313, when internecine conflict eliminated most of the claimants to power, leaving Constantine in control of the western half of the empire, and Licinius in control of the eastern half. Although the term tetrarch was current in antiquity, it was never used of the college under Diocletian. Instead, the term was used to describe independent portions of a kingdom that were ruled under separate leaders, the tetrarchy of Judaea, established after the death of Herod the Great, is the most famous example of the antique tetrarchy. The term was understood in the Latin world as well, where Pliny the Elder glossed it as follows, each is the equivalent of a kingdom, and part of one. As used by the ancients, the term not only different governments. Only Lactantius, a contemporary of Diocletian and an ideological opponent of the Diocletianic state. Much modern scholarship was written without the term, although Edward Gibbon pioneered the description of the Diocletianic government as a New Empire, he never used the term tetrarchy, neither did Theodor Mommsen.
It did not appear in the literature until used in 1887 by schoolmaster Hermann Schiller in a handbook on the Roman Empire, to wit. Even so, the term did not catch on in the literature until Otto Seeck used it in 1897. The first phase, sometimes referred to as the Diarchy, involved the designation of the general Maximian as co-emperor—firstly as Caesar in 285, Diocletian took care of matters in the eastern regions of the empire while Maximian similarly took charge of the western regions. In 305, the senior emperors jointly abdicated and retired, allowing Constantius and Galerius to be elevated in rank to Augustus. They in turn appointed two new Caesars — Severus II in the west under Constantius, and Maximinus in the east under Galerius — thereby creating the second Tetrarchy and these centres are known as the tetrarchic capitals. Sirmium was the capital of Galerius, the eastern Caesar, this was to become the Balkans-Danube prefecture Illyricum, mediolanum was the capital of Maximian, the western Augustus, his domain became Italia et Africa, with only a short exterior border.
Augusta Treverorum was the capital of Constantius Chlorus, the western Caesar, near the strategic Rhine border and this quarter became the prefecture Galliae. Aquileia, a port on the Adriatic coast, and Eboracum, were significant centres for Maximian. In terms of jurisdiction there was no precise division between the four tetrarchs, and this period did not see the Roman state actually split up into four distinct sub-empires. Each emperor had his zone of influence within the Roman Empire, for a listing of the provinces, now known as eparchy, within each quarter, see Roman province. In the West, the Augustus Maximian controlled the provinces west of the Adriatic Sea and the Syrtis, in the East, the arrangements between the Augustus Diocletian and his Caesar, were much more flexible
A non-sovereign monarchy is one in which the head of the monarchical polity, and the polity itself, are subject to a temporal authority higher than their own. The constituent states of the German Empire provide a historical example, like sovereign monarchies, there exist both hereditary and elective non-sovereigns. Systems of both formal and informal suzerainty were common before the 20th century, when systems were used by most states. During the last century, many monarchies have become republics, sub-national monarchies exist in a few states which are, in and of themselves, not monarchical. The degree to which the monarchs have control over their polities varies greatly—in some they may have a degree of domestic authority. In some, the position might be purely traditional or cultural in nature. Wallis and Futuna is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic in Polynesia consisting of three islands and a number of tiny islets. The current co-claimant to the title King of Uvea are Felice Tominiko Halagahu and Patalione Kanimoa, the current King of Alo is Filipo Katoa and they have been reigning since 2016.
The territory was annexed by the French Republic in 1888, and was placed under the authority of another French colony, the inhabitants of the islands voted in a 1959 referendum to become an overseas collectivity of France, effective in 1961. The collectivity is governed as a republic, the citizens elect a Territorial Assembly. His cabinet, the Council of the Territory, is made up of the three Kings and three appointed ministers, in addition to this limited parliamentary role the Kings play, the individual kingdoms customary legal systems have some jurisdiction in areas of civil law. The first to establish colonies were the Portuguese, but they were displaced by the more powerful Dutch. The 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty defined the borders between British possessions and the Dutch East Indies, the British controlled the Eastern half of modern Malaysia through a system of protectorates, in which native states had some domestic authority, checked by the British government. The eastern half of Malaysia was part of the independent Sultanate of Brunei until 1841, the two halves were united for the first time with the formation of Malaysia in 1963.
