Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place, now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes; the history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age. Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power in the New Kingdom, ruling much of Nubia and a sizable portion of the Near East, after which it entered a period of slow decline. During the course of its history Egypt was invaded or conquered by a number of foreign powers, including the Hyksos, the Libyans, the Nubians, the Assyrians, the Achaemenid Persians, the Macedonians under the command of Alexander the Great; the Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom, formed in the aftermath of Alexander's death, ruled Egypt until 30 BC, under Cleopatra, it fell to the Roman Empire and became a Roman province.
The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, social development and culture. With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, a military intended to assert Egyptian dominance. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes, religious leaders, administrators under the control of a pharaoh, who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an elaborate system of religious beliefs; the many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the quarrying and construction techniques that supported the building of monumental pyramids and obelisks.
Ancient Egypt has left a lasting legacy. Its art and architecture were copied, its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world, its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of writers for centuries. A new-found respect for antiquities and excavations in the early modern period by Europeans and Egyptians led to the scientific investigation of Egyptian civilization and a greater appreciation of its cultural legacy; the Nile has been the lifeline of its region for much of human history. The fertile floodplain of the Nile gave humans the opportunity to develop a settled agricultural economy and a more sophisticated, centralized society that became a cornerstone in the history of human civilization. Nomadic modern human hunter-gatherers began living in the Nile valley through the end of the Middle Pleistocene some 120,000 years ago. By the late Paleolithic period, the arid climate of Northern Africa became hot and dry, forcing the populations of the area to concentrate along the river region.
In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was much less arid. Large regions of Egypt were traversed by herds of grazing ungulates. Foliage and fauna were far more prolific in all environs and the Nile region supported large populations of waterfowl. Hunting would have been common for Egyptians, this is the period when many animals were first domesticated. By about 5500 BC, small tribes living in the Nile valley had developed into a series of cultures demonstrating firm control of agriculture and animal husbandry, identifiable by their pottery and personal items, such as combs and beads; the largest of these early cultures in upper Egypt was the Badari, which originated in the Western Desert. The Badari was followed by the Amratian and Gerzeh cultures, which brought a number of technological improvements; as early as the Naqada I Period, predynastic Egyptians imported obsidian from Ethiopia, used to shape blades and other objects from flakes. In Naqada II times, early evidence exists of contact with the Near East Canaan and the Byblos coast.
Over a period of about 1,000 years, the Naqada culture developed from a few small farming communities into a powerful civilization whose leaders were in complete control of the people and resources of the Nile valley. Establishing a power center at Nekhen, at Abydos, Naqada III leaders expanded their control of Egypt northwards along the Nile, they traded with Nubia to the south, the oases of the western desert to the west, the cultures of the eastern Mediterranean and Near East to the east, initiating a period of Egypt-Mesopotamia relations. The Naqada culture manufactured a diverse selection of material goods, reflective of the increasing power and wealth of the elite, as well as societal personal-use items, which included combs, small statuary, painted pottery, high quality decorative stone vases, cosmetic palettes, jewelry made of gold and ivory, they developed a ceramic glaze known as faience, used well into the Roman Per
Manasseh of Judah
Manasseh was a king of the Kingdom of Judah. He was the oldest of at least two sons of his wife Hephzibah, he reigned for 55 years. Edwin Thiele has concluded that he commenced his reign as co-regent with his father Hezekiah in 697/696 BC, with his sole reign beginning in 687/686 BC and continuing until his death in 643/642 BC. William F. Albright has dated his reign from 687–642 BC; the biblical account of Manasseh is found in 2 Kings 21:1–18 and 2 Chronicles 32:33–33:20. He is mentioned in Jeremiah 15:4. Manasseh was the first king of Judah, not contemporary with the northern kingdom of Israel, destroyed by the Assyrians in c. 720 BC, with much of its population deported. He re-instituted polytheistic worship and reversed the religious changes made by his father Hezekiah, for which he is condemned by several Biblical texts, he was married to Meshullemeth, daughter of Haruz of Jotbah, they had a son Amon, who succeeded him as king of Judah upon his death. Hezekiah and Amon are mentioned in the genealogy of Jesus in Matthew's gospel.
