Batavia, Dutch East Indies
Batavia called Betawi in the city's local Malay vernacular, was the capital of the Dutch East Indies. The area corresponds to present-day Jakarta. Batavia can refer to the city proper, as well as its suburbs and hinterland, the Ommelanden, which included the much larger area of the Residency of Batavia in today's Indonesian provinces of DKI Jakarta and West Java. In Betawi Malay, the area constituting the former Residency of Batavia is called Tanah Betawi; the establishment of Batavia at the site of the razed city of Jayakarta by the Dutch in 1619 led to the Dutch colony that became modern Indonesia following World War II. Batavia became the center of the Dutch East India Company's trading network in Asia. Monopolies on local produce were augmented by non-indigenous cash crops. To safeguard their commercial interests, the company and the colonial administration progressively absorbed surrounding territory. Batavia lies on the north coast of Java, in a sheltered bay, over a flat land consisting of marshland and hills, crisscrossed with canals.
The city consisted of two centers: Oud Batavia, the oldest part of the city. Batavia was a colonial city for about 320 years until 1942 when the Dutch East Indies fell under Japanese occupation during World War II. During the Japanese occupation and again after Indonesian nationalists declared independence on August 17, 1945, the city was renamed Jakarta. After the war, the city remained internationally recognized under its Dutch name, until full Indonesian independence was achieved in 1949, whereafter the city was renamed Jakarta. Amsterdam merchants embarked on an expedition to the East Indies archipelago in 1595, under the command of Cornelis de Houtman; the expedition reached Bantam, capital of the Sultanate of Banten, Jayakarta in 1596 to trade in spices. The English East India Company's first voyage in 1602, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Bantam. There he was allowed to build a trading post that served as the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682.
The Dutch government granted a monopoly on Asian trade with the Dutch East India Company in 1602. A year the first permanent Dutch trading post in Indonesia was established in Bantam, West Java. In 1610, Prince Jayawikarta granted permission to Dutch merchants to build a wooden godown and houses on the east bank of the Ciliwung River, opposite to Jayakarta; this outpost was established in 1611. As Dutch power increased, Jayawikarta allowed the English to erect houses on the west bank of the Ciliwung River, as well as a fort close to his customs office post, to keep the forces balanced. Tense relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch escalated in 1618, Jayawikarta's soldiers besieged the Dutch fortress, containing the godowns Nassau and Mauritius. An English fleet of 15 ships arrived under the leadership of Sir Thomas Dale, an English naval commander and former governor of the Colony of Virginia. After a sea battle, the newly appointed Dutch governor, Jan Pieterszoon Coen, escaped to the Moluccas to seek support.
The Dutch had taken over the first of the Portuguese forts there in 1605. Meanwhile, the commander of the Dutch garrison, Pieter van den Broecke, along with five other men, was arrested during negotiations, as Jayawikarta believed that he had been deceived by the Dutch. Jayawikarta and the English entered into an alliance; the Dutch army was on the verge of surrendering to the English when, in 1619, Banten sent a group of soldiers to summon Prince Jayawikarta. Jayawikarta's friendship agreement with the English was without prior approval from the Bantenese authorities; the conflict between Banten and Prince Jayawikarta, as well as the tense relationship between Banten and the English, presented a new opportunity for the Dutch. Coen returned from the Moluccas with reinforcements on 28 May 1619 and razed Jayakarta to the ground on 30 May 1619, thereby expelling its population. Only the Luso-Sundanese padrão remained. Prince Jayawikarta retreated to the eventual place of his death, in the interior of Banten.
The Dutch established a closer relationship with Banten and assumed control of the port, which over time became the Dutch centre of power in the region. The area that became Batavia came under Dutch control in 1619 as an expansion of the original Dutch fort along with new building on the ruined area, Jayakarta. On 2 July 1619, Coen decided to expand the original fort into a larger fortress. Coen sent the draft of the Kasteel van Batavia to the Netherlands on 7 October 1619; this new castle was much larger than the previous castle, with two northern bastions protecting the castle from attack from the sea. The Dutch fortress garrison included hired soldiers from Japan, Scotland and Belgium; the godowns Nassau and Mauritius were expanded with the erection of a new fort extension to the east on March 12, 1619, overseen by Commander Van Raay. Coen wished to name the new settlement "Nieuw-Hoorn" after his birthplace, but was prevented from doing so by the board of the East India Company, the Heeren XVII.