Modern Malaysia is a monarchy, consisting of 13 states. Of the Malay states, seven are sultanates, one is a kingdom, one an elective monarchy, while the four states. The head of state of the federation is a constitutional monarch styled Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The Yang di-Pertuan is elected to a term by the Conference of Rulers, made up of the nine state monarchs
The Xinhai Revolution, known as the Revolution of 1911 or the Chinese Revolution, was a revolution that overthrew Chinas last imperial dynasty, and established the Republic of China. The revolution was named Xinhai because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the cycle of the Chinese calendar. The revolution consisted of many revolts and uprisings, the turning point was the Wuchang Uprising on October 10,1911, which was the result of the mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement. The revolution arose mainly in response to the decline of the Qing state, many underground anti-Qing groups, with the support of Chinese revolutionaries in exile, tried to overthrow the Qing. The brief civil war that ensued was ended through a compromise between Yuan Shikai, the late Qing military strongman, and Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Tongmenghui. After the Qing court transferred power to the newly founded republic, October 10 is commemorated in Taiwan as Double Ten Day, the National Day of the ROC.
In mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau, the day is usually celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. After suffering its first defeat to the West in the First Opium War in 1842, in the wars against the Taiping, Muslims of Yunnan and the Northwest, the traditional Manchu armies proved themselves incompetent and the court came to rely on local Han armies. Following defeat in the Second Opium War, the Qing tried to modernize by adopting certain Western technologies through the Self-Strengthening Movement from 1861, in 1895, China suffered a serious defeat during the First Sino-Japanese War. This demonstrated that traditional Chinese feudal society needed to be modernized if the technological and commercial advancements were to succeed. In 1898 the Guangxu Emperor was guided by reformers like Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao for a reform in education, military. The reform was a failure, as it was ended prematurely by a coup led by Empress Dowager Cixi. The Guangxu Emperor, who had always been a dependent on Cixi, was put under house arrest in June 1898.
Reformers Kang and Liang would be exiled, while in Canada, in June 1899, they tried to form the Emperor Protection Society in an attempt to restore the emperor. Empress Dowager Cixi mainly controlled the Qing dynasty from this point on, under internal and external pressure, the Qing court began to adopt some of the reforms. The Qing managed to maintain its monopoly on power by suppressing, often with great brutality. Dissidents could operate only in societies and underground organizations, in foreign concessions or in exile overseas. There were many revolutionaries and groups that wanted to overthrow the Qing government to re-establish a Han Chinese government, the earliest revolutionary organizations were founded outside of China, such as Yeung Ku-wans Furen Literary Society, created in Hong Kong in 1890
Spanish transition to democracy
The Spanish transition to democracy, or simply the Transition refers to the restoration of democracy in Spain after the death of Francisco Franco in 1975. Though faced with political and economic crises at the time, the transition to democracy was one of the factors that allowed Spain to join the European Economic Community and NATO. Francisco Franco came to power in 1939 following the Spanish Civil War, in 1969, he designated Prince Juan Carlos, grandson of Spains former king, Alfonso XIII, as his official successor. For the next six years, Prince Juan Carlos initially remained in the background during public appearances, once in power as King of Spain, however, he facilitated the development of a constitutional monarchy as his father, Don Juan de Borbón, had advocated since 1946. The transition was a plan that counted on ample support both within and outside of Spain. Western governments, headed by the United States, now favoured a Spanish constitutional monarchy, as did many Spanish, the transition proved challenging, as the spectre of the Civil War still haunted Spain.
Francoists on the far right enjoyed considerable support within the Spanish Army, King Juan Carlos began his reign as head of state without leaving the confines of Francos legal system. Only in his speech before the Cortes did he indicate his support for a transformation of the Spanish political system, in this manner he would formally act within the Francoist legal system and thus avoid the prospect of military intervention in the political process. Suárez was appointed as the 138th Prime Minister of Spain by Juan Carlos on 3 July 1976, a call for democratic elections in June 1977 to elect a Cortes charged with drawing up a new democratic constitution. This program was clear and unequivocal, but its realization tested the capacity of Suárez. Despite these challenges, Suárezs project was carried out without delay between July 1976 and June 1977, in this short period of time Suárez had to act on many fronts to achieve his aims. The draft of the Law for Political Reform was written by Don Torcuato Fernández-Miranda, speaker of the Cortes, the project was approved by the Suarez Government in September 1976.
