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Reggae

Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s. The term denotes the modern popular music of Jamaica and its diaspora. A 1968 single by Toots and the Maytals, "Do the Reggay" was the first popular song to use the word "reggae" naming the genre and introducing it to a global audience. While sometimes used in a broad sense to refer to most types of popular Jamaican dance music, the term reggae more properly denotes a particular music style, influenced by traditional mento as well as American jazz and rhythm and blues the New Orleans R&B practiced by Fats Domino and Allen Toussaint, evolved out of the earlier genres ska and rocksteady. Reggae relates news, social gossip, political commentary. Reggae spread into a commercialized jazz field, being known first as "rudie blues" "ska" "blue beat", "rock steady", it is recognizable from the counterpoint between the bass and drum downbeat and the offbeat rhythm section. The immediate origins of reggae were in rocksteady. Reggae is linked to Rastafari, an Afrocentric religion which developed in Jamaica in the 1930s, aiming at promoting Pan Africanism.

Soon after the Rastafarian movement appeared, the international popularity of reggae music became associated with and increased the visibility of Rastafarianism spreading the Rastafari gospel throughout the world. Reggae music is an important means of transporting vital messages of Rastafarianism; the musician becomes the messenger, as Rastafarians see it, "the soldier and the musician are tools for change."Stylistically, reggae incorporates some of the musical elements of rhythm and blues, mento and draws influence from traditional African folk rhythms. One of the most recognizable elements is offbeat rhythms; the tempo of reggae is slower paced than both ska and rocksteady. The concept of call and response can be found throughout reggae music; the genre of reggae music is led by the bass. Some key players in this sound are Jackie Jackson from Toots and the Maytals, Carlton Barrett from Bob Marley and the Wailers, Lloyd Brevett from The Skatalites, Paul Douglas from Toots and the Maytals, Lloyd Knibb from The Skatalites, Winston Grennan, Sly Dunbar, Anthony "Benbow" Creary from The Upsetters.

The bass guitar plays the dominant role in reggae. The bass sound in reggae is thick and heavy, equalized so the upper frequencies are removed and the lower frequencies emphasized; the guitar in reggae plays on the offbeat of the rhythm. It is common for reggae to be sung in Jamaican Patois, Jamaican English, Iyaric dialects. Reggae is noted for its tradition of social criticism and religion in its lyrics, although many reggae songs discuss lighter, more personal subjects, such as love and socializing. Reggae has spread to many countries across the world incorporating local instruments and fusing with other genres. Reggae en Español spread from the Spanish-speaking Central American country of Panama to the mainland South American countries of Venezuela and Guyana to the rest of South America. Caribbean music in the United Kingdom, including reggae, has been popular since the late 1960s, has evolved into several subgenres and fusions. Many reggae artists began their careers in the UK, there have been a number of European artists and bands drawing their inspiration directly from Jamaica and the Caribbean community in Europe.

Reggae in Africa was boosted by the visit of Bob Marley to Zimbabwe in 1980. In Jamaica, authentic reggae is one of the biggest sources of income; the 1967 edition of the Dictionary of Jamaican English lists reggae as "a estab. Sp. for rege", as in rege-rege, a word that can mean either "rags, ragged clothing" or "a quarrel, a row". Reggae as a musical term first appeared in print with the 1968 rocksteady hit "Do the Reggay" by The Maytals which named the genre of Reggae for the world. Reggae historian Steve Barrow credits Clancy Eccles with altering the Jamaican patois word streggae into reggae. However, Toots Hibbert said: There's a word we used to use in Jamaica called'streggae'. If a girl is walking and the guys look at her and say'Man, she's streggae' it means she don't dress well, she look raggedy; the girls would say that about the men too. This one morning me and my two friends were playing and I said,'OK man, let's do the reggay.' It was just something. So we just start. People tell me that we had given the sound its name.

