John Glover Roberts Jr. is the 17th and current Chief Justice of the United States, serving in this role since 2005. Roberts was born in Buffalo, New York, but grew up in northwest Indiana and was educated in a private school, he attended Harvard College and Harvard Law School, where he was a managing editor of the Harvard Law Review. After being admitted to the bar, he served as a law clerk for Judge Henry Friendly and Associate Justice William Rehnquist before taking a position in the Attorney General's office during the Reagan Administration, he went on to serve the Reagan administration and the George H. W. Bush administration in the Department of Justice and the Office of the White House Counsel, before spending 14 years in private law practice. During this time, he argued 39 cases before the Supreme Court. Notably, he represented 19 states in United States v. Microsoft Corp. In 2003, Roberts was appointed as a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit by George W. Bush.
During his two-year tenure on the D. C. Circuit, Roberts authored 49 opinions, eliciting two dissents from other judges, authoring three dissents of his own. In 2005, Roberts was nominated to be an associate justice of the Supreme Court to succeed the retiring Sandra Day O'Connor; when Rehnquist died before Roberts's confirmation hearings began, Bush instead nominated Roberts to fill the chief justice position. Roberts has authored the majority opinion in many landmark cases, including Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1, Shelby County v. Holder, National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, King v. Burwell, he has been described as having a conservative judicial philosophy in his jurisprudence. So, Roberts has shown a willingness to work with the Supreme Court's liberal bloc and since the retirement of Anthony Kennedy in 2018, has come to be regarded as a key swing vote on the Court. John Glover Roberts was born in Buffalo, New York, the son of Rosemary and John Glover "Jack" Roberts Sr..
His father was a plant manager with Bethlehem Steel. His father has Irish and Welsh ancestry and his mother is of Czech descent; when Roberts was in fourth grade, his family moved to Indiana. He grew up with three sisters: Kathy and Berbere. Roberts attended a Roman Catholic grade school in Long Beach. In 1973, he graduated from La Lumiere School, a Roman Catholic boarding school in La Porte, where he was a student and athlete, he studied five years of Latin, some French, was known for his devotion to his studies. He was captain of the football team, was a regional champion in wrestling, he participated in choir and drama, co-edited the school newspaper, served on the athletic council and the executive committee of the student council. After graduating from high school in 1973, Roberts entered Harvard University as a history major. Due to his academic excellence in high school, Roberts entered Harvard with sophomore standing. One of his first papers, "Marxism and Bolshevism: Theory and Practice," won the William Scott Ferguson Prize for most outstanding essay assignment by a sophomore history major.
He graduated in 1976 with membership in Phi Beta Kappa and a B. A. summa cum laude, having written a senior honors thesis entitled "Old and New Liberalism: The British Liberal Party's Approach to the Social Problem, 1906–1914". Roberts planned to pursue a Ph. D. in history and decided to study law instead. He attended Harvard Law School, he graduated in 1979 with a J. D. magna cum laude. After graduating from law school, Roberts clerked for Judge Henry Friendly of the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit from 1979 to 1980. From 1980 to 1981, he clerked for Justice William Rehnquist of the U. S. Supreme Court. From 1981 to 1982, he served in the Reagan administration as a special assistant to U. S. Attorney General William French Smith. From 1982 to 1986, Roberts served as associate counsel to the president under White House counsel Fred Fielding. Roberts entered private law practice in Washington, D. C. as an associate at the law firm Hogan & Hartson. As part of Hogan & Hartson's pro bono work, he worked behind the scenes for gay rights advocates, reviewing filings and preparing arguments for the Supreme Court case Romer v. Evans, described in 2005 as "the movement's most important legal victory".