Throughout the month of November the Cortes, under the presidency of Fernández-Miranda, debated this law, which it ultimately approved with 425 votes in favor,59 against. The Suárez government sought to gain legitimacy for the changes through a popular referendum. On 15 December 1976, with a 77. 72% participation rate, with this part of his plan fulfilled, Suárez had to resolve a crucial issue, should he include the opposition groups who had not participated at the beginning of the transition. Suárez had to deal with another issue, coming to terms with the anti-Francoist opposition. Suárez adopted a series of measured policies to add credibility to his project, in July 1976 he issued a partial political amnesty, freeing 400 prisoners. He extended this in March 1977, and finally granted an amnesty in May of the same year
Embroiled parties included the Kingdom of Portugal, Portuguese rebels, the United Kingdom, the Church of Rome, and Spain. The death of King João VI in 1826 created a dispute over royal succession, while Dom Pedro, the Emperor of Brazil, was the kings oldest son, his younger brother Miguel contended that Pedro had forfeited his claim to the throne by declaring Brazilian independence. Pedro briefly entitled himself Dom Pedro IV of Portugal, neither the Portuguese nor the Brazilians wanted a unified monarchy, Pedro abdicated the throne in favor of his daughter, Maria, a child of 7. In April 1826, to settle the dispute, Pedro revised the 1st constitution of Portugal granted in 1822 and left the throne to Maria. In the Portuguese Constitutional Charter, Pedro attempted to reconcile absolutists, unlike the Constitution of 1822, this new document established four branches of government. The Legislature was divided into two chambers, the upper chamber, the Chamber of Peers, was composed of life and hereditary peers and clergy appointed by the king.
Judicial power was exercised by the courts, executive power by the ministers of the government, and moderative power by the king, in February 1828, Miguel returned to Portugal, ostensibly to take the oath of allegiance to the Charter and assume the regency. He was immediately proclaimed king by his supporters, who pressed him to return to absolutism, the Cortes of 1828 assented to Miguels wish, proclaiming him king as Miguel I of Portugal and nullifying the Constitutional Charter. This alleged usurpation did not go unchallenged by the Liberals, on May 18, the garrison in Porto, the center of Portuguese progressives, declared its loyalty to Pedro, to Maria da Glória, and the Constitutional Charter. The rebellion against the spread to other cities. Miguel suppressed these rebellions, and many thousands of Liberals were either arrested or fled to Spain and Britain, there followed five years of repression. Meanwhile, in Brazil, relations between Pedro and Brazils agricultural magnates had become strained, in April 1831, Pedro abdicated in Brazil in favor of his son, Pedro II, and sailed for Britain.
He organized an expedition there and went to Terceira island in the Azores. The government of Miguel blockaded the island, but the squadron was attacked by a French squadron during the run-up to the Battle of the Tagus. To protect British interests, a squadron under Commander William Glascock in HMS Orestes was stationed in the Douro. The Duke of Terceira landed at Faro and marched north through the Alentejo to capture Lisbon on July 24, Napiers squadron encountered the absolutists fleet near Cape Saint Vincent and decisively defeated it at the fourth Battle of Cape St. Vincent. The Liberals were able to occupy Lisbon, where Pedro moved from Porto, a stalemate of nine months ensued. Towards the end of 1833, Maria da Glória was proclaimed queen and his first act was to confiscate the property of all who had served under Dom Miguel
An Ultra-royalist was a French political label used from 1815 to 1830 under the Bourbon Restoration. Inaugurating the Bourbon Restoration, a strongly restricted census suffrage elected to the Chamber of Deputies an ultra-royalist majority in 1815-1816, passionately espousing the ruling ideology of the Restoration, the Ultras opposed liberalism and democracy. In 1815, an Ultra majority was elected to the chamber of deputies, Louis XVIII dubbed them La Chambre Introuvable, which translates as the impossible chamber, due to his astonishment at a group of deputies more royalist than himself. Under the guidance of his minister the duc de Richelieu, Louis XVIII finally decided to dissolve this turbulent assembly. There followed a Liberal Interlude from 1816–1820, a period of years for the Ultras. Then on 13 February 1820, the Duke of Berry was stabbed by an assassin as he left the Paris Opera House with his wife. This outrage strengthened the Ultras, who introduced laws such as the Law of the Double Vote which allowed them to dominate the Chamber of Deputies.