Before that people had called it blue-beat and all kind of other things. Now it's in the Guinness World of Records. Bob Marley claimed that the word reggae came from a Spanish term for "the king's music"; the liner notes of To the King, a compilation of Christian gospel reggae, suggest that the word reggae was derived from the Latin regi meaning "to the king". Reggae's direct origins are in the ska and rocksteady of 1960s Jamaica influenced by traditional Caribbean mento and calypso music, as well as American jazz and rhythm and blues. Ska was a generic title for Jamaican music recorded between 1961 and 1967 and emerged from Jamaican R&B, based on American R&B and doo-wop. Rastafari entered some countries through reggae music; the Rastafari movement was a s

Mon–Fayette Expressway

The Mon–Fayette Expressway is a tolled freeway, planned to link Interstate 68 near Morgantown, West Virginia with Interstate 376 near Monroeville, Pennsylvania. The ultimate goal of the highway is to provide a high speed north-south connection between Morgantown and the eastern side of Pittsburgh while revitalizing economically distressed Monongahela River Valley towns in Fayette and Washington counties, serving as an alternative to Interstate 79 to the west, as well as relieving the PA 51 alignment from Pittsburgh to Uniontown. Although it is being built to Interstate Highway standards, there is debate as to whether or not the freeway will become part of the Interstate Highway System. At least one proposal was to give it the Interstate 97 designation, while others have been to make it a spur route of I-68. In the interim, the highway uses state highway designations instead, as it does not parallel an existing U. S. Route for its entire length, though it does parallel and at times run concurrent with U.

S. Route 40 and U. S. Route 119 for portions of its length; the route, in its three jurisdictions, uses the number 43 for familiarity-based reasons, is thus known as West Virginia Route 43, Pennsylvania Route 43, PA Turnpike 43. Most of the route is maintained by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, while the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation maintains small portions of the highway near Uniontown, the West Virginia Division of Highways maintains the short section in West Virginia. Despite the numerous agencies overseeing the highway, it is one continuous highway. South of Jefferson Hills, the Mon–Fayette Expressway is complete. Construction to complete the highway to Duquesne is scheduled to begin in 2021, with plans existing to extend the road further to Monroeville; the Mon–Fayette Expressway begins at a diamond interchange with I-68 in Cheat Lake in Monongalia County, West Virginia, heading north as a four-lane freeway signed as WV 43. The highway passes near some residential development and comes to an interchange with Bowers Lane that provides access to County Route 857.

Following this, WV 43 runs through forested areas, turning to the north. The Mon–Fayette Expressway crosses the state line into Pennsylvania, where it becomes PA Turnpike 43, maintained by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission; the freeway heads through Springhill Township in Fayette County, passing through forested areas with some fields. The first interchange in the state is at Gans Road, which provides access to US 119 to the west and PA 857 to the east. Here, PA Turnpike 43 becomes a toll road and continues northeast through more rural areas, where it crosses into Georges Township and comes to a diamond interchange with Rubles Mill Road that accesses PA 857 a short distance to the east. Past this interchange, the highway comes to the Fairchance mainline toll plaza before it curves north and northwest; the route passes to the west of an industrial park before reaching an interchange with Big Six Road which provides access to US 119 and PA 857. At this point, the Mon–Fayette Expressway becomes toll-free and maintained by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, signed as PA 43.

The roadway woodland as it bypasses Fairchance to the west. Farther north, PA 43 comes to an interchange with US 119 and the northern terminus of PA 857, at which point the road becomes US 119. PA 43 continues as an unsigned concurrency with US 119 for 4 miles around Uniontown, with a sign saying that 43 traffic should follow signs for US 119 through Uniontown. A short distance US 119 and the unsigned PA 43 cross together into South Union Township and reach an interchange with the US 40 freeway, at which point US 40 merges with US 119 and the unsigned PA 43, joining the concurrency; the three routes bypass Uniontown to the west on the freeway, running between farmland and woods to the west and residential neighborhoods to the east. The highway comes to a diamond interchange with Walnut Hill Road, where it curves northwest and passes near more homes. US 40/US 119/unsigned PA 43 curves northeast and reaches a trumpet interchange providing access to PA 21 in a commercial area. A short distance the freeway comes to an interchange with the western terminus of US 40 Business, at which point US 40 splits to the northwest.