After a reign of 55 years, the longest in the history of Judah, he died in c. 643 BC and was buried in the garden of Uzza, the "garden of his own house", not in the City of David, among his ancestors. When Manasseh's reign began, Sennacherib was king of Assyria, who reigned until 681 BC. Manasseh is mentioned in Assyrian records as a contemporary and loyal vassal of Sennacherib's son and successor, Esarhaddon. Assyrian records list Manasseh among twenty-two kings required to provide materials for Esarhaddon's building projects. Esarhaddon died in 669 BC and was succeeded by his son, who names Manasseh as one of a number of vassals who assisted his campaign against Egypt; the Assyrian records are consistent with archaeological evidence of demographic trends and settlement patterns suggesting a period of stability in Judah during Manasseh's reign. Despite the criticisms of his religious policies in the biblical texts, archaeologists such as Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman credit Manasseh with reviving Judah's rural economy, arguing that a possible Assyrian grant of most favoured nation status stimulated the creation of an export market.
They argue that changes to the economic structure of the countryside would have required the cooperation of the'countryside aristocracy', with restoration of worship at the high places a quid pro quo for this. Apparent devastation of the fertile Shephelah, coupled with growth of the population of the highlands and the southeast of the kingdom during Manasseh's reign, point to this possibility. Olive oil production and export played a big role in the economy of the time. There is evidence in the Gaza area of entrepôt trade, an flourishing olive oil industry at Ekron; the construction or reconstruction of forts at sites such as Arad and Horvat Uza, explored by Nadav Na'aman and others, is argued by Finkelstein and Silberman to be evidence in support of this thesis, as they would have been needed to protect the trade routes. However and Silberman argue that the trade led to great disparities between rich and poor, which in turn gave rise to civil unrest; as a result, they speculate, the Deuteronomist author or editor of 2 Kings reworked the traditions about Manasseh to portray his outward-looking involvement in trade as apostasy.
There are three aspects of Manasseh's religious policy which the writer of Kings considered deplorable: the religious reaction which followed hard upon his accession. According to Kings, Manasseh reversed the centralizing reforms of his father Hezekiah, re-established local shrines for economic reasons, he restored polytheistic worship of Baal and Asherah in the Temple, sponsored the Assyrian astral cult throughout Judah. So zealous was he in his worship of the foreign gods, he is said to have participated in the sacrificial cult of Moloch which consisted of sacrificing young children or passing them through fire, his reign may be described as reactionary in relation to his father's, Kings suggests that he may have executed supporters of his father's reforms. During Manasseh's half-century the popular worship was a medley of native and foreign cults, the influence of, slow to disappear.2 Kings 21:10 suggests that several prophets combined their condemnation of Manasseh. The Pulpit Commentary identifies the prophets as Isaiah and Habakkuk and Nahum and Zephaniah.
Manasseh's response was to persecute those. The prophets were put to the sword. "Innocent blood" reddened the streets of Jerusalem. For many decades those who sympathized with prophetic ideas were in constant peril. According to 2 Chronicles 33:11–13, Manasseh was on one occasion brought in chains to the Assyrian king for suspected disloyalty; the verse goes on to indicate that he was treated well and restored to his throne. However, neither Kings nor Assyrian records mention this incident; the severity of Manasseh's imprisonment brought him to repentance. According to one of the two Biblical accounts, Manasseh was restored to the throne, abandoned idolatry, removing foreign idols and enjoining the people to worship the Lord of Israel Yahweh. Thiele dates Manasseh's reign back from the dates of th
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah after Saul and Ish-bosheth. In the biblical narrative, David is a young shepherd who gains fame first as a musician and by killing the enemy champion Goliath, he becomes a close friend of Saul's son Jonathan. Worried that David is trying to take his throne, Saul turns on David. After Saul and Jonathan are killed in battle, David is anointed as King. David conquers Jerusalem, taking the Ark of the Covenant into the city, establishing the kingdom founded by Saul; as king, David commits adultery with Bathsheba, leading him to arrange the death of her husband Uriah the Hittite. Because of this sin, God denies David the opportunity to build the temple, his son Absalom tries to overthrow him. David flees Jerusalem during Absalom's rebellion, but after Absalom's death he returns to the city to rule Israel. Before his peaceful death, he chooses his son Solomon as successor, he is honored in the prophetic literature as an ideal king and an ancestor of a future Messiah, many psalms are ascribed to him.
Historians of the Ancient Near East agree that David existed around 1000 BCE, but that there is little that can be said about him as a historical figure. There is no direct evidence outside of the Bible concerning David, but the Tel Dan Stele, an inscribed stone erected by a king of Damascus in the late 9th/early 8th centuries BCE to commemorate his victory over two enemy kings, contains the phrase Hebrew: ביתדוד, consisting of the Hebrew words "house" and "David", which most scholars translate as "House of David". Ancient Near East historians doubt that the united monarchy as described in the Bible existed. David is richly represented in post-biblical Jewish written and oral tradition, is discussed in the New Testament. Early Christians interpreted the life of Jesus in light of the references to the Messiah and to David. David is written tradition as well; the biblical character of David has inspired many interpretations in art and literature over centuries. The first book of Samuel portrays David as the youngest of the eight sons of Jesse of Bethlehem.
