National University of Mongolia
The National University of Mongolia is the oldest university in Mongolia, established in 1942 and named in honour of Marshal Khorloogiin Choibalsan. It hosts twelve schools and faculties in Ulaanbaatar, runs branches in the Zavkhan and Orkhon Aimags, it has been estimated that one third of the academically educated Mongolians are affiliated with NUM. After Mongolia's first modern secondary school was established in 1921, it was necessary to bring in an academic institution at an higher level. In 1942, the Government put forth Mongolia's first university, the National University of Mongolia, with the first students graduating in 1946. During socialism, the University served as a training center for the party elite. Education was paid for and controlled by the state. After democratization, it changed into a more modern university. In 1995, it started to offer bachelor's, master's, PhD programs; as of 2018, there were over 18,000 students enrolled in various programs taught in Mongolian. The National University of Mongolia was established on October 5, 1942, as the first modern university in Mongolia.
The faculties were Pedagogy and Veterinarian Sciences. Agriculture, Natural Sciences, Mongolian Studies, Foreign Languages, as well as research activities were added shortly thereafter. Part of its operation were supported by staff and materials provided by the Soviet Union. Sir Mashlai T. who at the time was the Minister of Education was in the charge of supervising the architechture work. Some of these initial faculties spun off into separate universities, including the Agricultural University in 1958, the Medical University in 1961, as well as the Technical University and the University of Humanities in 1982. In 1942, 93 students and 53 students enrolled to the preparation course in the University, the first graduation was held in 1946, with 35 students. In 1959, the rectorate of the university was changed to the Mongolian party. Namsrain Sodnom, a graduate of the university, was appointed as the first Mongolian president, while Ts. Sürenkhorloo was appointed as the vice-president for academic affairs.
In 1947, a postgraduate faculty was founded in order to prepare university scientists. In 1994, 13 students were awarded master's degrees. In 1997, the department of postgraduate affairs was established with the purpose to increase the number of postgraduate students. School of Business School of International Relations and Public Administration School of Law School of Engineering and Applied Sciences School of Arts and Sciences Foreign Language School in Orkhon Province Economics College in Zavkhan Province NUM is a member of the following organizations: Consortium of Mongolian Universities and Colleges International Association of Universities University Mobility in Asia and the Pacific Council on International Educational Exchange Euro-Asian University Network It has cooperation agreements with more than 242 academic and research centers all over the world. Galsan Tschinag Altangerel Perle Tumen Dashtseveg Official website
Convention on Biological Diversity
The Convention on Biological Diversity, known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty. The Convention has three main goals including: the conservation of biological diversity. In other words, its objective is to develop national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, it is seen as the key document regarding sustainable development. The Convention was opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro on 5 June 1992 and entered into force on 29 December 1993. CBD has two supplementary agreements - Nagoya Protocol; the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international treaty governing the movements of living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology from one country to another. It was adopted on 29 January 2000 as a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity and entered into force on 11 September 2003; the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity is a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity.
It provides a transparent legal framework for the effective implementation of one of the three objectives of the CBD: the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. The Nagoya Protocol on ABS was adopted on 29 October 2010 in Nagoya and entered into force on 12 October 2014, 90 days after the deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, its objective is the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources, thereby contributing to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. The notion of an international convention on bio-diversity was conceived at a United Nations Environment Programme Ad Hoc Working Group of Experts on Biological Diversity in November 1988; the subsequent year, the Ad Hoc Working Group of Technical and Legal Experts was established for the drafting of a legal text which addressed the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, as well as the sharing of benefits arising from their utilization with sovereign states and local communities.
In 1991, an intergovernmental negotiating committee was established, tasked with finalizing the convention's text. A Conference for the Adoption of the Agreed Text of the Convention on Biological Diversity was held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1992, its conclusions were distilled in the Nairobi Final Act; the Convention's text was opened for signature on 5 June 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. By its closing date, 4 June 1993, the convention had received 168 signatures, it entered into force on 29 December 1993. The convention recognized for the first time in international law that the conservation of biodiversity is "a common concern of humankind" and is an integral part of the development process; the agreement covers all ecosystems and genetic resources. It links traditional conservation efforts to the economic goal of using biological resources sustainably, it sets principles for the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources, notably those destined for commercial use.