Roberts argued on behalf of the homeless, a case which became one of Roberts' "few appellate losses." Another pro bono matter was a death penalty case in which he represented John Ferguson, convicted of killing eight people in Florida. Roberts left Hogan & Hartson to serve in the George H. W. Bush administration as principal deputy solicitor general, from 1989 to 1993 and as acting solicitor general for the purposes of at least one case when Ken Starr had a conflict. In 1992, George H. W. Bush nominated Roberts to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, but no Senate vote was held, Roberts's nomination expired at the end of the 102nd Congress. Roberts returned to Hogan & Hartson as a partner and became the head of the firm's appellate practice in addition to serving as an adjunct faculty member at the Georgetown University Law Center. During this time, Roberts argued 39 cases before the Supreme Court, he represented 19 states in United States v. Microsoft; those cases include: During the late 1990s, while working for Hogan & Hartson, Roberts served as a member of the steering committee of the Washington
Andrew Eugene Pettitte is an American former baseball starting pitcher who played 18 seasons in Major League Baseball for the New York Yankees. He pitched for the Houston Astros. Pettitte was a three-time All-Star, he ranks as MLB's all-time postseason wins leader with 19. Pettitte was drafted by the Yankees organization in 1990, he signed with them a year later. After debuting in the major leagues in 1995, Pettitte finished third in voting for the American League Rookie of the Year Award. In 1996, he led the AL with 21 wins and was runner-up for the AL Cy Young Award, two years he was named the Yankees' Opening Day starter. Pettitte established himself as one of the "Core Four" players who contributed to the Yankees' late-1990s dynasty that produced four championships. Pettitte won the 2001 American League Championship Series Most Valuable Player Award in helping his team win the pennant. After spending nine seasons with the Yankees—a stint in which he won at least 12 games each season—Pettitte signed with the Astros in 2004.
He rejoined the Yankees in 2007 and that season admitted to using human growth hormone to recover from an elbow injury in 2002. Pettitte's second tenure with the team lasted six seasons, interrupted by a one-year retirement in 2011, produced a fifth World series championship. Pettitte's pitching repertoire included a four-seam and cut fastball and several off-speed pitches such as a slider and changeup. A left-handed pitcher, he had an exceptional pickoff move to first base, which allowed him to record 98 career pickoffs. Among Yankees pitchers, Pettitte ranks first in strikeouts, third in wins, tied for first in games started, he won the most games of any pitcher in the 2000s. His number 46 was retired by the Yankees on August 23, 2015. Pettitte was born on June 1972, in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, he is of Italian and Cajun descent, the younger of two children born to Tommy and JoAnn Pettitte. He moved to Texas while in the third grade, he attended Deer Park High School in Deer Park, where he pitched for the school's baseball team.
His fastball ranged from between 85 to 87 miles per hour. He played center and nose guard for the school's football team; the Yankees selected Pettitte in the 22nd round of the 1990 Major League Baseball draft. Recruited by San Jacinto College North in Houston, Texas, he opted to play college baseball when coach Wayne Graham compared him to Roger Clemens; as Pettitte enrolled in a junior college rather than a four-year school, the Yankees retained the right to sign him as a draft-and-follow prospect. On May 25, 1991, he signed with the Yankees, receiving an $80,000 signing bonus, double the Yankees' initial offer. In 1991, Pettitte pitched for the Gulf Coast Yankees of the Rookie-level Gulf Coast League and Oneonta Yankees of the Class A-Short Season New York–Penn League, making six starts for each team. With Oneonta, Pettitte teamed up with catcher Jorge Posada, his longtime batterymate, for the first time. Pettitte threw a knuckleball at the time. Posada struggled prompting Pettitte to abandon the pitch.
In 1992, Pettitte pitched for the Greensboro Hornets of the Class A South Atlantic League. He pitched to a 10–4 win–loss record and a 2.20 earned run average, with 130 strikeouts and 55 walks, in 27 games started. That season and Posada first played with Derek Jeter. Pettitte pitched for the Prince William Cannons of the Class A-Advanced Carolina League in the 1993 season, finishing the year with an 11–9 record, a 3.04 ERA, 129 strikeouts, 47 walks in 26 starts. He made one start for the Albany-Colonie Yankees of the Class AA Eastern League during the season. Pettitte began the 1994 season with Albany-Colonie, where he had a 7–2 record and 2.71 ERA in 11 starts, before receiving a promotion to the Columbus Clippers of the Class AAA International League. With Columbus, Pettitte had a 7 -- a 2.98 ERA in 16 starts. The Yankees named him their minor league pitcher of the year. Baseball America ranked Pettitte the 49th best prospect in baseball prior to the 1995 season. In spring training, Pettitte competed for a spot in the starting rotation with Sterling Hitchcock.