"Batavia" was chosen to become the new name for the settlement. The official naming ceremony took place on January 18, 1621, it was named after the Germanic tribe of the Batavi — the inhabitants of the Batavian region during the Roman period. Jayakarta was called "Batavia" for more than 300 years. Over time, there were three governmental administrations within the Batavia region; the initial authority was established in 1609. This became the colonial government, consisting of the Governor-General and the Council of the Indies; the urban or civil administration of th
Java is an island of Indonesia, bordered by the Indian Ocean on the south and the Java Sea on the north. With a population of over 141 million or 145 million, Java is the home to 56.7 percent of the Indonesian population and is the world's most populous island. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on its northwestern coast. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java, it was the center of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java was the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s. Java dominates Indonesia politically and culturally. Four of Indonesia's eight UNESCO world heritage sites are located in Java: Ujung Kulon National Park, Borobudur Temple, Prambanan Temple, Sangiran Early Man Site. Formed as the result of volcanic eruptions from geologic subduction between Sunda Plate and Australian Plate, Java is the 13th largest island in the world and the fifth largest in Indonesia by landmass at about 138,800 square kilometres.
A chain of volcanic mountains forms an east–west spine along the island. Three main languages are spoken on the island: Javanese and Madurese, where Javanese is the most spoken. Furthermore, most residents are bilingual, speaking Indonesian as their second language. While the majority of the people of Java are Muslim, Java's population comprises people of diverse religious beliefs and cultures. Java is divided into four administrative provinces, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Banten, two special regions and Yogyakarta; the origins of the name "Java" are not clear. One possibility is that the island was named after the jáwa-wut plant, said to be common in the island during the time, that prior to Indianization the island had different names. There are other possible sources: the word jaú and its variations mean "beyond" or "distant". And, in Sanskrit yava means barley, a plant for which the island was famous. "Yavadvipa" is mentioned in the Ramayana. Sugriva, the chief of Rama's army dispatched his men to Yavadvipa, the island of Java, in search of Sita.
It was hence referred to in India by the Sanskrit name "yāvaka dvīpa". Java is mentioned in the ancient Tamil text Manimekalai by Chithalai Chathanar that states that Java had a kingdom with a capital called Nagapuram. Another source states that the "Java" word is derived from a Proto-Austronesian root word, Iawa that meaning "home"; the great island of Iabadiu or Jabadiu was mentioned in Ptolemy's Geographia composed around 150 CE in the Roman Empire. Iabadiu is said to mean "barley island", to be rich in gold, have a silver town called Argyra at the west end; the name indicates Java, seems to be derived from the Sanskrit name Java-dvipa. The annual news of Songshu and Liangshu referred Java as She-po, He-ling called it She-po again until the Yuan dynasty, where they began mentioning Zhao-Wa. According to Ma Huan's book, the Chinese call Java as Chao-Wa, the island was called She-pó in the past; when John of Marignolli returned from China to Avignon, he stayed at the Kingdom of Saba for a few months, which he said had many elephants and led by a queen.
Java lies between Sumatra to Bali to the east. Borneo lies to the north and Christmas Island is to the south, it is the world's 13th largest island. Java is surrounded by the Java Sea to the north, Sunda Strait to the west, the Indian Ocean to the south and Bali Strait and Madura Strait in the east. Java is entirely of volcanic origin; the highest volcano in Java is Mount Semeru. The most active volcano in Java and in Indonesia is Mount Merapi. In total, Java boast more than 150 mountains. More mountains and highlands help to split the interior into a series of isolated regions suitable for wet-rice cultivation. Java was the first place where Indonesian coffee was grown, starting in 1699. Today, Coffea arabica is grown on the Ijen Plateau by larger plantations; the area of Java is 150,000 square kilometres. It is up to 210 km wide; the island's longest river is the 600 km long Solo River. The river rises from its source in central Java at the Lawu volcano flows north and eastward to its mouth in the Java Sea near the city of Surabaya.
Other major rivers are Brantas, Citarum and Serayu. The average temperature ranges from 22 °C to 29 °C; the northern coastal plains are hotter, averaging 34 °C during the day in the dry season. The south coast is cooler than the north, highland areas inland are cooler; the wet season ends in April. During that rain falls in the afternoons and intermittently during other parts of the year; the wettest months are February. West Java is wetter than East mountainous regions receive much higher rainfall; the Parahyangan highlands of West Java receive over 4,000 millimetres annually, while the north coast of East Java receives 900 millimetres annually. The natural environment of Jav
The Post-Suharto era in Indonesia began with the fall of Suharto in 1998 during which Indonesia has been in a period of transition, an era known in Indonesia as Reformasi. A more open and liberal political-social environment ensued following the resignation of authoritarian President Suharto, ending the three decades of the New Order period. Issues over this period have included a push for a stronger democracy and civilian rule, elements of the military trying to retain their influence, a growing Islamism in politics and society, demands for greater regional autonomy; the process of reformasi in Indonesia has resulted in a greater degree of freedom of speech, in contrast to the pervasive censorship under the New Order. This has led to increased expression in the arts. Events that have shaped Indonesia in this period include a bombing campaign by Islamic terrorists, the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami; the Reformasi of 1998 led to changes in Indonesia's various governmental institutions, reforms upon the structures of the judiciary and executive office.