It covers the expanding field of biotechnology through its Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, addressing technology development and transfer, benefit-sharing and biosafety issues. The Convention is binding; the convention reminds decision-makers that natural resources are not infinite and sets out a philosophy of sustainable use. While past conservation efforts were aimed at protecting particular species and habitats, the Convention recognizes that ecosystems and genes must be used for the benefit of humans. However, this should be done in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the long-term decline of biological diversity; the convention offers decision-makers guidance based on the precautionary principle which demands that where there is a threat of significant reduction or loss of biological diversity, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing measures to avoid or minimize such a threat. The Convention acknowledges that substantial investments are required to conserve biological diversity.
It argues, that conservation will bring us significant environmental and social benefits in return. The Convention on Biological Diversity of 2010 banned some forms of geoengineering; some of the many issues dealt with under the convention include: Measures the incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. Regulated access to genetic resources and traditional knowledge, including Prior Informed Consent of the party providing resources. Sharing, in a fair and equitable way, the results of research and development and the benefits arising from the commercial and other utilization of genetic resources with the Contracting Party providing such resources. Access to and transfer of technology, including biotechnology, to the governments and/or local communities that provided traditional knowledge and/or biodiversity resources. Technical and scientific cooperation. Coordination of a global directory of taxonomic expertise. Impact assessment. Education and public awareness.
Provision of financial resources. National reporting on effort
Zoological Society of London
The Zoological Society of London is a charity devoted to the worldwide conservation of animals and their habitats. It was founded in 1826. On 29 November 1822, the birthday of John Ray, “the father of modern zoology”, a meeting held in the Linnean Society in Soho Square led by Rev. William Kirby, resolved to form a "Zoological Club of the Linnean Society of London". Between 1816 and 1826 discussions between Stamford Raffles, Humphry Davy, Joseph Banks and others led to the idea that London should have an establishment similar to the Jardin des Plantes in Paris, it would house a zoological collection "which should interest and amuse the public." The society was founded in April 1826 by Sir Stamford Raffles, the Marquess of Lansdowne, Lord Auckland, Sir Humphry Davy, Robert Peel, Joseph Sabine, Nicholas Aylward Vigors along with various other nobility and naturalists. Raffles was the first chairman and president, but died after only a few months in office, in July 1826, he was succeeded by the Marquess of Lansdowne who supervised the building of the first animal houses, a parcel of land in Regent's Park having been obtained from the Crown at the inaugural meeting.
It received a Royal Charter from George IV on 27 March 1829. The purpose of the society was to create a collection of animals for study at leisure, an associated museum and library. In April 1828 the Zoological Gardens were opened to members. In 1831 William IV presented the Royal Menagerie to the Zoological Society, in 1847 the public were admitted to aid funding, Londoners soon christened the Zoological Gardens the "Zoo". London Zoo soon had the most extensive collection of animals in the world. A History of the ZSL, written by Henry Scherren, was published in 1905; the History was criticised as inadequately researched by Peter Chalmers Mitchell in 1929. As the twentieth century began, the need to maintain and research large animals in a more natural environment became clear. Peter Chalmers Mitchell conceived the vision of a new park no more than 70 miles away from London and thus accessible to the public, at least 200 acres in extent. In 1926, profiting from the agricultural depression, the ideal place was found: Hall Farm, near Whipsnade village, was derelict, held 600 acres on the Chiltern Hills.
ZSL bought the farm in December 1926 for £13,480 12s 10d. In 1928 the first animals arrived at the new Whipsnade Park – two Amherst pheasants, a golden pheasant and five red jungle fowl. Others soon followed, including muntjac deer, llamas and skunks. In 1931 Whipsnade Park was opened to the public as the world's first open zoological park. In 1960–61, Lord Zuckerman Secretary of ZSL, raised funds from two medical foundations to found laboratories as an Institute of Zoology where scientists would be employed by ZSL and undertake research. In June 2015 ZSL rebranded, taking on a new tagline - "Let's Work for Wildlife"; the new brand will be used to boost awareness in the UK and beyond of ZSL’s global conservation programmes, scientific research and wildlife education through the charity’s two zoos. The Society is a registered charity under English law; the Institute of Zoology is the scientific research division of the ZSL. It is a government-funded research institute, which specialises in scientific issues relevant to the conservation of species and their habitats.
