Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus
Once in a Lifetime (2000 film)
Livet är en schlager is a Swedish film released in 2000, written by Jonas Gardell and written by his usual directing partner Susanne Bier. The film features cameo appearances by many Swedish singers; the film was produced by Nordisk Film and Sveriges Television in association with Sonet Film and TV2 Denmark. The film is based around the life of Mona Berglund, a mother-of-four obsessed with the Eurovision Song Contest - so much so, that her house is decorated with posters of her idols, she has named her children after Swedish Eurovision performers: Kikki, Anna Book, Lena PH and Carola, her partner Bosse is unemployed, she is left to feed the family. Her brother, Candy, is an AIDS-sufferer who designs clothes. David, Mona's employer, a cerebral palsy-sufferer, is a proficient songwriter however, composes a song which Mona steals and sends a demo of into Melodifestivalen, the Swedish heats for the Eurovision contest. Much to Mona's delight, the song qualifies for the finals. Mona's new-found fame takes her to unexpected places, including a TV interview, an invitation to lunch at Berns.
Throughout, the film, Mona is torn as to whether she should reveal that she was not in fact the only writer of her song, thus risk losing the public's support. The film features several songs by well-known Swedish singers, such as "If Life Was a Song", performed by Carola Häggkvist, "I Believe in Miracles" performed by Lena Philipsson and "Kärleksikonen" performed by Regina Lund; the film features the song "Aldrig ska jag sluta älska dig" performed by Helena Bergström, released by Gardell, "Handen på hjärtat" performed by Sofia Källgren. "Handen på hjärtat" was performed by Björn Kjellman feat. Salome. Helena Bergström as Mona Jonas Karlsson as David Björn Kjellman as Candy Darling Thomas Hanzon as Bosse Sissela Kyle as Woman at the employment office Katarina Ewerlöf as Moa, project manager Regina Lund as Sabina Douglas Johansson as Hairdresser Jessica Zandén as Woman at the café Frida Hallgren as TV engineer Review from Filmtipset.se Livet är en schlager on IMDb
Madagascar (2005 film)
Madagascar is a 2005 American computer-animated adventure comedy film produced by DreamWorks Animation and distributed by DreamWorks Pictures. It was directed by Eric Darnell and Tom McGrath from a screenplay by Mark Burton, Billy Frolick, McGrath, features the voices of Ben Stiller, Chris Rock, David Schwimmer, Jada Pinkett Smith, with Sacha Baron Cohen, Cedric the Entertainer, Andy Richter voicing secondary characters; the film's plot revolves on four animals from the Central Park Zoo who unexpectedly find themselves stranded on the island of Madagascar, must learn to adapt to the wild. Madagascar was released to theaters on May 27, 2005. Despite its mixed critical reception, it was a success at the box office; the film launched a franchise with a series of films, including the sequel Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa in 2008 and another film Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted in 2012. A spin-off featuring the series' penguin characters, Penguins of Madagascar, was released on November 26, 2014.
At the Central Park Zoo, Marty the zebra is celebrating his 10th birthday, but has grown bored with his daily routine and longs to experience the wild. Marty's best friend is Alex the lion, who enjoys showing off for the public and his celebrity status as "the King of New York City" attempts to cheer Marty up, but Marty, still unsatisfied, gets some tips from the zoo's penguins—Skipper, Kowalski and Private—who are trying to escape the zoo, follows them out. Alex, Melman the giraffe, Gloria the hippopotamus pursue Marty in an attempt to convince him to return; the four, along with the penguins and two chimpanzees named Mason and Phil, find themselves at Grand Central Terminal, where they are sedated via tranquillizer when Alex's attempt to communicate with humans is mistaken for aggression. The zoo, under pressure from anti-captivity activists, is forced to ship the escaped animals by sea to a Kenyan wildlife preserve. During their travels, the penguins escape from their enclosure and take over the ship, intent on taking it to Antarctica.
Their antics on the bridge cause the crates containing Alex, Marty and Gloria to fall overboard and wash ashore on Madagascar, because the strap securing the crates broke off due to Alex and Marty fighting. The animals are soon able to regroup believing themselves to be at the San Diego Zoo. Upon exploring, they come across a pack of lemurs, led by King Julien XIII the ring-tailed lemur, learn their true location. Alex attempts to signal for help to get back to civilization. Marty, on the other hand, finds the wild to be what he was looking for, with Gloria and Melman soon joining him in enjoying the island after getting tired of Alex's arrogance. Alex having a change of heart, comes around, deprived from the raw steaks he was provided with at the zoo, his prey drive begins to show as hunger kicks in; the group is accepted by the lemurs, though King Julien XIII's adviser, Maurice the aye-aye, cautions them about Alex's predatory nature. King Julien XIII ignores Maurice's concerns and persuades the group to help the lemurs fend off the fossa, who hunt the lemurs as prey.