In January 1825, Villèles government enacted the Anti-Sacrilege Act, instituting capital punishment for the theft of sacred monstrance vases and this anachronistic law was never seriously applied and was repealed in the first months of Louis-Philippes reign. The Ultras wanted to create courts to punish Radicals, the 1830 July Revolution replaced the Bourbons with the more liberal Orleanist branch, and sent the Ultras back to private life in their country chateaux. They retained some influence, until at least the 16 May 1877 crisis and their views softened, their principal aim became the restoration of the House of Bourbon, and they became known from 1830 on as Legitimists. The historian René Rémond has identified the Legitimists as the first of the families of French politics, followed by the Orleanists. According to him, many modern far right movements, including parts of Jean-Marie Le Pens National Front and Lefebvres Society of St. Pius X, Anti-Sacrilege Act Legitimists Political parties under Restoration
Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Roman emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia and his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesars will as his adopted son and heir, known as Octavianus. He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar, following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvate was eventually torn apart by the ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, in reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and it took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule.
He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis, the resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Pannonia and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, expanding into Germania, beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD14 at the age of 75 and he probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son Tiberius, Augustus was known by many names throughout his life, At birth, he was named Gaius Octavius after his biological father. Historians typically refer to him simply as Octavius between his birth in 63 until his adoption by Julius Caesar in 44 BC, upon his adoption, he took Caesars name and became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus in accordance with Roman adoption naming standards.
He quickly dropped Octavianus from his name, and his contemporaries referred to him as Caesar during this period, historians. In 27 BC, following his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra and it is the events of 27 BC from which he obtained his traditional name of Augustus, which historians use in reference to him from 27 BC until his death in AD14. While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri, approximately 40 kilometres from Rome and he was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his fathers victory at Thurii over a band of slaves. Due to the nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his fathers home village at Velletri to be raised. Octavius only mentions his fathers equestrian family briefly in his memoirs and his paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War
The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a monarch, or the person responsible for the killing of a person of royalty. In a narrower sense, in the British tradition, it refers to the execution of a king after a trial, reflecting the historical precedent of the trial. More broadly, it can refer to the killing of an emperor or any other reigning sovereign. Before the Tudor period, English kings had been murdered while imprisoned or killed in battle by their subjects, elizabeth had originally been excommunicated by Pope Pius V, in Regnans in Excelsis, for converting England to Protestantism after the reign of Mary I of England. The defeat of the Spanish Armada and the Protestant Wind convinced most English people that God approved of Elizabeths action, after the First English Civil War, King Charles I was a prisoner of the Parliamentarians. They tried to negotiate a compromise with him, but he stuck steadfastly to his view that he was King by Divine Right, on 13 December 1648, the House of Commons broke off negotiations with the King.
In the middle of December, the King was moved from Windsor to London, the House of Commons of the Rump Parliament passed a Bill setting up a High Court of Justice in order to try Charles I for high treason in the name of the people of England. From a Royalist and post-restoration perspective this Bill was not lawful, the Parliamentary leaders and the Army pressed on with the trial anyway. At his trial in front of The High Court of Justice on Saturday 20 January 1649 in Westminster Hall, I would know by what authority, I mean lawful. In view of the issues involved, both sides based themselves on surprisingly technical legal grounds. Charles did not dispute that Parliament as a whole did have some powers, but he maintained that the House of Commons on its own could not try anybody. At that time under English law if a prisoner refused to plead this was treated as a plea of guilty and he was found guilty on Saturday 27 January 1649, and his death warrant was signed by 59 Commissioners. To show their agreement with the sentence of death, all of the Commissioners who were present rose to their feet.
