood doors would seem to have been about 3 in. Thick, but the hanging stile was over 14 inches diameter.
Other sheathings of various sizes in bronze have been found, which proves this to have been the universal method adopted to protect the wood pivots. In the Hauran in Syria, where timber is scarce the doors were made in stone, one measuring 5 ft 4 in by 2 ft 7 in is in the British Museum. At Kuffeir near Bostra in Syria, Burckhardt found stone doors, 9 to 10 ft. high, being the entrance doors of the town. In Etruria many stone doors are referred to by Dennis; the ancient Greek and Roman doors were either single doors, double doors, triple doors, sliding doors or folding doors, in the last case the leaves were hinged and folded back. In Eumachia, is a painting of a door with three leaves. In the tomb of Theron at Agrigentum there is a single four-panel door carved in stone. In the Blundell collection is a bas-relief of a temple with double doors, each leaf with five panels. Among existing examples, the bronze doors in the church of SS. Cosmas and Damiano, in Rome, are important examples of Roman metal work of the best period.
Those of the Pantheon are similar in design, with narrow horizontal panels in addition, at the top and middle. Two other bronze doors of the Roman period are in the Lateran Basilica; the Greek scholar Heron of Alexandria created the earliest known automatic door in the 1st century AD during the era of Roman Egypt. The first foot-sensor-activated automatic door was made in China during the reign of Emperor Yang of Sui, who had one installed for his royal library; the first automatic gate operators were created in 1206 by Arab inventor Al-Jazari. Copper and its alloys were integral in medieval architecture; the doors of the church of the Nativity at Bethlehem are covered with plates of bronze, cut out in patterns. Those of Hagia Sophia at Constantinople, of the 8th and 9th century, are wrought in bronze, the west doors of the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle, of similar manufacture, were brought from Cons
A hip roof, hip-roof or hipped roof, is a type of roof where all sides slope downwards to the walls with a gentle slope. Thus a hipped roof house has other vertical sides to the roof. A square hip roof is shaped like a pyramid. Hip roofs on houses could have two trapezoidal ones. A hip roof on a rectangular plan has four faces, they are always at the same pitch or slope, which makes them symmetrical about the centerlines. Hip roofs have a consistent level fascia, meaning that a gutter can be fitted all around. Hip roofs have dormer slanted sides. Hip roofs are more difficult to construct than a gabled roof, requiring more complex systems of rafters or trusses. Hip roofs can be constructed on a wide variety of plan shapes; each ridge is central over the rectangle of the building below it. The triangular faces of the roof are called the hip ends, they are bounded by the hips themselves; the "hips" and hip rafters sit on an external corner of the rise to the ridge. Where the building has an internal corner, a valley makes the join between the sloping surfaces.
They have the advantage of giving a solid appearance to a structure. The roof pitch may vary. In modern domestic architecture, hip roofs are seen in bungalows and cottages, have been integral to styles such as the American Foursquare. However, the hip roof has been used in many different styles of architecture and in a wide array of structures. A hip roof is self-bracing. Hip roofs are thus much better suited for hurricane regions than gable roofs. Hip roofs have no large, flat, or slab-sided ends to catch wind and are inherently much more stable than gable roofs. However, for a hurricane region, the roof has to be steep-sloped; when wind flows over a shallow sloped hip roof, the roof can behave like an airplane wing. Lift is created on the leeward side; the flatter the roof, the more this will happen. A steeper pitched hip roof tends to cause the wind to stall as it goes over the roof, breaking up the effect. If the roof slopes are less than 35 degrees from horizontal, the roof will be subject to uplift.
Greater than 35 degrees, not only does wind blowing over it encounter a stalling effect, but the roof is held down on the wall plate by the wind pressure. A possible disadvantage of a hip roof, compared with a gable roof on the same plan, is that there is less room inside the roof space. A mansard roof is a variation on a hip roof, with two different roof angles, the lower one much steeper than the upper. A tented roof is a type of polygonal hipped roof with steeply pitched slopes rising to a peak or intersection. Another variation is the gablet or Dutch gable roof; this type simplifies the construction of the roof. A half-hip, clipped-gable or jerkin head roof has a gable, but the upper point of the gable is replaced by a small hip, squaring off the top of the gable; the lower edge of the half-hip may have a gutter which leads back on to the remainder of the roof on one or both sides. Both the gablet roof and the half-hipped roof are intermediate between the gabled and hipped types: the gablet roof has a gable above a hip, while a half-hipped roof has a hip above a gable.
Half-hipped roofs are common in Denmark, Germany and in Austria and Slovenia. They are typical of traditional timber frame buildings in the Wealden area of South East England. Half hip roofs are sometimes referred to as "Dutch hip", but this term is confused with "Dutch gable". A hip roof on a square structure found topping gazebos and other pavilion structures known as a pyramid roof. A pointed roof seen on a tower, oriented so that it has four gable ends. See Church of St Mary the Blessed Virgin, Speyer Cathedral, or Limburg Cathedral. Domestic roof construction Finial, or hip-knob Hip Roof - Encyclopædia Britannica Hip Roof layout Roofs and roofing Hip roof geometry. Google SketchUp 3D model where each roof member and bevel can be interrogated