While Alex scares the fossa away and is worshiped by the lemurs compelled by hunger, he attacks Marty. Realizing that Alex is now a threat, King Julien banishes him to the far side of the island where the fossa live. Seeing what has happened to Alex, how difficult it is to survive with so many predators around the island, Marty begins to regret his decision to leave the zoo; the penguins, having been to Antarctica and found it not to their liking, land the ship at Madagascar. Seeing this as a chance to return Alex to New York, Marty rushes after his friend against the wishes of Melman and Gloria. Marty attempts to convince the now grizzled, starving Alex to return, but Alex refuses out of fear of attacking Marty again; the penguins and Melman go to find Marty, but are trapped by the fossa. At the last minute, Alex overcomes his predatory instincts and scares the fossa away from the lemur territory forever; the lemurs regain their respect for Alex, the penguins help him satisfy his hunger through sushi.
As the lemurs throw a farewell celebration for the foursome, the penguins decide not to break the news that the ship has run out of fuel. Ben Stiller as Alex, a lion. Tom McGrath explained that "Ben Stiller was the first actor we asked to perform, we knew we wanted his character, Alex, to be a big performing lion with a vulnerable side." Chris Rock as Marty, a plains zebra. McGrath explained the character: "Marty is a guy who thinks there might be more to life than what's in the zoo. We wanted his character to be energetic, so we listened to Chris Rock." David Schwimmer as Melman, a hypochondriac reticulated giraffe, afraid of germs. When they were looking for a voice actor for Melman, they listened to Schwimmer's voice on Friends and, according to McGrath, thought that it "sounded neat." Jada Pinkett Smith as Gloria, a strong, but sweet hippopotamus. McGrath said. Sacha Baron Cohen as King Julien XIII, a ring-tailed lemur and the king of the lemurs. King Julien was only meant to be a "two-line" character until auditioning Baron Cohen improvised eight minutes of dialogue in an Indian accent.
Cedric the Entertainer as Maurice, an aye-aye and King Julien's royal advisor. Andy Richter as Mort, a Goodman's mouse lemur. Tom McGrath as Skipper, the leader of penguins. McGrath, the film's co-director and co-writer only lent his voice to the temporary tracks. Growing up with films starring tough actors like John Wayne, Charlton Heston, Robert Stack, McGrath wanted Stack for the voi
Of Mice and Men (play)
Of Mice and Men is a play adapted from John Steinbeck's 1937 novel of the same name. The play, which predates the Tony Awards and the Drama Desk Awards, earned the 1938 New York Drama Critics' Circle Best Play; the 1937 production opened. At the time, George S. Kaufman was the top director in the country. While the play follows the novel Steinbeck altered the character of Curley's Wife in response to criticisms from friends. In the play, Curley's wife does not threaten to have Crooks lynched, in her final scene she talks of her childhood and her father trying to run away with her; this has the effect of portraying her as lonely and misunderstood. George, an affable migrant farm worker, Lennie, a towering simple-minded pleasantly humble young man, are the subjects, they are bound by George's devotion and Lennie's "pathetic helplessness". George's guardianship keeps Lennie out of trouble. Lennie's displays of love result in several deaths ranging from mice and puppies to a beautiful woman. In the face of a lynch mob, George kills Lennie to put him out of his misery.
Steinbeck adapted the play from the novel. The play had its world premiere circa October 1937 by the San Francisco Theatre Union The play premiered on Broadway at the Music Box Theatre on November 23, 1937 and closed in May 1938 after 207 performances. Directed by George S. Kaufman, the cast starred Broderick Crawford as Lennie and Wallace Ford as George. In 1939 the production was moved to Los Angeles, still with Wallace Ford in the role of George, but with Lon Chaney, Jr. taking on the role of Lennie. Chaney's performance in the role resulted in his casting in the movie. There have been several revivals, the most recent produced in 2014, directed by Anna D. Shapiro with James Franco, Chris O'Dowd and Leighton Meester. By the Book Theatre's production won 6 Brickenden Awards including Outstanding Drama, Set Design, Supporting Actor, Lighting Design; the following tables show the casts of the principal original productions: The production was chosen as Best Play in 1938 by the New York Drama Critics' Circle.