The Institute of Zoology focuses its research on five areas: evolutionary biology, ecology, reproductive biology and wildlife epidemiology. The Institute of Zoology was graded 4 in the 1997–2001 UK Research Assessment Exercise, publishes reports annually. From the late 1980s the Institute of Zoology had been affiliated to the University of London. However, in 2000 this was replaced with a partnership with the University of Cambridge. ZSL runs ZSL London Zoo, ZSL Whipsnade Zoo and had planned to open an aquarium, Biota!. The society published the Zoological Record from 1864 to 1980, when the ZR was transferred to BIOSIS; the Society has published the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, now called the Journal of Zoology, since 1830. Since 1998 it has published Animal Conservation. Other publications include the International Zoo Yearbook; the society administers the following award programmes: Frink Medal Stamford Raffles Award Silver Medal Scientific Medal Marsh Award for Conservation Biology Marsh Award for Marine and Freshwater Conservation Thomson Reuters/Zoological Record Award for Communicating Zoology Prince Philip Award and Marsh Prize Charles Darwin Award and Marsh Prize Thomas Henry Huxley Award and Marsh Prize the Landseer Medal Individuals can be elected Fellows of the Zoological Society of London and therefore granted the post-nominal letters FZS.
The ZSL's Honorary Fellows include: 1975 Professor Jean Anthony, Professor Jean Dorst 1977 HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh 1984 Professor Ernst Mayr 1988 Professor Milton Thiago de Mello 1990 Professor Knut Schmidt-Nielsen 1991 Emperor Akihito of Japan 1992 Professor Edward Wilson 1996 Professor John Maynard Smith 1997 The Hon. Miriam Rothschild 1998 Sir David Attenborough 1999 Sir Robert May 2001 Professor Patrick Bateson 2002 Professor Robert McNeill Alexander 2002 Dr William G. Conway 2003 Professor Sir Brian Follett 2004 Sir Martin Holdgate 2005 Professor Sir John Krebs, Professor Katherine Ralls, Professor Sir Brian Heap 2006 Professor Sir John Lawton 2007 Professor John Beddington 2011 Lord Moser 2012 Dr Desmond Morris 2013 Ken Sims The Council is the governing body of the ZSL. There are 15 Council members, served by the Secretary and Treasurer. Council members serve for up to five years at a time; the Presidency is
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives. It is characterized by both biological features. A species' habitat is those places where it can find food, shelter and mates for reproduction; the physical factors are for example soil, range of temperature, light intensity as well as biotic factors such as the availability of food and the presence or absence of predators. Every organism has certain habitat needs for the conditions in which it will thrive, but some are tolerant of wide variations while others are specific in their requirements. A habitat is not a geographical area, it can be the interior of a stem, a rotten log, a rock or a clump of moss, for a parasitic organism it is the body of its host, part of the host's body such as the digestive tract, or a single cell within the host's body. Habitat types include polar, temperate and tropical; the terrestrial vegetation type may be forest, grassland, semi-arid or desert. Fresh water habitats include marshes, rivers and ponds, marine habitats include salt marshes, the coast, the intertidal zone, reefs, the open sea, the sea bed, deep water and submarine vents.
Habitats change over time. This may be due to a violent event such as the eruption of a volcano, an earthquake, a tsunami, a wildfire or a change in oceanic currents. Other changes come as a direct result of human activities; the introduction of alien species can have a devastating effect on native wildlife, through increased predation, through competition for resources or through the introduction of pests and diseases to which the native species have no immunity. The word "habitat" has been in use since about 1755 and derives from the Latin habitāre, to inhabit, from habēre, to have or to hold. Habitat can be defined as the natural environment of an organism, the type of place in which it is natural for it to live and grow, it is similar in meaning to a biotope. The chief environmental factors affecting the distribution of living organisms are temperature, climate, soil type and light intensity, the presence or absence of all the requirements that the organism needs to sustain it. Speaking, animal communities are reliant on specific types of plant communities.