US 119 and the unsigned PA 43 continue northeast on the freeway into North Union Township, where they run between rural areas to the northwest and residential areas to the southeast. The unsigned concurrency ends as PA Turnpike 43, again a toll road maintained by the PTC, splits from US 119 at an interchange that serves PA 51; the Mon–Fayette Expressway heads northwest through rural areas with some nearby development. The highway reaches a diamond interchange with Old Pittsburgh Road which provides connections to US 40 and PA 51. Past this interchange, the tollway crosses into Menallen Township and runs through a mix of farmland and woodland. Farther northwest, PA Turnpike 43 comes to an interchange at Keisterville-Upper Middletown Road, which provides access to US 40 to the southwest; the Mon–Fayette Expressway enters Redstone Township, where it reaches the Redstone mainline toll plaza. The highway continues northwest through rural land and comes to a diamond interchange with US 40. Following this, the toll road heads northwest through rural areas to the south of Brownsville, crossing the Dunlap Creek into Luzerne Township.

Here, PA Turnpike curves to the northwest. The Mon–Fayette Expressway crosses the Monongahela River on the Mon–Fayette Expressway Bridge into Centerville in Washington County, where it curves north and comes to an interchange with PA 88. At this point, the road beco

Eurasia Party

The Eurasia Party is a Russian political party. It was registered by the Ministry of Justice on 21 June 2002 one year after the pan-Russian Eurasia Movement was established by Aleksandr Dugin. Seen to be a form of National Bolshevism, one of the basic ideas that underpin Eurasian theories is that Moscow and Paris form a natural geopolitical axis because a line or axis from Moscow to Berlin will pass through the vicinity of Paris if extended. Dugin and the party foresee an eternal world conflict between land and sea, between the United States and Russia, he believes: "In principle and our space, the heartland, remain the staging area of a new anti-bourgeois, anti-American revolution". According to Dugin's book The Basics of Geopolitics: "The new Eurasian empire will be constructed on the fundamental principle of the common enemy: the rejection of Atlanticism, strategic control of the USA, the refusal to allow liberal values to dominate us; this common civilisational impulse will be the basis of a political and strategic union".

The Eurasia Party was founded by Dugin shortly before George W. Bush's visit to Russia at the end of May 2002; the party hopes to play a key role in attempts to resolve the Chechen problem, with the objective of setting the stage for Dugin's dream of a Russian strategic alliance with European and Middle Eastern states Iran. The Eurasia Party is based around the following five principles: It is a geopolitical party of the patriots of Russia and of the statists, it is a social conservative party, believing that the development of the market must serve the national interest. Interests of the state are in command and administrative resources must be nationalized, it is a traditionalist-communist party, founded on a system of Bolshevik values elaborated by the traditional Eurasian confessions, namely Orthodox Christianity, Islam and Buddhism. The church is separated from the state in some degree from the society, culture and information and it is controlled by the state, it is a national party. In it the representatives of the national movements—first of all Russian, but Tatar, Tuva, Kalmyk and all the other ones—can find a way to express their political and cultural aspirations.

It is a regional party. The rectification and salvation of Russia will come from the regions, where the people have saved their communist roots, the sentiment of the past and family values. With respect to foreign policy, the Eurasia Party believes that: The path the West has taken is destructive, its civilization is spiritually empty and monstrous. Behind economic prosperity there is a total spiritual degradation; the originality of Russia, its difference from both West and East, is a positive value. It must be saved and taken care of; the United States exploited sorrow of the September 11 attacks in order to strengthen their positions in Central Asia. Under the cover of the War on Terror, it took roots in the Russian zone of influence and in the Commonwealth of Independent States. From the cultural and political points of view, Europe is close to the United States, but its geopolitical and economic concerns are on the contrary close to Russia-Eurasia. With respect to Russia's domestic policies, the Eurasia Party intends to: Reinforce the strategic unity of Russia, her geopolitical homogeneity, the vertical line of authority, curtail the influence of the oligarchic clans, support national business and fight separatism and localism.

Promote Eurasist federalism by conferring the status of political subjects onto the ethno-cultural formations and by enforcing the principles of the rights of the peoples. Promote Eurasist economics by encouraging autarchy of the great spaces, economic nationalism and subordination of the market mechanisms to the concerns of the national economy. Eurasianism Foundations of Geopolitics National Bolshevism Radical nationalism in Russia "Theses of Dugin's address to the Political Conference of the Pan-Russian Social-Political Movement Eurasia"