The 2014 production earned two Tony Award nominations at the 68th Tony Awards. Brooks Atkinson of The New York Times wrote that "Steinbeck has caught on paper two odd and lovable farm vagrants whose fate is implicit in their characters." Of Mice and Men at the Internet Broadway Database Of Mice and Men at the Internet Broadway Database Of Mice and Men at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
Greta Garbo was a Swedish-American film actress during the 1920s and 1930s. Garbo was nominated three times for the Academy Award for Best Actress and received an Academy Honorary Award in 1954 for her "luminous and unforgettable screen performances." In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked Garbo fifth on their list of the greatest female stars of classic Hollywood cinema. Garbo launched her career with a secondary role in the 1924 Swedish film The Saga of Gösta Berling, her performance caught the attention of Louis B. Mayer, chief executive of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, who brought her to Hollywood in 1925, she stirred interest with her first silent film, released in 1926. Garbo's first talking film was Anna Christie. MGM marketers enticed the public with the tagline "Garbo talks!" That same year she starred in Romance. For her performances in these films she received the first of three Academy Award nominations for Best Actress.. In 1932, her popularity allowed her to dictate the terms of her contract and she became selective about her roles.
Her success continued in films such as Grand Hotel. Many critics and film historians consider her performance as the doomed courtesan Marguerite Gautier in Camille to be her finest; the role gained her a second Academy Award nomination. Garbo's career soon declined and she was one of the many stars labeled "box office poison" in 1938, her career revived upon her turn to comedy in Ninotchka, which earned her a third Academy Award nomination, but after the failure of Two-Faced Woman, she retired from the screen, at the age of 35, after acting in twenty-eight films. From on, Garbo declined all opportunities to return to the screen. Shunning publicity, she led a private life. Garbo became an art collector in her life. Greta Lovisa Gustafsson was born in Södermalm, Sweden, she was the third and youngest child of Anna Lovisa, a housewife who worked at a jam factory, Karl Alfred Gustafsson, a laborer. Garbo had an older brother, Sven Alfred, an older sister, Alva Maria, her parents met in Stockholm. He moved to Stockholm to become independent and worked in various odd jobs—street cleaner, factory worker and butcher's assistant.
He married Anna, who had moved from Högsby. The Gustafssons were impoverished and lived in a three-bedroom cold-water flat at Blekingegatan No. 32. They brought up their three children in a working class district regarded as the city's slum. Garbo would recall: It was eternally grey—those long winter's nights. My father would be sitting in a corner. On the other side of the room my mother is sighing. We children would be talking in low voices, or just sitting silently. We were filled with anxiety; such evenings are unforgettable for a sensitive girl. Where we lived, all the houses and apartments looked alike, their ugliness matched by everything surrounding us. Garbo was a shy daydreamer as a child, she preferred to play alone. Yet she was an imaginative child and a natural leader who became interested in theatre at an early age, she dreamed of becoming an actress. She would participate in amateur theatre with her friends and frequent the Mosebacke Theatre. At the age of 13, Garbo graduated from school, typical of a Swedish working class girl at that time, she did not attend high school.
She acknowledged a resulting inferiority complex. In the winter of 1919, the Spanish flu spread throughout Stockholm, Garbo's father, to whom she was close, became ill, he began missing work and lost his job. Garbo stayed at home taking him to the hospital for weekly treatments, he died in 1920. Garbo first worked as a soap-lather girl in a barber's shop but on the advice of her friends, applied for, accepted, a position in the PUB department store, running errands and working in the millinery department. Before long, she began modeling hats for the store's catalogues, which led to a more lucrative job as a fashion model. In late 1920, a director of film commercials for the store began casting Garbo in roles advertising women's clothing, her first commercial was followed by others the following year. Thus began Garbo's cinematic career. In 1922, Garbo caught the attention of director Erik Arthur Petschler who gave her a part in his short comedy, Peter the Tramp. From 1922 to 1924, she studied at the Royal Dramatic Theatre's Acting School in Stockholm.