Hitchcock won the competition, Pettitte opened the season in the bullpen, making his major league debut with the Yankees on April 29, 1995. The Yankees demoted him back to the minors on May 16 to allow him to continue starting. Eleven days he was recalled due to an injury to Jimmy Key. With Scott Kamieniecki and Mélido Pérez suffering injuries, Pettitte became a member of the starting rotation, he recorded his first major league win on June 7. He continued to perform well through July, leading Yankees' starters in ERA. Pettitte won six of his last seven starts, finishing the season with a 12–9 record and a 4.17 ERA, placed third in American League Rookie of the Year Award balloting, behind Marty Cordova and Garret Anderson. He started Game Two of the 1995 American League Division Series against the Seattle Mariners, allowing four runs in seven innings; the Mariners won the series three games to two. Believing Pettitte to be the superior pitcher, the Yankees traded Hitchcock prior to the 1996 season.
Starting the season in the rotation, Pettitte had a 13–4 record at the end of the first half of the season, made the AL All-Star team. He did not appear in the 1996 MLB All-Star Game, due to a sore arm, he led the AL with 21 wins and finished third in winning percentage, eighth in ERA. He finished second to Pat Hentgen for the AL Cy Young Award, with the smallest difference in voting since 1972. Hentgen won the award i
Judicial Watch is an American conservative activist group and self-styled watchdog group that files Freedom of Information Act lawsuits to investigate claimed misconduct by government officials. Founded in 1994, JW has targeted Democrats, in particular the Clinton administration, the Obama administration, Hillary Clinton, although it has sued Republicans as well including the administration of George W. Bush, it has filed lawsuits against government climate scientists. The group has made numerous false and unsubstantiated claims, which have been picked up by right-wing news outlets; the vast majority of its lawsuits have been dismissed. Judicial Watch was founded in 1994 by attorney and right-wing activist Larry Klayman. Before leaving in 2003 Klayman hired the current president Tom Fitton. Judicial Watch came to public attention after filing 18 lawsuits against the administration of Democratic U. S. President Bill Clinton and other figures in the Clinton administration. An early lawsuit was filed by Judicial Watch on behalf of the Western Center for Journalism in 1998.
The lawsuit alleged a retaliatory audit by the Internal Revenue Service. The WCJ was investigating the death of Clinton deputy White House counsel Vince Foster at the time; the organization received considerable financial support from prominent Clinton critics, including $7.74 million from conservative billionaire Richard Mellon Scaife. This led Clinton administration officials to accuse Judicial Watch of "abusing the judicial system for partisan ends". In July 2003 Judicial Watch joined the environmental organization Sierra Club in suing the George W. Bush administration for access to minutes of Vice President Dick Cheney's Energy Task Force. Judicial Watch was involved in a similar legal dispute with Vice President Dick Cheney in 2002 when the group filed a shareholder lawsuit against Halliburton; the lawsuit, which accused Halliburton of accounting fraud, alleged that "when Mr. Cheney was chief executive of Halliburton, he and other directors inflated revenue reports, boosting Halliburton's share price."
As reported by the Wall Street Journal the court filing claims the oil-field-services concern overstated revenue by a total of $445 million from 1999 through the end of 2001. Judicial Watch has filed over twenty FOIA lawsuits involving the Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's emails. A federal judge ruled on February 23, 2016 that top aides to Hillary Clinton could be questioned under oath by Judicial Watch about her use of a private email server as secretary of state. District Court Judge Emmet G. Sullivan granted Judicial Watch's motion for discovery into whether the State Department and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton deliberately thwarted the Freedom of Information Act by using a private email server to obscure her communications from public records requests. Judicial Watch’s main targets have been Democrats Bill and Hillary Clinton and the Obama administration. In 1995, Judicial Watch, Inc. filed an action in the District Court under the FOIA, seeking information from the Department of Commerce regarding DOC's selection of participants for foreign trade missions.