On the day of his execution,30 January 1649, Charles dressed in two shirts so that he would not shiver from the cold, in case it was said that he was shivering from fear. Charles was escorted through the Banqueting House in the Palace of Whitehall to a scaffold where he would be beheaded. He forgave those who had passed sentence on him and gave instructions to his enemies that they should learn to know their duty to God, the King - that is, my successors - and the people. He gave a speech outlining his unchanged views of the relationship between the monarchy and the monarchs subjects, ending with the words I am the martyr of the people. His head was severed from his body with one blow, one week later, the Rump, sitting in the House of Commons, passed a bill abolishing the monarchy
Nepalese Civil War
The Maoist was an armed conflict against The Government of Nepal fought from 1996 to 2006. The rebellion was launched by the Communist Party of Nepal on 13 February 1996 with the aim of overthrowing the Nepalese monarchy. It ended with the Comprehensive Peace Accord signed on 21 November 2006, More than 19,000 people were killed during the conflict. National Geographic Magazine, p.54, November 2005, douglas lists the following figures, Nepalis killed by Maoists from 1996 to 2005,4,500. Nepalis killed by government in same period,8,200. however, communist groups uncomfortable with the alliance between ULF and Congress formed a parallel front, the United National Peoples Movement. The UNPM called for elections to a Constituent Assembly, and rejected compromises made by ULF, in November 1990 the Communist Party of Nepal was formed, including key elements of constituents of UNPM. The new party held its first convention in 1991, the adopted a line of protracted armed struggle on the route to a new democratic revolution, the CPN set up Samyukta Jana Morcha, with Baburam Bhattarai as its head, as an open front ten contest elections.
In the 1991 elections, SJM became the force in the Nepali parliament. However, disagreements surged regarding which tactics were to be used by the party, One sector argued for immediate armed revolution whereas others claimed that Nepal was not yet ripe for armed struggle. In 1994 CPN/SJM was split in two, the militant faction renamed itself the Communist Party of Nepal. The Maoists labeled the government forces feudal forces, and included in this accusation was the monarchy, the armed struggle began soon afterward with simultaneous attacks on remote police stations and district headquarters. Initially, the Nepali government mobilized the Nepal Police to contain the insurgency, the Royal Nepal Army was not involved in direct fighting because the conflict was regarded as a matter for the police to sustain control. Furthermore, controversy regarding the army not assisting the police during insurgent attacks in remote areas. The popularly elected prime minister resigned his post, due to the refusal of the Royal Army to take part in the conflict and this situation changed dramatically in 2002 when the first session of peace talks failed and the Maoists attacked an army barracks in Dang District in western Nepal.
Overnight, the army was unleashed against the insurgents, mobilizing both tanks and artillery and this material support to the Nepali government dried up after King Gyanendra seized full control in February 2005 to get rid of civil war for once and all. The government responded to the rebellion by banning provocative statements about the monarchy, imprisoning journalists, several rounds of negotiations, accompanied by temporary cease-fires, were held between the insurgents and the government. The government categorically rejected the demand for an election to the constituent assembly. At the same time, the Maoists refused to recognize the installation of a constitutional monarchy, throughout war, the government controlled the main cities and towns, whilst the Maoist dominated the rural areas
Siamese revolution of 1932
The Siamese revolution of 1932 or the Siamese coup détat of 1932 was a crucial turning point in 20th-century Thai history. The revolution, a coup détat, was a bloodless transition on 24 June 1932. The revolution was brought about by a small group of military and civilians, who formed Siams first political party. It ended 150 years of absolutism under the Chakri Dynasty and almost 800 years of rule of kings over Thai history. It was a product of historical change as well as domestic social and political changes. It resulted in the people of Siam being granted their first constitution, unlike other modern Southeast Asian states, Thailand was never formally colonised by colonial powers. Rama IV opened Siam to European trade and began the process of modernisation and his son, Rama V, consolidated state control over the Thai vassal states and created an absolute monarchy and a centralised state. However, the success of the Chakri monarchs sowed the seeds for the 1932 revolution, modernisation mandated from above had created by the early 20th century a class of Western-educated Thais in the commoner and lower nobility classes.