The fall of Suharto in 1998 is traced from events starting in 1996, when forces opposed to the New Order began to rally around Megawati Sukarnoputri, head of the PDI and daughter of the founding president Sukarno. When Suharto attempted to have Megawati removed as head of this party in a back-room deal, student activists loyal to Megawati occupied the headquarters of PDI in Jakarta; this culminated in Black Saturday on 27 July, when the Indonesian military broke up the demonstrations. These actions, along with increasing concerns over human rights violations in Indonesian-occupied East Timor, began to unsettle Suharto's friendly relations with Western countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States; these further worsened when the 1997 Asian financial crisis reached Indonesia, highlighting the corruption of the New Order. Economic instability from the crisis affected much of the country, in the form of increased prices for staple foods and goods, lowered standards of living and quality of life.
These touched off riots. In West Kalimantan, there was communal violence between Dayaks and Madurese in 1996, in the Sambas riots in 1999 and the Sampit conflict 2001, resulting in large scale massacres of Madurese. In the Sambas conflict, both Malays and Dayaks massacred Madurese. Growing dissatisfaction with Suharto's authoritarian rule and the rapid erosion of the economy led many, chiefly the younger generation, to renew their protests directly against the New Order. During the years 1997–1998, a massive riot broke out in Indonesia. People were burning everything within the city including cars, motorcycles and monuments in addition to pillaging and looting from stores; this was further worsened when many were killed and raped, most of which were Indonesians of Chinese descent. No action was taken by the police. In 1998, Suharto won; the result was considered so outrageous. Suharto soon stood down from the presidency, named B. J. Habibie his successor. Considered the unseen power behind the throne, General Wiranto of the Chief of Staff over the military, central to the New Order, is believed to have been behind the decision of Suharto to step down.
On Suharto's resignation, Vice-President B. J. Habibie was sworn in as President of Indonesia; as President, Habibie undertook numerous political reforms. In February 1999, Habibie's Government passed the Political Parties Law. Under this law, political parties were not limited to just three as had been the case under the Suharto regime. Political parties were not required to have Pancasila as their ideology; this resulted in the emergence of many political parties and 48 would go on to compete in the 1999 legislative election. In May 1999, Habibie's Government passed the Regional Autonomy Law; this law was the first step in decentralising Indonesia's government and in allowing provinces to have more part in governing their province. The Press became liberated under Habibie's Government, although the Ministry of Information continued to exist. Political prisoners such as Sri Bintang Pamungkas, Muchtar Pakpahan, Xanana Gusmão were released under Habibie's orders. Habibie presided over the 1999 legislative elections, the first free election since 1955.
This election was supervised by the independent General Elections Commission instead of an elections commission filled with government ministers as had been the case during the New Order. In a move that surprised many, angered some, Habibie called for a referendum on the future of East Timor. Subsequently, on 30 August, the inhabitants of East Timor voted to break away from Indonesian rule and become an independent country; the territorial loss to Indonesia harmed Habibie's popularity and political alliances. Following Habibie's presidency, Abdurrahman Wahid and Megawati Sukarnoputri served as president. In 2004, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono was elected President, his coalition, which brings together figures from the military, business community, conservative Islam, has restabilised the office of the Presidency. In 1999, Abdurrahman Wahid became President of Indonesia, his first Cabinet, dubbed the National Unity Cabinet, was a coali
Western New Guinea
Western New Guinea known as Papua, is the Indonesian part of the island of New Guinea. Since the island is named as Papua, the region is sometimes called West Papua. Lying to the west of the independent state of Papua New Guinea, it is the only Indonesian territory to be situated in Oceania; the territory is in the Southern Hemisphere and includes nearby islands, including the Schouten and Raja Ampat archipelagoes. The region is predominantly covered with ancient rainforest where numerous traditional tribes live such as the Dani of the Baliem Valley, although a large proportion of the population live in or near coastal areas, with the largest city being Jayapura. Following its independence proclamation in 1945, the Republic of Indonesia took over all the former Dutch East Indies territories, including Western New Guinea. However, the Dutch retained sovereignty over the region until the New York Agreement on 15 August 1962, which returned Western New Guinea to Indonesia; the region became the province of Irian Jaya before being renamed as Papua in 2002.
