Reggio Calabria

Reggio Calabria known as Reggio Calabria or Reggio in Southern Italy, is the largest city and the most populated comune of Calabria, Southern Italy. It is the capital of the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria and the seat of the Regional Council of Calabria. Reggio is located on the "toe" of the Italian Peninsula and is separated from the island of Sicily by the Strait of Messina, it is situated on the slopes of the Aspromonte, a long, craggy mountain range that runs up through the centre of the region. The third economic centre of mainland Southern Italy, the city proper has a population of more than 200,000 inhabitants spread over 236 square kilometres, while the fast-growing urban area numbers 260,000 inhabitants. About 560,000 people live in the metropolitan area, recognised in 2015 by Italian Republic as a metropolitan city; as a major functional pole in the region, it has strong historical and economic ties with the city of Messina, which lies across the strait in Sicily, forming a metro city of less than 1 million people.

Reggio is the oldest city in the region, despite its ancient foundation—Rhegion was an important and flourishing colony of Magna Graecia—it has a modern urban system, set up after the catastrophic earthquake on 28 December 1908, which destroyed most of the city. The region has been subject to earthquakes, it is a major economic centre for regional services and transport on the southern shores of the Mediterranean. Reggio, with Naples and Taranto, is home to one of the most important archaeological museums, the prestigious National Archaeological Museum of Magna Græcia, dedicated to Ancient Greece. Reggio is the seat, since 1907, of the Archeological Superintendence of Lucania; the city centre, consisting of Liberty buildings, has a linear development along the coast with parallel streets, the promenade is dotted with rare magnolias and exotic palms. Reggio has used popular nicknames: The "city of Bronzes", after the Bronzes of Riace that are testimonials of its Greek origins. During its 3,500-year history Reggio has been renamed.

Each name corresponds with the city's major historical phases: Erythra the name of the pre-Greek settlement. Rhegion, the Greek city from the 8th to the 3rd centuries BC. Phoibeia, a short period under Dionysius II of Syracuse, in the 4th century BC. Regium or Rhegium, its first Latin name, during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. Rhegium Julii, during the Roman Imperial period. Rivàh, Arabic name under the short domination by Emirate of Sicily, between 10th and 11th centuries. Rìsa, under the Normans, between the 11th and 12th centuries. Regols, Catalan name under the Crown of Aragon, in the late 13th century. Reggio or Regio, usual Italian name in the Middle and Modern age. Reggio di Calàbria, post Italian Unification; the toponym of the city might derive from an Italic word Rec. Ancient Greek and Roman etymologists derived it from the Greek regnynai, referring to a mythic earthquake in which Sicily was broken off from the Italian mainland; the history of the area before the arrival of the Greeks in the eighth century BC is not reliably known.

Mythical accounts record a series of different peoples in the region, including the Osci, Oenotrians, Ausones, Taureanes, Sicels and Itali. They claim that the land around Reggio was first known as Saturnia, or Neptunia; the term'Italia' referred to the area around Reggio itself, before expanding to cover present-day, southern Calabria, becoming the name of the whole Italian peninsula around the third century BC. The name derives from king Italus, an Oenotrian king of the region. After Cumae, Reggio was one of the first Greek colonies in southern Italy; the colony was settled by the inhabitants of Chalcis in 730 or 743 BC on the site of the older settlement, meaning "red". The legendary founder of the city was King Iocastus, son of Aeolus, said to be buried on the Punta Calamizzi promontory and appeared on the city's coinage; the colony retained the name of "Rhegion". Pseudo-Scylax writes that it was a Greek city. Rhegion was one of the most important cities in Magna Graecia, reaching great economic and political power during the 5th and 6th centuries BC under Anaxilas, who reigned as tyrant from 494-476 BC.