Some plants and animals are generalists, their habitat requirements are met in a wide range of locations. The small white butterfly for example is found on all the continents of the world apart from Antarctica, its larvae feed on a wide range of Brassicas and various other plant species, it thrives in any open location with diverse plant associations. The large blue butterfly is much more specific in its requirements. Disturbance is important in the creation of biodiverse habitats. In the absence of disturbance, a climax vegetation cover develops that prevents the establishment of other species. Wildflower meadows are sometimes created by conservationists but most of the flowering plants used are either annuals or biennials and disappear after a few years in the absence of patches of bare ground on which their seedlings can grow. Lightning strikes and toppled trees in tropical forests allow species richness to be maintained as pioneering species move in to fill the gaps created. Coastal habitats can become dominated by kelp until the seabed is disturbed by a storm and the algae swept away, or shifting sediment exposes new areas for colonisation.
Another cause of disturbance is when an area may be overwhelmed by an invasive introduced species, not kept under control by natural enemies in its new habitat. Terrestrial habitat types include forests, grasslands and deserts. Within these broad biomes are more specific habitats with varying climate types, temperature regimes, soils and vegetation types. Many of these habitats grade into each other and each one has its own typical communities of plants and animals. A habitat may suit a particular species well, but its presence or absence at any particular location depends to some extent on chance, on its dispersal abilities and its efficiency as a coloniser. Freshwater habitats include rivers, lakes, ponds and bogs. Although some organisms are found across most of these habitats, the majority have more specific requirements; the water velocity, its temperature and oxygen saturation are important factors, but in river systems, there are fast and slow sections, pools and backwaters which provide a range of habitats.
Aquatic plants can be floating, semi-submerged, submerged or grow in permanently or temporarily saturated soils besides bodies of water. Marginal plants provide important habitat for both invertebrates and vertebrates, submerged plants provide oxygenation of the water, absorb nutrients and play a part in the reduction of pollution. Marine habitats include brackish water, bays, the open sea, the intertidal zone, the sea bed and deep / shallow water zones. Further variations include rock pools, sand banks, brackish lagoons and pebbly beaches, seagrass beds, all supporting their own flora and fauna; the benth
Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is greater near the equator, the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth, is richest in the tropics; these tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 percent of earth's surface, contain about 90 percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity is highest along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest, in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity. Biodiversity tends to cluster in hotspots, has been increasing through time, but will be to slow in the future. Rapid environmental changes cause mass extinctions. More than 99.9 percent of all species that lived on Earth, amounting to over five billion species, are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described.
More in May 2016, scientists reported that 1 trillion species are estimated to be on Earth with only one-thousandth of one percent described. The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 1037 and weighs 50 billion tonnes. In comparison, the total mass of the biosphere has been estimated to be as much as 4 TtC. In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes from the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all organisms living on Earth; the age of the Earth is about 4.54 billion years. The earliest undisputed evidence of life on Earth dates at least from 3.5 billion years ago, during the Eoarchean Era after a geological crust started to solidify following the earlier molten Hadean Eon. There are microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone discovered in Western Australia. Other early physical evidence of a biogenic substance is graphite in 3.7 billion-year-old meta-sedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland. More in 2015, "remains of biotic life" were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia.
According to one of the researchers, "If life arose quickly on Earth.. it could be common in the universe."Since life began on Earth, five major mass extinctions and several minor events have led to large and sudden drops in biodiversity. The Phanerozoic eon marked a rapid growth in biodiversity via the Cambrian explosion—a period during which the majority of multicellular phyla first appeared; the next 400 million years included repeated, massive biodiversity losses classified as mass extinction events. In the Carboniferous, rainforest collapse led to a great loss of animal life; the Permian–Triassic extinction event, 251 million years ago, was the worst. The most recent, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, occurred 65 million years ago and has attracted more attention than others because it resulted in the extinction of the dinosaurs; the period since the emergence of humans has displayed an ongoing biodiversity reduction and an accompanying loss of genetic diversity. Named the Holocene extinction, the reduction is caused by human impacts habitat destruction.