In May 1995, following a search in response to Judicial Watch's FOIA requests, DOC produced 28,000 pages of nonexempt information and withheld about 1,000 documents as exempt. Disputes arose between the parties over the adequacy of DOC's search, Judicial Watch charged that some DOC officials had destroyed or removed responsive documents. In December 1998, following discovery, the District Court granted partial summary judgment to Judicial Watch and ordered DOC to perform a new search. During the investigation, Nolanda B. Hill, a business partner of Commerce Secretary Ron Brown testified that Brown had told her that first lady Hillary Clinton was the driving force behind the efforts to raise as much money as possible for President Clinton's reelection and the DNC, and further that, "...companies were being solicited to donate large sums of money in exchange for their selection to participate on trade missions of the Commerce Department." Judicial Watch helped promote the conspiracy theory. August 10, 2009 Judicial Watch sent a FOIA request to the US Secret Service asking that official White House visitor logs be made public.
In August 2011, U. S. District Judge Beryl Howell ordered the agency to process the group's data request; the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia affirmed the decision, holding that the Secret Service did not have to produce records of visitors to the president's office. In 2010, Judicial Watch made inaccurate claims about air travel spending by Nancy Pelosi's congressional delegation. Judicial Watch made false claims about Pelosi's air travel in 2008 as well. Osama bin Laden, leader of the terror group al-Qaeda, was killed in Pakistan on May 1, 2011 in a joint operation by the United States Navy SEALs and the Central Intelligence Agency; this operation was code-named Operation Neptune Spear. On May 2, 2011 Judicial Watch filed a FOIA request with the Department of Defense and the CIA for photographs and videos of bin Laden taken during or after the operation; the Federal Government failed to produce any records within the required 20-day time period. In order to force compliance, Judicial Watch filed a FOIA lawsuit against the DOD and CIA on June 8, 2011.
On January 31, 2014, after legal wrangling, the Pentagon was forced to release Operation Neptune Spear documents to Judicial Watch. One obtained email had the subject line OPSEC Guidance / Neptune Spear and is proof that days after the original FOIA request U. S. Specia
Superior Court of the District of Columbia
The Superior Court of the District of Columbia referred to as DC Superior Court, is the trial court for the District of Columbia. It hears cases involving criminal and civil law, as well as family court and tenant, probate and driving violations. All appeals of Superior Court decisions go to the District of Columbia Court of Appeals; the first judicial systems in the new District of Columbia were established by the United States Congress in 1801. The Circuit Court of the District of Columbia was both a trial court of general jurisdiction and an appellate court, it heard cases under both local and federal law. Congress established justices of the peace and an orphans' court, which were combined in 1870 into a new local court called the Police Court; the Police Court had jurisdiction over misdemeanors as well as equity powers. In 1909, Congress converted the Police Court into the Municipal Court, which became a court of record with jury trials in 1921. In 1963, Congress again converted the Municipal Court into the Court of General Sessions.
Its jurisdiction was broader, although in criminal cases the federal courts retained concurrent jurisdiction. Under the District of Columbia Court Reform and Criminal Procedure Act of 1970, the Court of General Sessions was combined with the Juvenile Court and the D. C. Tax Court to form the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, a trial court of general and exclusive jurisdiction for D. C; the Court consists of 61 associate judges. The Court is assisted by the service of 24 magistrate judges, as well as retired judges who have been recommended and approved as senior judges; when a vacancy occurs on the court, the D. C. Judicial Nomination Commission invites applications and sends three candidates' names to the President of the United States, who sends one nomination to the U. S. Senate for advice and consent. If the Senate confirms a judge, he or she serves for a 15-year term, renewable; the Superior Court and the D. C. Court of Appeals, known collectively as the D. C. Courts, comprise the judicial branch of D.
C. local government. In criminal cases, the government is represented by the Office of the United States Attorney for the District of Columbia or the Office of the Attorney General for the District of Columbia, depending on the nature and severity of the charges. Civil Division – Civil actions and actions in equity. Civil Actions Branch – Amount in controversy above $10,000 or cases requesting equitable relief such as declarative judgments, injunctive relief, writs of attachment Landlord and Tenant Branch – processes cases filed for possession of real property or violations of lease agreements; the Landlord Tenant Resource Center can assist those. The Center is open weekdays, 9:15 to noon. Small Claims and Conciliation Branch – Amount in controversy below $10,000. There is a Small Claims Resource Center to assist those without an attorney, it is located in Court Building B, Room 102, is open 9:15 to noon on Thursdays. Housing Conditions Calendar handles cases in which landlords are alleged to have not kept their rental property compliant with the D.