The following year, the second province in the region, West Papua in Manokwari, was inaugurated. Both provinces were granted special autonomous status by the Indonesian legislation. Western New Guinea has an estimated population of 4,363,869, with majority of whom are Papuan people; the official and most spoken language is Indonesian. Estimates of the number of tribal languages in the region range from 200 to over 700, with the most spoken including Dani, Yali and Biak; the predominant religion is Christianity followed by Islam. The main industries include agriculture, oil production, mining. Speakers align themselves with a political orientation when choosing a name for the western half of the island of New Guinea; the official name of the region is "Papua" according to International Organization for Standardization. The independence activists refer to the region as "West Papua", while the Indonesian officials has used "West Papua" to name the westernmost province of the region since 2007; the region has had the official names of Netherlands New Guinea, West New Guinea, West Irian, Irian Jaya, Papua.
The region is 1,200 kilometres from east to 736 kilometres from north to south. It has an area of 420,540 square kilometres, which equates to 22% of Indonesia's land area; the border with Papua New Guinea follows the 141st meridian east, with one section defined by the Fly River. The island of New Guinea was once part of the Australian landmass and lie on the Sahul; the collision between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific plate resulting in the Maoke Mountains run through the centre of the region and are 600 km long and 100 km across. The range includes about ten peaks over 4,000 metres, including Puncak Jaya, Puncak Mandala and Puncak Trikora; the range ensures a steady supply of rain from the tropical atmosphere. The tree line is around 4,000 m and the tallest peaks feature small glaciers and are snowbound year-round. Both north and west of the central ranges the land remains mountainous – 1,000 to 2,000 metres high with a warm humid climate year-round; the highland areas feature alpine grasslands, jagged bare peaks, montane forests, fast flowing rivers, gorges.
Swamps and low-lying alluvial plains of fertile soil dominate the southeastern section around the town of Merauke. Swamps extend 300 kilometres around the Asmat region; the province has 40 major rivers, 12 lakes, 40 islands. The Mamberamo river runs through the north of the province; the result is a large area of rivers known as the Lakes Plains region. The southern lowlands, habitats of which included mangrove and freshwater swamp forest and lowland rainforest, are home to populations of fishermen and gatherers such as the Asmat people; the Baliem Valley, home of the Dani people, is a tableland 1,600 m above sea level in the midst of the central mountain range. The dry season across the region is between May and October. Strong winds and rain are experienced along the north coast in November through to March. However, the south coast experiences an increase in wind and rain between April and October, the dry season in the Merauke area, the only part of Western New Guinea to experience distinct seasons.
Coastal areas are hot and humid, whereas the highland areas tend to be cooler. Lying in the Asia-Australian transition zone near Wallacea, the region's flora and fauna include Asiatic and endemic species; the region is 75% forest and it has a high degree of biodiversity. The island has an estimated 16,000 species of 124 genera of which are endemic; the mountainous areas and the north are covered with dense rainforest. Highland vegetation includes alpine grasslands, pine forests and scrub; the vegetation of the south coast includes mangroves and sago palms, in the drier southeastern section, eucalypts and acacias. Marsupial species dominate the region; the region is the only part of Indonesia to have kangaroos, marsupial mice and ring-tailed possums. The 700 bird species include cassowaries (along the southe
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Dutch East Indies
The Dutch East Indies was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia. It was formed from the nationalised colonies of the Dutch East India Company, which came under the administration of the Dutch government in 1800. During the 19th century, the Dutch possessions and hegemony were expanded, reaching their greatest territorial extent in the early 20th century; this colony was one of the most valuable European colonies under the Dutch Empire's rule, contributed to Dutch global prominence in spice and cash crop trade in the 19th to early 20th century. The colonial social order was based on rigid racial and social structures with a Dutch elite living separate from but linked to their native subjects; the term Indonesia came into use for the geographical location after 1880. In the early 20th century, local intellectuals began developing the concept of Indonesia as a nation state, set the stage for an independence movement. Japan's World War II occupation dismantled much of economy. Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Indonesian nationalists declared independence which they fought to secure during the subsequent Indonesian National Revolution.