She was recruited in 1924 by the prominent Finnish director Mauritz Stiller to play a principal part in his classic film The Saga of Gösta Berling, a dramatization of the famous novel by Nobel Prize winner Selma Lagerlöf. She played opposite a well-known Swedish actor. Stiller became her mentor, training her as a film actress and managing all aspects of her nascent career, she followed her role in Gösta Berling with a starring role in the 1925 German film Die freudlose Gasse, directed by G. W. Pabst and co-starring As
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Swedes are a North Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden. They inhabit Sweden and the other Nordic countries, in particular Finland, with a substantial diaspora in other countries the United States; the English term "Swede" has been attested in English since the late 16th century and is of Middle Dutch or Middle Low German origin. In Swedish, the term is svensk, believed to have been derived from the name of svear, the people who inhabited Svealand in eastern central Sweden, were listed as Suiones in Tacitus' history Germania from the 1st century AD; the term is believed to have been derived from the Proto-Indo-European reflexive pronominal root, *se, as the Latin suus. The word must have meant "one's own"; the same root and original meaning is found in the ethnonym of the Germanic tribe Suebi, preserved to this day in the name Swabia. Sweden enters proto-history with the Germania of Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44, 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow in both ends.
Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC. As for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has survived from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating that the people of south Scandinavia spoke Proto-Norse at the time, a language ancestral to Swedish and other North Germanic languages. In the 6th century Jordanes named two tribes, which he calls the Suehans and the Suetidi, who lived in Scandza; these two names are both considered to refer to the same tribe. The Suehans, he says, has fine horses just as the Thyringi tribe; the Icelander Snorri Sturluson wrote of the 6th-century Swedish king Adils that he had the finest horses of his days. The Suehans supplied black fox-skins for the Roman market. Jordanes names the Suetidi, considered to be the Latin form of Svitjod.
He writes that the Suetidi are the tallest of men—together with the Dani, who were of the same stock. He mentions other Scandinavian tribes as being of the same height. Originating in semi-legendary Scandza, a Gothic population had crossed the Baltic Sea before the 2nd century AD, they reaching Scythia on the coast of the Black Sea in modern Ukraine, where Goths left their archaeological traces in the Chernyakhov culture. In the 5th and 6th centuries, they became divided as the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, established powerful successor-states of the Roman Empire in the Iberian peninsula and Italy respectively. Crimean Gothic communities appear to have survived intact in the Crimea until the late-18th century; the Swedish Viking Age lasted between the 8th and 11th centuries. During this period, it is believed that the Swedes expanded from eastern Sweden and incorporated the Geats to the south, it is believed that Swedish Vikings and Gutar travelled east and south, going to Finland, the Baltic countries, Belarus, Ukraine the Black Sea and further as far as Baghdad.
Their routes passed through the Dnieper down south to Constantinople, on which they did numerous raids. The Byzantine Emperor Theophilos noticed their great skills in war and invited them to serve as his personal bodyguard, known as the varangian guard; the Swedish Vikings, called "Rus" are believed to be the founding fathers of Kievan Rus. The Arabic traveller Ibn Fadlan described these Vikings as following: I have seen the Rus as they came on their merchant journeys and encamped by the Itil. I have never seen more perfect physical specimens, tall as date palms and ruddy; each man has an axe, a sword, a knife, keeps each by him at all times. The swords are grooved, of Frankish sort; the adventures of these Swedish Vikings are commemorated on many runestones in Sweden, such as the Greece Runestones and the Varangian Runestones. There was considerable participation in expeditions westwards, which are commemorated on stones such as the England Runestones; the last major Swedish Viking expedition appears to have been the ill-fated expedition of Ingvar the Far-Travelled to Serkland, the region south-east of the Caspian Sea.
Its members are commemorated on the Ingvar Runestones. What happened to the crew is unknown, it is not known when and how the'kingdom of Sweden' was born, but the list of Swedish monarchs is drawn from the first kings who ruled both Svealand and Götaland as one province with Erik the Victorious. Sweden and Gothia were two separate nations long before that into antiquity, it is not known how long they existed, Beowulf described semi-legendary Swedish-Geatish wars in the 6th century. During the early stages of the Scandinavian Viking Age, Ystad in Scania and Paviken on Gotland, in present-day Sweden, were flourishing trade centres. Remains of what is believed to have been a large market have been found in Ystad dating from 600–700 AD. In Paviken, an important centre of trade in the Baltic region during the 9th and 10th centuries, remains have been found of a large Viking Age harbour with shipbuilding yards and handicraft industries. Between 800 and 1000, trade brought an abundance of silver to Gotland, according to some scholars, the Gotlanders of