C. Housing Code. Criminal Division – This division handles cases including misdemeanor and serious traffic offenses; the division has Community Courts, which take a problem-solving approach to misdemeanor crimes, a drug court and a mental health court. Family Court Operations Division – Family court Family Court Central Intake Center - all cases are filed here. Domestic Relations Branch – divorce, legal separation, child custody, habeas corpus, adoption Juvenile and Neglect Branch – juvenile delinquency, child abuse and neglect. Paternity and Child Support Branch – establishment of paternity, child support, wage withholding Marriage Bureau – marriage licenses/records. Family Court Self Help Center – "provides legal information and assistance to self-represented parties in Family Court Cases." Family Treatment Court -"court-supervised, comprehensive residential substance abuse treatment program for mothers/female caretakers whose children are the subject of a child neglect case." Domestic Violence Division – Domestic violence - Handles cases of violence by a family member or romantic partner, person who shares living quarters, with whom one has a child in common, or between a former and current romantic partner.
There are two intake centers: 1) the fourth floor of the Moultrie Courthouse, 2) the Medical Center at 1328 Southern Avenue, Suite 311. At either location those seeking a protection order can meet with police/prosecutor, file a petition for a stayaway order and/or custody, seek assistance of the Crime Victims Compensation Program and talk with an advocate to develop a safety plan. Probate Division/Office of the Register of Wills - han
George H. W. Bush
George Herbert Walker Bush was an American politician who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993 and the 43rd vice president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. A member of the Republican Party, he held posts that included those of congressman, CIA director; until his son George W. Bush became the 43rd president in 2001, he was known as George Bush. Bush postponed his university studies after the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, enlisted in the Navy on his 18th birthday, became one of its youngest aviators, he served until September 1945, attended Yale University, graduating in 1948. He moved his family to West Texas where he entered the oil business and became a millionaire by the age of 40 in 1964. After founding his own oil company, Bush was defeated in his first run for the United States Senate in 1964, but won election to the House of Representatives from Texas's 7th congressional district in 1966, he was reelected in 1968 but was defeated for election to the Senate in 1970.
In 1971, President Richard Nixon appointed Bush as Ambassador to the United Nations, he became Chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1973. The following year, President Gerald Ford appointed him Chief of the Liaison Office in China and made him the director of Central Intelligence. Bush ran for president in 1980, was defeated in the Republican primary by Ronald Reagan, as Reagan's running mate Bush became vice-president after the ticket's election. During his eight-year tenure as vice president, Bush headed task forces on deregulation and the war on drugs. Bush in 1988 defeated Democratic opponent Michael Dukakis, becoming the first incumbent vice president to be elected president in 152 years. Foreign policy drove the Bush presidency. Bush signed the North American Free Trade Agreement, which created a trade bloc consisting of the United States and Mexico. Domestically, Bush signed a bill to increase taxes, he lost the 1992 presidential election to Democrat Bill Clinton following an economic recession and the decreased importance of foreign policy in a post–Cold War political climate.
After leaving office in 1993, Bush was active in humanitarian activities alongside Clinton, his former opponent. With George W. Bush's victory in the 2000 presidential election and his son became the second father–son pair to serve as President, following John Adams and John Quincy Adams. At the time of his death, he was the longest-lived president in U. S. history, a record surpassed by Jimmy Carter on March 22, 2019. George Herbert Walker Bush was born at 173 Adams Street in Milton, Massachusetts on June 12, 1924 to Prescott Sheldon Bush and Dorothy Bush; the Bush family moved from Milton to Connecticut shortly after his birth. Bush was named after his maternal grandfather George Herbert Walker, known as "Pop", young Bush was called "Poppy" as a tribute to his namesake. Bush began his formal education at the Greenwich Country Day School attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts beginning in 1938, where he held a number of leadership positions which included president of the senior class, secretary of the student council, president of the community fund-raising group, a member of the editorial board of the school newspaper, captain of the varsity baseball and soccer teams.