Anaxilas conquered Zancle. He was rebuffed; when he died in 476 BC, his two sons were too young to rule, so power was held by their regent Micythus. Under his rule, Rhegion founded a colony, Pyxous in Campania in 471 BC. Hieron I of Syracuse orchestrated Micythus' removal from power in 467 BC, after which Anaxilas' sons ruled on their own until they were deposed in 461 BC. During the Peloponnesian War, Rhegion allied with Athens. An Athenian inscription reports a renewal of this alliance in 433 BC; the Athenians supported Rhegion in a

Daniel Tinte

Daniel Tinte is a pianist from Argentina. Tinte is part of the musical movement known as The Calchaquismo, characterized by the fusion of Argentine folk dance with the improvisation of contemporary jazz and rock music, founded in 1998. Andean rhythms and dances such as the comparsa salteña, the carnavalito, pim pin, zamba salteña, kaluyo and huayno are drawn upon with new compositions and instrumentation; the name "calchaquismo" was inspired by the airs and melodies from the Calchaqui Valley, Lerma Valley and Quebrada de Humahuaca in the Argentine provinces of Salta and Jujuy. Tinte's love of music was inherited from his grandfather, Jose María Tinte, a native of Fuerte Quemado. Tinte studied piano for eight years and began to play popular music in his first rock band at the age of 13. Living in the south of the city of Salta, he belonged to "Inter Consummation" and "The Time Machine", he studied at the School of Music of the Province of Salta, where he has taught keyboard since 1994. In that year, he met guitarist Oscar Echazú.

At the beginning of the 90' in the group "The Tune" began to fuse northern Argentine folklore with contemporary jazz improvisation. He met bassist Oscar Salinas and formed the jazz fusion group "The Region". In 2000 Tinte formed the group "The Street", playing modern jazz composed by Miles Davis, Herbie Hancock, Bill Evans, among others, he was a pianist in solo projects, as were those recognized Argentine Folklorists Patricio Jimenez of Duo Salteño, Enrique "Chichi" Ibarra, Zamba Quipildor. The following year, he joined friends from the School of Music in creating "Ensemble Calchaqui." His compositions began to show the influence of Andean folk music and rock. He recorded his first CD, Northwest Piano, with twenty musicians from Salta and Tucumán in January 2003. Discs included Dance of the Valleys, with the participation of "Teuco New Generation", "The Tonkas" and "Civilization Huayra Callpa". Saltalogia celebrated in music nine major areas of Salta, giving each its rhythmic imprint. Variations of the Puna was recorded in Buenos Aires in 2006 with the participation of musicians from the Symphony Orchestra of Salta.

The discs Jazz Calchaqui, Live in Salta, Vinilograma involved first-class Argentine jazz musicians. All of these discs were released by a major Argentine music label. In 2009 he forms Incayavi Aymara Rock Band, crossing rock and Andean folklore with original poems from the Argentine Northwest. From 2010 onwards, he produces his own electronic music albums in fusion with Argentine and Bolivian folklore, without forgetting the Calchaquí Jazz and chamber music. Having produced by 2017 more than 50 albums in his name, including solo and live piano records. Calchaquismo is a musical movement created by the pianist in 1998; the main characteristics start from the encounter of Argentine folk dances with the improvisation of contemporary jazz and rock music. Danzas and Andean rhythms such as comparsa salteña, pim pin, bailecito, la zamba salteña, kaluyo, la vidala and huayno are approached with new compositions and instrumentation, it takes the name of "calchaquismo" inspired by the airs and melodies of the Valles Calchaquíes, Valle de Lerma and the Quebrada de Humahuaca in the Argentine provinces of Salta and Jujuy.