His mother is not named in any book of the Bible, but the Talmud identifies her as Nitzevet daughter of Adael. When the story was retold in 1 Chronicles he was made the youngest of seven sons and given two sisters and Abigail; the Book of Ruth traces his ancestry back to Ruth the Moabite. David is described as cementing his relations with various political and national groups through marriage. King Saul offered David his oldest daughter Merab. David did not refuse the offer, but humbled himself in front of Saul to be considered among the King's family. Saul reneged and instead gave Merab in marriage to Adriel the Meholathite. Having been told that his younger daughter Michal was in love with David, Saul gave her in marriage to David upon David's payment in Philistine foreskins. Saul tried to have him killed. David escaped. Saul sent Michal to Galim to marry Palti, son of Laish. David took wives in Hebron, according to 2 Samuel 3. David wanted Michal back and Saul's son Ish-boshet delivered her to David, causing her husband great grief.
The Book of Chronicles lists his sons with his various concubines. In Hebron, David had six sons: Amnon, by Ahinoam. By Bathsheba, his sons were Shammua, Shobab and Solomon. David's sons born in Jerusalem of his other wives included Ibhar, Eliphelet, Nepheg, Japhia and Eliada. Jerimoth, not mentioned in any of the genealogies, is mentioned as another of his sons in 2 Chronicles 11:18, his daughter Tamar, by Maachah, is raped by her half-brother Amnon. God is angered when Saul, Israel's king, unlawfully offers a sacrifice and disobeys a divine command both to kill all of the Amalekites and to destroy their confiscated property. God sends the prophet Samuel to anoint a shepherd, the youngest son of Jesse of Bethlehem, to be king instead. After God sends an evil spirit to torment Saul, his courtiers recommend that he send for David, a man skilled in playing the lyre, wise in speech, brave in battle. David thus enters Saul's service as one of the royal armour-bearers and plays the lyre to soothe the king.
War comes between Israel and the Philistines, the giant Goliath challenges the Israelites to send out a champion to face him in single combat. David, sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers serving in Saul's army, declares that he can defeat Goliath. Refusing the king's offer of the royal armour, he kills Goliath with his sling. Saul inquires the name of the young hero's father. Saul sets David over his army. All Israel loves David. Saul plots his death, but Saul's son Jonathan, one of those who loves David, warns him of his father's schemes and David flees, he goes first to Nob, where he is fed by the priest Ahimelech and given Goliath's sword, to Gath, the Philistine city of Goliath, intending to seek refuge with King Achish there. Achish's servants or officials question his loyalty, David sees that he is in danger there, he goes next to the cave of Adullam. From there he goes to seek refuge with the king of
According to the Hebrew Bible, Athaliah was queen consort of Judah as the wife of King Jehoram, a descendant of King David, queen regnant c. 841–835 BCE. Athaliah is considered the daughter of King Ahab and Queen Jezebel of Israel. Athaliah was married to Jehoram of Judah to seal a treaty between the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, to secure his position Jehoram killed his six brothers. Jehoram became king of Judah in the fifth year of Jehoram of Israel's reign. Jehoram of Israel was Athaliah's brother. Jehoram of Judah reigned for eight years, his father Jehoshaphat and grandfather Asa were devout kings who worshiped the Lord and walked in his ways. However, Jehoram chose not to follow their example but rejected God and married Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab in the line of Omri. Jehoram's rule of Judah was shaky. Edom revolted, he was forced to acknowledge their independence. A raid by Philistines and Ethiopians looted the king's house, carried off all of his family except for their youngest son, Ahaziah.
After Jehoram's death, Ahaziah became king of Judah, Athaliah was queen mother. Ahaziah reigned for one year from the age of 22 and was killed during a state visit to Israel along with Jehoram of Israel. Jehu became king of Israel, he had Athaliah's entire extended family in Israel put to death. For her part, Athaliah seized the throne of Judah and ordered the execution of all possible claimants to the throne, including the remnant of her Omri dynasty. However, Ahaziah's sister, managed to rescue from the purge one of Athaliah's grandsons with Jehoram of Judah, named Jehoash, only one year old. Jehoash was raised in secret by Jehosheba's husband, a priest named Jehoiada; as queen, Athaliah used her power to establish the worship of Baal in Judah. Six years Athaliah was surprised when Jehoiada revealed that Jehoash lived and proclaimed him king of Judah, she was captured and executed. There are several scriptures that, when combined with chronological considerations, have led some scholars to hold that she was Ahab's sister, not his daughter.