Conversely, biodiversity positively impacts human health in a number of ways, although a few negative effects are studied. The United Nations designated 2011–2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity. 1916 - The term biological diversity was used first by J. Arthur Harris in "The Variable Desert," Scientific American, JSTOR 6182: "The bare statement that the region contains a flora rich in genera and species and of diverse geographic origin or affinity is inadequate as a description of its real biological diversity." 1975 - The term natural diversity was introduced 1980 - Thomas Lovejoy introduced the term biological diversity to the scientific community in a book.. It became used. 1985 -The contracted form biodiversity was coined by W. G. Rosen 1985 - The term "biodiversity" appears in the article, "A New Plan to Conserve the Earth's Biota" by Laura Tangley. 1988 - The term biodiversity first appeared in a publication. The present - the term has achieved widespread use. "Biodiversity" is most used to replace the more defined and long established terms, species diversity and species richness.
Biologists most define biodiversity as the "totality of genes and ecosystems of a region". An advantage of this definition is that it seems to describe most circumstances and presents a unified view of the traditional types of biological variety identified: taxonomic diversity ecological diversity morphological diversity functional diversity This multilevel construct is consistent with Datman and Lovejoy. An explicit definition consistent with this interpretation was first given in a paper by Bruce A. Wilcox commissioned by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources for the 1982 World National Parks Conference. Wilcox's definition was "Biological diversity is the variety of life forms...at all levels of biologi
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, in a ring species. Among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, each clone is a microspecies. All species are given a two-part name, a "binomial"; the first part of a binomial is the genus.
The second part is called the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the genus Boa. None of these is satisfactory definitions, but scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If species were fixed and distinct from one another, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, to grade into one another. Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped. Charles Darwin's 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection; that understanding was extended in the 20th century through genetics and population ecology. Genetic variability arises from mutations and recombination, while organisms themselves are mobile, leading to geographical isolation and genetic drift with varying selection pressures.
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal gene transfer. Viruses are a special case, driven by a balance of mutation and selection, can be treated as quasispecies. Biologists and taxonomists have made many attempts to define species, beginning from morphology and moving towards genetics. Early taxonomists such as Linnaeus had no option but to describe what they saw: this was formalised as the typological or morphological species concept. Ernst Mayr emphasised reproductive isolation, but this, like other species concepts, is hard or impossible to test. Biologists have tried to refine Mayr's definition with the recognition and cohesion concepts, among others. Many of the concepts are quite similar or overlap, so they are not easy to count: the biologist R. L. Mayden recorded about 24 concepts, the philosopher of science John Wilkins counted 26. Wilkins further grouped the species concepts into seven basic kinds of concepts: agamospecies for asexual organisms biospecies for reproductively isolated sexual organisms ecospecies based on ecological niches evolutionary species based on lineage genetic species based on gene pool morphospecies based on form or phenotype and taxonomic species, a species as determined by a taxonomist.
A typological species is a group of organisms in which individuals conform to certain fixed properties, so that pre-literate people recognise the same taxon as do modern taxonomists. The clusters of variations or phenotypes within specimens would differentiate the species; this method was used as a "classical" method of determining species, such as with Linnaeus early in evolutionary theory. However, different phenotypes are not different species. Species named in this manner are called morphospecies. In the 1970s, Robert R. Sokal, Theodore J. Crovello and Peter Sneath proposed a variation on this, a phenetic species, defined as a set of organisms with a similar phenotype to each other, but a different phenotype from other sets of organisms, it differs from the morphological species concept in including a numerical measure of distance or similarity to cluster entities based on multivariate comparisons of a reasonably large number of phenotypic traits. A mate-recognition species is a group of sexually reproducing organisms that recognize one another as potential mates.