At the second half of the 20th century, the approach of jazz with world folklores and cultures had its maximum popularity in countries like Brazil and Cuba in Latin jazz. 2003 Northwest Piano 2004 Dance of the Valleys 2005 Saltalogía 2006 Variations of the Puna 2007 Jazz Calchaqui 2008 Incafonismo 2009 Live in Salta 2010 Vinilograma 2010 Comparsero 2011 El Gran Tucma 2011 El Gran Tucma Vol 2 2011 El Soléo 2011 El Gran Tucma Vol 3 2012 Doce Teclas Originarias 2012 Doce Teclas Originarias Vol 2 2012 Invenciones Populares 2012 Purmamarca Jazz 2013 The Groove of the Caciques 2013 Piano Concertos Calchaquistas 2013 Improvisaciones Del Intiraymi 2014 Wankar Blues: Live at Salta Jazz Festival 2013 2014 The Harmony of Silence 2014 Twelve Original Keys Vol 3 2014 8 Sonnets Calchaquíes for Piano 2014 Quisquiri 2014 Pucaraciones 2014 Pucaraciones Vol 2 2014 Jazzometer 2014 Jazzmen Calchaquí 2014 Jazzmen Calchaquí Vol 2 2014 35 Pianazos Diaguitas 2014 Improvisaciones Del Huaytiquina 2015 Ruta 40 2015 Punagroove 2015 Omaguacas Del Sol 2015 Tintetizer 2016 Wiphálico 2016 Mayuko 2016 Electric Joi Joi 2016 Baritú 2016 Calchaquisuyu 2016 Improvisaciones Salteñas Para Piano 2016 Calchaquismo Sound

Cuba–Poland relations

Cuba–Poland relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Cuba and Poland. One of the first Polish migrants to arrive to Cuba was Carlos Roloff who became a General in the Cuban War of Independence from Spain and fought alongside Cuban independence leader José Martí. Between 1920-1928, several hundred Polish families arrived to Cuba, however for most of the migrants, Cuba was a stop-over to the United States. Around this time, 10,000 Polish Jews arrived to Cuba. In 1927, the "Union of Polish People" was founded in Cuba to serve the Polish community in the island-nation. In 1933, Cuba and Poland establish diplomatic relations. After World War II, Poland adopted a communist system of governance. In January 1959, Fidel Castro began to establish ties with communist nations. In 1960, both nations re-establish diplomatic relations and that same year, Cuba opened an embassy in Warsaw. In September 1960, President Fidel Castro met with Polish First Secretary Władysław Gomułka during the United Nations summit in New York City.

In 1962, Polish Foreign Minister Adam Rapacki visited Cuba becoming the first highest ranking Polish official to visit the country. In 1972, Cuban President Fidel Castro paid an official visit to Poland. In January 1975, head of the Polish government, First Secretary Edward Gierek paid an official visit to Cuba. Cuba and Poland established strong diplomatic links during the Cold war. Between 1962-1988 more than 35 thousand Cubans studied in Poland. After the fall of communism in Poland in 1989, relations between the two nations nearly ceased as Poland aligned its interest with the United States. Between 1990-1995, most of the remaining Polish residents in Cuba returned to Poland or immigrated to the United States. In 2009, Poland's equality minister, Elżbieta Radziszewska proposed to expand a Polish law prohibiting the production of fascist and totalitarian propaganda including images of Cuban revolutionary hero Ernesto "Che" Guevara. In June 2017, Polish Foreign Minister Witold Waszczykowski paid an official visit to Cuba, becoming the first high ranking Polish official to visit the country in over 30 years.

Presidential visits from Cuba to Poland President Fidel Castro High-level visits from Poland to Cuba First Secretary Edward Gierek In 2016, 40,000 Polish citizens visited Cuba for tourisim. There are direct charter flights between Poland with LOT Polish Airlines. In 2016, trade between Cuba and Poland totaled $48.7 million USD. Cuba's main exports to Poland include: fish and other seafood, conserved fruit, alcoholic drinks and tobacco. Poland's main exports to Cuba include: dairy products, meat and parts and agricultural equipment. Cuba has an embassy in Warsaw. Poland has an embassy in Havana. Sigmund Sobolewski Stosunki dyplomatyczne Polski. Informator. Tom II Ameryka Północna i Południowa 1918-2007, Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych, Archiwum/Wydawnictwo Askon Warszawa 2008, 224 s. ISBN 978-83-7452-026-3