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Regency era

The Regency in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a period at the end of the Georgian era, when King George III was deemed unfit to rule due to his illness, his son ruled as his proxy, as prince regent. Upon George III's death in 1820, the prince regent became King George IV; the term Regency can refer to various stretches of time. The period from 1795 to 1837, which includes the latter part of George III's reign and the reigns of his sons George IV and William IV, is sometimes regarded as the Regency era, characterised by distinctive trends in British architecture, fashions and culture; the Regency is noted for its elegance and achievements in the fine arts and architecture. This era encompassed a time of great social and economic change. War was waged with Napoleon and on other fronts, affecting commerce both at home and internationally, as well as politics. However, despite the bloodshed and warfare, the Regency was a period of great refinement and cultural achievement, which shaped and altered the societal structure of Britain as a whole.

One of the greatest patrons of the arts and architecture was the Prince Regent himself. Upper class society flourished in a sort of mini-Renaissance of refinement; as one of the greatest patrons of the arts, the Prince Regent ordered the costly building and refurbishing of the beautiful and exotic Brighton Pavilion, the ornate Carlton House, as well as many other public works and architecture. This required dipping into the treasury, the Regent, the King's exuberance outstripped his pocket, at the people's expense. Society during that period was stratified. In many ways, there was a dark counterpart to the beautiful and fashionable sectors of England of this time. In the dingier, less affluent areas of London, womanising, the existence of rookeries, constant drinking ran rampant; the population boom—comprising an increase from just under a million in 1801 to one and a quarter million by 1820—created a wild, roiling and vibrant scene. According to Robert Southey, the difference between the strata of society was vast indeed: The squalor that existed beneath the glamour and gloss of Regency society provided sharp contrast to the Prince Regent's social circle.

Poverty was addressed only marginally. The formation of the Regency after the retirement of George III saw the end of a more pious and reserved society, gave birth of a more frivolous, ostentatious one; this change was influenced by the Regent himself, kept removed from the machinations of politics and military exploits. This did nothing to channel his energies in a more positive direction, thereby leaving him with the pursuit of pleasure as his only outlet, as well as his sole form of rebellion against what he saw as disapproval and censure in the form of his father. Driving these changes were not only money and rebellious pampered youth, but significant technological advancements. In 1814, The Times adopted steam printing. By this method it could now print 1,100 sheets every hour, not 200 as before—a fivefold increase in production capability and demand; this development brought about the rise of the wildly popular fashionable novels in which publishers spread the stories and flaunting of the rich and aristocratic, not so secretly hinting at the specific identity of these individuals.

The gap in the hierarchy of society was so great that those of the upper classes could be viewed by those below as wondrous and fantastical fiction, something out of reach yet tangibly there. 1811 George Augustus Frederick, Prince of Wales, began his nine-year tenure as regent and became known as The Prince Regent. This sub-period of the Georgian era began the formal Regency; the Duke of Wellington held off the French at Fuentes Albuhera in the Peninsular War. The Prince Regent held a fete at 9:00 p.m. June 19, 1811, at Carlton House in celebration of his assumption of the Regency. Luddite uprisings. Glasgow weavers riot. 1812 Prime Minister Spencer Perceval was assassinated in the House of Commons. Final shipment of the Elgin Marbles arrived in England. Sarah Siddons retired from the stage. Shipping and territory disputes started the War of 1812 between the United Kingdom and the United States; the British were victorious over French armies at the Battle of Salamanca. Gas company founded. Charles Dickens, English writer and social critic of the Victorian era, was born on 7 February 1812.

1813 Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen was published. William Hedley's Puffing Billy, an early steam locomotive, ran on smooth rails. Quaker prison reformer Elizabeth Fry started her ministry at Newgate Prison. Robert Southey became Poet Laureate. 1814 Invasion of France by allies led to the Treaty of Paris, ended one of the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon was exiled to Elba; the Duke of Wellington was honoured at Burlington House in London. British soldiers burn the White House. Last River Thames Frost Fair was held, the last time the river froze. Gas lighting introduced in London streets. 1815 Napoleon I of France defeated by the Seventh Coalition at the Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena; the English Corn Laws restricted corn imports. Sir Humphry Davy patented the miners' safety lamp. John Loudon Macadam's road construction method adopted. Kingdom of Kandy annexed to British Crown. 1816 Income tax abolished. A "year without a summer" followed a volcanic eruption in Indonesia. Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein.

William Cobbett published his newspaper as a pamphlet. The Brit

Daniel Wigdor

Professor Daniel J. Wigdor is an Associate professor of Computer Science at the University of Toronto, he was co-director of the university's Dynamic Graphics Project and a Visiting Associate Professor at Cornell Tech. He has co-authored and contributed to several books, including "Brave NUI World", "The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook, Third Edition", "Computer Science Handbook, Third Edition". Wigdor was awarded a prestigious Sloan Research Fellowship in 2015. Daniel Wigdor attended Uxbridge Secondary School in Ontario. In 1998, he attended the University of Toronto - Innis College and graduated in 2002 with a bachelor of science in Human Computer Interaction and in 2004 with a Masters in Human Computer Interaction as well. In 2007, he became a fellow at the Initiative for Innovative Computing at Harvard University's department of Computer Science - Human-Computer Interaction. In 2008, he received his PhD in Computer Science from the University of Toronto. While in the University of Toronto, Daniel Wigdor worked as a Teaching Assistant between 1999 and 2004, as well as an instructor between 2001 and 2006, teaching topics ranging from first to third year Intro to Programming, Advanced Algorithms and Data Structures, Topics in Computer Science, Human Computer Interaction.