Expanding on this to allow for post-mating isolation, a cohesion species is the most inclusive population of individuals having the potential for phenotypic cohesion through intrinsic cohesion mechanisms. A further development of the recognition concept is provided by the biosemiotic concept of species. In microbiology, genes can move even between distantly related bacteria extending to the whole bacterial domain; as a rule of thumb, microbiologists have assumed that kinds of Bacteria or Archaea with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences more similar than 97% to each other need to be checked by DNA-DNA hybridisation to decide if they belong to the same species or not. This concept was narrowed in 2006 to a similarity of 98.7%. DNA-DNA hybri
United Kingdom Biodiversity Action Plan
The United Kingdom Biodiversity Action Plan or was the UK government's response to the Convention on Biological Diversity, opened for signature at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992. The UK was the first country to produce a national Biodiversity Action Plan, it was published in 1994 and created action plans for priority species and habitats in the UK that were most under threat so as to support their recovery. The UK Biodiversity Action Plan summarised the most threatened or declining biological resources of the United Kingdom, gave detailed plans for their conservation. Individual'Action Plans' were provided for these habitats and species, a reporting mechanism was established to demonstrate how the UK BAP was contributing to the United Kingdom's commitment to help reduce or halt the significant losses in global biodiversity, highlighted by the international Convention on Biological Diversity; the original publication included action plans for 45 habitats and 391 species, each identified either as being globally threatened, or where evidence showed there had been a rapid decline of those resources within the UK.
Although focused on England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and the UK Crown dependencies, the UK Biodiversity Action Plan addressed issues of declining species and habitats overseas in the UK Dependant Territories and British-held territories in Antarctica. At the launch of Biodiversity: The UK Action Plan in January 1994, the UK Prime Minister announced the formation of a'Biodiversity Steering Group', drawing on experts from key conservation organisations and government agencies, it was tasked with identifying and preparing costed action plans for priority species and habitats by 1995, with developing methodologies for monitoring progress and improving public awareness and access to biodiversity information. In 1995 the Biodiversity Steering Group published a two-volume report, the second part of which contained three important lists of species: a'Long List' contained 1252 species, selected using broad criteria; the criteria for selection as a Biodiversity Action Plan species on the'long list' were: being a threatened UK endemic or other globally threatened species.
After devolution in 1998, England and Scotland had all developed their own individual biodiversity strategies by 2002, with Northern Ireland following shortly afterwards, whilst still collaborating together. By 2007 the criteria used to select priority habitats and priority species had been reviewed and the lists updated to propose that 40 UK BAP habitats and 1,149 species were included in the UK priority lists, a further 123 species were proposed for removal; as of 2009 1,150 species and 65 habitats were identified as needing conservation and greater protection and were covered by UK BAPs. The updated list included the hedgehog, house sparrow, grass snake and the garden tiger moth, while otters, bottlenose dolphins and red squirrels remained in need of habitat protection. In 2012 the UK Biodiversity Action Plan was succeeded by the'UK Post-2010 Biodiversity Framework'; this was produced on behalf of the Four Countries' Biodiversity Group by Defra and the JNCC. But the work identifying priority species and priority habitats remains relevant, was enshrined in appendices to the NERC Act.
As the UK BAP developed, the most important species and habitats that it identified for action were referred to as'priority species' and'priority habitats'. The regional response to guidelines published in 1995 led to 162 Local Biodiversity Action Plans being produced for England and Scotland, with further action plans produced for Northern Ireland; these were formulated by a broad partnership of conservation organisations working on county and similar-sized areas of Britain. LBAPs play an important role in translating national and sub-national strategies and targets into direct local action on the ground, in identifying which UK priority species and habitats are found in that local area. List of species and habitats of principal importance in England List of habitats of principal importance in Wales Endangered Species Recovery Plan The UK BAP website was in operation between 2001 and 2011, when it was closed as part of a government review of websites; the core content was migrated into the JNCC website.
The National Archives preserves snapshops of UK BAP webpages predating publication of the UK Biodiversity Framework, for example copies from 2011 and 2012. UK Biodiversity Action Plan, Joint Nature Conservation Committee