Six months after the United States entered World War II following Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, Bush enlisted in the U. S. Navy after he graduated from Phillips Academy on his 18th birthday, he became a naval aviator. After completing the 10-month course, he was commissioned as an ensign in the Naval Reserve at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi on June 9, 1943, just three days before his 19th birthday, which made him one of the youngest aviators in the Navy. In September 1943, he was assigned to Torpedo Squadron 51 as the photographic officer; the following year, his squadron was based in USS San Jacinto as a member of Air Group 51, where his lanky physique earned him the nickname "Skin". During this time, the task force was victorious at the Battle of the Philippine Sea, one of the largest air battles of World War II. Bush was promoted to lieutenant on August 1, 1944, San Jacinto commenced operations against the Japanese in the Bonin Islands, he piloted one of the four Grumman TBM Avengers of VT-51 that attacked the Japanese installations on Chichijima on September 2, 1944.
His crew included Lt. William White, his aircraft was hit by flak during the attack, but Bush released bombs and scored several hits. With his engine ablaze, he flew several miles from the island, where he and one other crew member bailed out. Bush spent four hours in his inflated liferaft, protected by fighter aircraft circling above, until the submarine USS Finback came to his rescue, he participated in the rescue of other aviators. Several of those shot down during the attack were executed, their livers were eaten by their captors; this experience shaped Bush profoundly, leading him to ask, "Why had I been spared and what did God have for me?"In November 1944, Bush returned to San Jacinto and participated in operations in the Philippines until his squadron was replaced and sent home to the United States. By 1944 he had flown 58 combat missions for which he received the Distinguished Flying Cross, three Air Medals, the Presiden
The Juris Doctor degree known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree, is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. The Juris Doctor is earned by completing law school in Australia, the United States, some other common law countries, it has the academic standing of a professional doctorate in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada. The degree was first awarded in the United States in the early 20th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree. Originating from the 19th-century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law, it is a degree that in most common law jurisdictions is the primary professional preparation for lawyers, it involves a three-year program in most jurisdictions. To be authorized to practice law in the courts of a given state in the United States, the majority of individuals holding a J. D. degree must pass a bar examination. The state of Wisconsin, permits the graduates of its two law schools to practice law in that state, in its state courts, without having to take its bar exam—a practice called "diploma privilege"—provided they complete the courses needed to satisfy the diploma privilege requirements.
In the United States, passing an additional bar exam is not required of lawyers authorized to practice in at least one state to practice in the national courts of the United States, courts known as "federal courts". Lawyers must, however, be admitted to the bar of the federal court before they are authorized to practice in that court. Admission to the bar of a federal district court includes admission to the bar of the related bankruptcy court. In the United States, the professional doctorate in law may be conferred in Latin or in English as Juris Doctor and at some law schools Doctor of Law, or Doctor of Jurisprudence. "Juris Doctor" means "Teacher of Law", while the Latin for "Doctor of Jurisprudence"—Jurisprudentiae Doctor—literally means "Teacher of Legal Knowledge". The J. D. is not to be confused with Doctor of Legum Doctor. In institutions where the latter can be earned, e.g. Cambridge University and many other British institutions, it is a higher research doctorate representing a substantial contribution to the field over many years, beyond that required for a PhD and well beyond a taught degree such as the J.
D. The LL. D. is invariably an honorary degree in the United States. The first university in Europe, the University of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 11th century who were students of the glossator school in that city; this served as the model for other law schools of the Middle Ages, other early universities such as the University of Padua. The first academic degrees may have been doctorates in civil law followed by canon law. While Bologna granted only doctorates, preparatory degrees were introduced in Paris and in the English universities; the nature of the J. D. can be better understood by a review of the context of the history of legal education in England. The teaching of law at Cambridge and Oxford Universities was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practice law; the universities only taught civil and canon law but not the common law that applied in most jurisdictions. Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court, but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.
However, because of the lack of standardisation of study and of objective standards for appraisal of these apprenticeships, the role of universities became subsequently of importance for the education of lawyers in the English speaking world. In England in 1292 when Edward I first requested that lawyers be trained, students sat in the courts and observed, but over time the students would hire professionals to lecture them in their residences, which led to the institution of the Inns of Court system; the original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation. By the fifteenth century, the Inns functioned like a university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though specialized in purpose. With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, the demand for lawyers grew. Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only.