In 2002, Professor Wigdor co-founded Iota Wireless, a startup dedicated to the commercialization of his research in mobile-phone gestural interaction, where he held the role of Chief Technology Officer between 2002 and 2007. He was an intern at Mitsubishi Electric Research Labs between 2005 and 2008, where he conducted research as part of the DiamondSpace project. In 2008, he became Researcher at Microsoft. While working at Microsoft Research, he was the user experience architect of the Microsoft Surface Table, as well as a company-wide expert in user interfaces for new technologies. At the same time, beginning in 2009, he served as an affiliate assistant professor in both the Department of Computer Science and Engineering and the Information School at the University of Washington, he became an Assistant Professor at the University of Toronto in 2011, as well as a Science Advisor at Tactual Labs in 2012, both lasting until 2016, after which he became an Associate Professor at the University

Log4j

Apache Log4j is a Java-based logging utility. It was written by Ceki Gülcü and is part of the Apache Logging Services project of the Apache Software Foundation. Log4j is one of several Java logging frameworks. Gülcü has since started the SLF4J and Logback projects, with the intention of offering a successor to Log4j; the Apache Log4j team has created a successor to Log4j 1 with version number 2. Log4j 2 was developed with a focus on the problems of Log4j 1.2, 1.3, java.util.logging and Logback, addresses issues which appeared in those frameworks. In addition, Log4j 2 offers a plugin architecture which makes it more extensible than its predecessor. Log4j 2 is not backwards compatible with 1.x versions. On August 5, 2015 the Apache Logging Services Project Management Committee announced that Log4j 1 had reached end of life and that users of Log4j 1 are recommended to upgrade to Apache Log4j 2. Apache Log4j 2 is the successor of Log4j 1, released as GA version in July 2014; the framework was rewritten from scratch and has been inspired by existing logging solutions, including Log4j 1 and java.util.logging.

The main differences from Log4j 1 are: Improved reliability. Messages are not lost while reconfiguring the framework like in Log4j 1 or Logback Extensibility: Log4j 2 supports a plugin system to let users define and configure custom components Simplified configuration syntax Support for xml, json and properties configurations Improved filters Property lookup support for values defined in the configuration file, system properties, environment variables, the ThreadContext Map, data present in the event Support for multiple APIs: Log4j 2 can be used with applications using the Log4j 2, Log4j 1.2, SLF4J, Commons Logging and java.util.logging APIs. Custom log levels Java 8-style lambda support for "lazy logging" Markers Support for user-defined Message objects "Garbage-free or low garbage" in common configurations Improved speedOne of the most recognized features of Log4j 2 is the performance of the "Asynchronous Loggers". Log4j 2 makes use of the LMAX Disruptor; the library reduces the need for kernel locking and increases the logging performance by a factor of 12.

For example, in the same environment Log4j 2 can write more than 18,000,000 messages per second, whereas other frameworks like Logback and Log4j 1 just write < 2,000,000 messages per second. The following table defines the built-in log levels and messages in Log4j, in decreasing order of severity; the left column lists the log level designation in Log4j and the right column provides a brief description of each log level. Log4j 2 allows users to define their own log levels. A source code generator tool is provided to create Loggers that support custom log levels identically to the built-in log levels. Custom log levels can either replace the built-in log levels. Log4j can be configured through Java code. Configuration files can be written in JSON, YAML, or properties file format. Within a configuration you can define three main components: Loggers and Layouts. Configuring logging via a file has the advantage that logging can be turned on or off without modifying the application that uses Log4j; the application can be allowed to run with logging off until there's a problem, for example, logging can be turned back on by modifying the configuration file.

Loggers are named log message destinations. They are the names; each logger is independently configurable as to what level of logging it logs. In early versions of Log4j, these were called category and priority, but now they're called logger and level, respectively. A Logger can send log messages to multiple Appenders; the actual outputs are done by Appenders. There are numerous Appenders available, with descriptive names, such as FileAppender, RollingFileAppender, ConsoleAppender, SocketAppender, SyslogAppender, SMTPAppender. Log4j 2 added Appenders that write to Apache Flume, the Java Persistence API, Apache Kafka, NoSQL databases, Memory-mapped files, Random Access files and ZeroMQ endpoints. Multiple Appenders can be attached to any Logger, so it's possible to log the same information to multiple outputs. Appenders use Layouts to format log entries. A popular way to format one-line-at-a-time log files is PatternLayout, which uses a pattern string, much like the C / C++ function printf. There are HTMLLayout and XMLLayout formatters for use when HTML or XML formats are more convenient, respectively.

Log4j 2 added Layouts for CSV, Graylog Extended Log Format, JSON, YAML and RFC-5424. In Log4j 2, Filters can be defined on configuration elements to give more fine-grained control over which log entries should be processed by which Loggers and Appenders. In addition to filtering by log level and regular expression matching on the message string, Log4j 2 added burst filters, time filters, filtering by other log event attributes like Markers or Thread Context Map and JSR 223 script filters. To debug a misbehaving configuration: In Log4j 2 configurations set the status attribute to TRACE to send internal status logging output to standard out. To enable status logging before the configuration is found, use the Java VM property -Dorg.apache.logging.log4j.simplelog. StatusLogger.level=trace. In Log4j 1, use the Java VM property -Dlog4j.debug. To find out where a log4j2.xml configuration file was loaded from inspect getClass.getResource. There is an implicit "unconfigured" or "default" configuration of Log4j, that of a Log4j-instrumented Java application which lacks any Log4j configuration.

This prints to stdout a warning that the program is unconfigured, the U