These were influenced by the ideals of the French and Russian revolutions and staffed the middle and this new elite would eventually form the Peoples Party that provided the nucleus of the 1932 revolution. Recent scholarship has begun raising alternative perspectives to modern Thai history that challenges the conventional perspectives of the 1932 Siamese Revolution, thongchai Winichakuls hypothesis on the emergence of the geo-body of Siam is widely accepted by scholars in Thai and Southeast Asian studies. The East now became increasingly described as barbaric, ignorant, or inferior, the mission to civilise the barbaric Asiatics became the raison dêtre for colonialism and imperialism. Thongchai further argues that the key strategies adopted by the Siamese state were similar to those adopted by Western colonial powers in administering their colonies. Space and power were essentially redefined by the Siamese state and semi-autonomous muangsgs were brought under the direct control of the state by the beginning of the twentieth century.
Cartography was introduced to define the borders, replacing the vague frontiers of the Mandala kingdoms. People were assigned to ethnic groups and these new perspectives created a politically dominant Siamese aristocracy that became increasingly powerful from the modernisation/self-colonisation process it initiated and directed. Thus they could no longer control events and political developments in Siam and were swept aside by activists who advocated democracy, since 1782 the Kingdom of Siam had been ruled by the House of Chakri, founded by King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke. The capital city, was founded by King Rama I. For over a century, the kings of Siam were able to protect the nation from neighbours and other nations, escaping colonialism from European powers such as Britain
Divine right of kings
The divine right of kings, divine right, or Gods mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, the king is thus not subject to the will of his people, the aristocracy, or any other estate of the realm. It implies that only God can judge an unjust king and that any attempt to depose, dethrone or restrict his powers runs contrary to the will of God and it is only an implication and the Bible states Iron sharpens iron, referring to accountability to each other. It implies the higher accountability of Monarchs to implement policies in line with Christs commandment to Love one another and it is often expressed in the phrase by the Grace of God, attached to the titles of a reigning monarch. In the pagan world, kings were often seen as ruling with the backing of heavenly powers or perhaps even being divine beings themselves. However, the Christian notion of a right of kings could be traced to the biblical story found in 1 Samuel.
And the anointing is to such an effect that the monarch became inviolable, adomnan of Iona is one of the earliest Christian proponents of this concept of kings ruling with divine right. He wrote of the Irish King Diarmait mac Cerbaills assassination and claimed that divine punishment fell on his assassin for the act of violating the monarch, the same angel visited Columba on three successive nights, and finally Columba agreed and Aedan came to receive ordination. Adomnans writings most likely influenced other Irish writers, who in turn influenced continental ideas as well, pepin the Shorts coronation may have come from the same influence. The Carolingian dynasty and the Holy Roman Emperors influenced all subsequent western ideas of kingship, the immediate author of the theory was Jean Bodin, who based it on the interpretation of Roman law. With the rise of nation-states and the Protestant Reformation, the theory of divine right justified the kings authority in both political and spiritual matters.
The theory came to the fore in England under the reign of James I of England, louis XIV of France strongly promoted the theory as well. The Scots textbooks of the right of kings were written in 1597–98 by James VI of Scotland before his accession to the English throne. James I based his theories in part on his understanding of the Bible, the state of monarchy is the supremest thing upon earth, for kings are not only Gods lieutenants upon earth and sit upon Gods throne, but even by God himself they are called gods. There be three principal that illustrate the state of monarchy, one out of the word of God. In the Scriptures kings are called gods, and so their power after a certain relation compared to the Divine power, Kings are compared to fathers of families, for a king is truly parens patriae, the politic father of his people. And lastly, kings are compared to the head of this microcosm of the body of man, jamess reference to Gods lieutenants is apparently a reference to the controversial text in Romans 13, where Paul refers to Gods ministers.
Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers, for there is no power but of God, the powers that be are ordained of God