The Netherlands formally recognized Indonesian sovereignty at the 1949 Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference with the exception of the Netherlands New Guinea, ceded to Indonesia 14 years in 1963 under the provisions of the New York Agreement. The word Indies comes from Latin: Indus; the original name Dutch Indies was translated by the English as the Dutch East Indies, to keep it distinct from the Dutch West Indies. The name Dutch Indies is recorded in the Dutch East India Company's documents of the early 1620s. Scholars writing in English use the terms Indië, the Dutch East Indies, the Netherlands Indies, colonial Indonesia interchangeably. Centuries before Europeans arrived, the Indonesian archipelago supported various states, including commercially oriented coastal trading states and inland agrarian states; the first Europeans to arrive were the Portuguese in 1512. Following disruption of Dutch access to spices in Europe, the first Dutch expedition set sail for the East Indies in 1595 to access spices directly from Asia.
When it made a 400% profit on its return, other Dutch expeditions soon followed. Recognising the potential of the East Indies trade, the Dutch government amalgamated the competing companies into the United East India Company; the VOC was granted a charter to wage war, build fortresses, make treaties across Asia. A capital was established in Batavia. To their original monopolies on nutmeg, peppers and cinnamon, the company and colonial administrations introduced non-indigenous cash crops like coffee, cacao, rubber and opium, safeguarded their commercial interests by taking over surrounding territory. Smuggling, the ongoing expense of war and mismanagement led to bankruptcy by the end of the 18th century; the company was formally dissolved in 1800 and its colonial possessions in the Indonesian archipelago were nationalized under the Dutch Republic as the Dutch East Indies. From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late 16th century, to the declaration of independence in 1945, Dutch control over the Indonesian archipelago was always tenuous.
Although Java was dominated by the Dutch, many areas remained independent throughout much of this time, including Aceh, Bali and Borneo. There were numerous wars and disturbances across the archipelago as various indigenous groups resisted efforts to establish a Dutch hegemony, which weakened Dutch control and tied up its military forces. Piracy remained a problem until the mid-19th century. In the early 20th century, imperial dominance was extended across what was to become the territory of modern-day Indonesia. In 1806, with the Netherlands under Imperial French domination, Emperor Napoleon I appointed his brother Louis Bonaparte to the Dutch throne, which led to the 1808 appointment of Marshal Herman Willem Daendels as Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. In 1811 Daendels was replaced by Governor-General Jan Willem Janssens, but shortly after his arrival British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including Java, Thomas Stamford Raffles became Lieutenant Governor. Following Napoleon's defeat at the 1815 Battle of Waterloo and the Congress of Vienna, independent Dutch control was restored in 1816.
Under the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the Dutch secured British settlements such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for ceding control of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula and Dutch India. The resulting borders between former British and Dutch possessions remain today between modern Malaysia and Indonesia. Since the establishment of the VOC in the 17th century, the expansion of Dutch territory had been a business matter. Graaf van den Bosch's Governor-generalship confirmed profitability as the foundation of official policy, restricting its attention to Java and Bangka. However, from about 1840, Dutch national expansionism saw them wage a series of wars to enlarge and consolidate their possessions in the outer islands. Motivations included: the protection of areas held.
Provinces of Indonesia
The Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 largest subdivisions of the country and the highest tier of the local government. Provinces are further divided into regencies and cities, which are in turn subdivided into subdistricts; each province has its own local government, headed by a governor, has its own legislative body. The governor and members of local representative bodies are elected by popular vote for five-year terms. Indonesia has 34 provinces, eight of which have been created since 1999, namely: North Maluku, West Papua, Bangka Belitung Islands, Riau Islands, West Sulawesi and North Kalimantan. Five provinces have special status: Aceh, for the use of the sharia law as the regional law of the province. Special Capital Region of Jakarta as the capital city. Special Region of Yogyakarta, has sultan Hamengkubuwono as hereditary Governor and Paku Alam as hereditary vice-governor. Papua and West Papua, for granting implementation of sustainable development; the provinces are grouped into seven geographical units.
This clickable map shows provinces of Indonesia as of 25 October 2012. Click on a province name to go to its main article. Upon the independence of Indonesia, eight provinces were established: West Java, Central Java, East Java, Maluku still exist as of today despite divisions, while Sumatra, Kalimantan and Lesser Sunda were liquidated; the province of Central Sumatra existed from 1948 to 1957, while East Timor was annexed as a province from 1976 until its independence as a country in 1999. List of Indonesian provinces by Human Development Index List of Indonesian provinces by GRP per capita List of Indonesian floral emblems List of Indonesian animal emblems Armorial of IndonesiaGeneral: Subdivisions of Indonesia List of regencies and cities of Indonesia Daftar 34 Provinsi Di Indonesia Map at Indonesian Wikipedia