The apprenticeship program for solicitors thus emerged and governed by the same rules as the apprenti
Office of National Drug Control Policy
The Office of National Drug Control Policy is a component of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. The Director of National Drug Control Policy, colloquially known as the Drug Czar, heads the office. "Drug Czar" was a term first used in the media by then-Senator Joe Biden in October 1982. In addition to running the ONDCP, the director evaluates and oversees both the international and domestic anti-drug efforts of executive branch agencies and ensures that such efforts sustain and complement State and local anti-drug activities; the Director advises the President regarding changes in the organization, management and personnel of federal agencies that affect U. S. anti-drug efforts. The most recent director is James. W. Carroll, who took over from former director Michael Botticelli; the Fiscal Year 2011 National Drug Control Budget proposed by the Obama Administration would devote significant new resources to the prevention and treatment of drug abuse. These resources are complemented by an aggressive effort to enhance domestic law enforcement and supply control programs.
New resources, $340 million, are added to the treatment of drug use. The programs directed by the ONDCP include: the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas program the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, a current domestic government propaganda campaign in the US the Drug Free Communities Program Anti-Doping Activities World Anti-Doping Agency dues The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988, which created the Office of National Drug Control Policy, was the product of bi-partisan support, it was co-sponsored in the House of Representatives by parties' leaders, Tom Foley and Robert Michel, it passed by margins of 346–11 and 87–3 in the House and Senate, respectively. Upon signing the law, Ronald Reagan said, "This bill is the product of a bipartisan effort." In September 2002, the Senate Appropriations Committee recommended that salaries and expenses at ONDCP be reduced from $26.6 million in fiscal 2006 to $11.5 million in fiscal 2007, to "more reflect actual performance." Committee members said they would request funding for a study of ONDCP by the National Academy of Public Administration.
They ordered a Government Accountability Office study on the distribution of grants. Plus, they directed the Director to provide quarterly updates on travel expenditures, staffing levels and plans for future hirings. In 2011, the ONDCP requested funding for 98 full-time employees, 64 of whom would be paid at either GS-15, GS-14, or SES pay grades, or more than $105,211.00 yearly, being adjusted for Washington, D. C. cost of living expenses. In 2005, the Bush Administration proposed transferring the $225 million High-Intensity Drug Trafficking Program from ONDCP to the Department of Justice; the program gives additional money to communities with chronic illicit drug sales. According to the Washington Post, "Many lawmakers oppose the transfer for fear the program would become less of a priority." By law, the drug czar must oppose any attempt to legalize the use of illicit drugs. According to the "Office of National Drug Control Policy Reauthorization Act of 1998" the director of the ONDCP shall ensure that no Federal funds appropriated to the Office of National Drug Control Policy shall be expended for any study or contract relating to the legalization of a substance listed in schedule I of section 202 of the Controlled Substances Act and take such actions as necessary to oppose any attempt to legalize the use of a substance that -- 1. is listed in schedule I of section 202 of the Controlled Substances Act.
The Deputy Director's statements reflect one perspective regarding marijuana - a perspective, disputed by others with different viewpoints. However, ONDCP is charged with the responsibility for "taking such actions as necessary to oppose any attempt to legalize the use" of certain controlled substances such as marijuana - a responsibility which logically could include the making of advocacy statements in opposition to legalization efforts; the Deputy Director's statements about marijuana are thus within the statutory role assigned to ONDCP. Given this role, we do not see a need to examine the accuracy of the Deputy Director's individual statements in detail. In September 2006, the office reported that the 2005 survey of 67,500 people found that 8.1 percent reported using an illicit drug in the 30 days prior to being asked about their drug use, which equates to 19.7 million people nationwide. The percentage was up compared to 2004. Youth drug use declined for the third year in a row. While the ONDCP measures their efficacy against prior use statistics within the U.
S. they do not publicize how these statistics compare against other countries at the time in their communications to the press. In 2008, ONDCP reported that actual youth drug use, as measured as the percent reporting past month use, has declined from 19.4% to 14.8% among middle and high school students between 2001 and 2007. In August 2001, the office told a Congressional committee that its N