The relevant scriptural texts that can be cited to support the brother-sister relationship are the following: 2 Kings 8:26, its parallel passage 2 Chronicles 22:2, say that Jehoram of Judah married a "daughter" of Omri, Ahab's father. The Hebrew word "daughter" can mean daughter, granddaughter, or any female descendant, in the same way that ben can mean son, grandson, or any male descendant; some modern versions translate that Athaliah was a "granddaughter" of Omri. But the books of Kings and Chronicles give far more attention to Ahab than to Omri, so it is notable that in these verses it is not Athaliah's relationship to Ahab, stressed, but her relationship to Omri; this would be reasonable. The following verses discuss Ahab, again raising the question of why her relationship to Omri is mentioned, instead of to Ahab. 2 Kings 8:27 says that Jehoram of Judah, Athaliah's husband, was related by marriage to the house of Ahab. The word hatan is used to specify a father-in-law or son-in-law relationship.
If Jehoram was Ahab's son-in-law, the expression that would be expected here would be "son-in-law" to Ahab, not to "the house of Ahab." If Athaliah was Ahab's sister, not his daughter there is an explanation for the additional phrase "house of."The support for Athaliah being Ahab's daughter comes from two verses, 2 Kings 8:18 and its parallel 2 Chronicles 21:6. These verses say that Jehoram of Judah did wickedly "because he married a daughter of Ahab." This would seem to settle the question in favor of the daughter relationship, with one precaution: the Syriac version of the 2 Chronicles 21:6 says "sister of Ahab" instead of daughter. This textual support for Athaliah being the sister of Ahab is regarded as weak enough to justify translating bath in 2 Kings 8:26 and 2 Chronicles 22:2 as "granddaughter," thus bringing the various passages about Athaliah into harmony: she is presented as Omri's granddaughter and Ahab's daughter; the chronological considerations brought forth by scholars who advocate the sister-theory have to do with determining the earliest age at which Athaliah could have been born, showing that this is too late for Athaliah to be Ahab's daughter, but not too late if she was his sister.
This brings up the question of. It is assumed that her mother was Jezebel, the only wife named for Ahab in scripture. There appears to be no evidence that she was the daughter of Jezebel. Athaliah might have been the daughter of another of Ahab's wives, such as Ben-hadad indicated Ahab had; the argument is made that the Ahab/Jezebel marriage was an affair of state that would only have occurred after Omri, Ahab's father, was in control of his kingdom, Ithobaal, Jezebel's father, was in control of Tyre and Sidon. Omri and Ithobaal were both usurpers. According to F. M. Cross's chronology of Tyrian kings, as calculated from the alleged second century BCE records of Menander of Ephesus, Ithobaal killed Phelles and became king of Tyre in 878 BCE, two years after Omri became undisputed king of Israel. If the marriage had taken place in the first year of Ithobaal's reign assuming their first-born was
A biblical covenant is a religious covenant, described in the Bible. All Abrahamic religions consider biblical covenants important; the Hebrew Bible contains the Noahic Covenant, between God and all people, as well as a number of more specific covenants with individuals or groups. Biblical covenants include those with Abraham, the whole Israelite people, the Israelite priesthood, the Davidic lineage of kings. In form and terminology, these covenants echo the kinds of treaty agreements in the surrounding ancient world. In the Book of Jeremiah, verses 31:30–33 predict "a new covenant" that God will establish with "the house of Israel". Most Christians believe this New Covenant is the "replacement" or "final fulfilment" of the Old Covenant described in the Old Testament and as applying to the People of God, while some believe both covenants are still applicable in a dual covenant theology. There are two major types of covenants in the Hebrew Bible, including the obligatory type and the promissory type.
The obligatory covenant is more common with the Hittite peoples, deals with the relationship between two parties of equal standing. In contrast, the promissory type of covenant is seen in the Davidic covenants. Promissory covenants focus on the relationship between the suzerain and the vassal and are similar to the "royal grant" type of legal document, which include historical introduction, border delineations, witnesses and curses. In royal grants, the master could reward a servant for being loyal. God rewarded Abraham and David in his covenants with them; as part of his covenant with Abraham, God has the obligation to keep Abraham's descendants as God's chosen people and be their God. God acts as the suzerain power and is the party of the covenant accompanied by the required action that comes with the oath whether it be fire or animals in the sacrificial oaths. In doing this, God is the party taking upon the curse. Through history there were many instances where the vassal was the one who performed the different acts and took the curse upon them.
Weinfeld believes that similar terminology and wording can connect the Abrahamic and Davidic covenants with ancient Near Eastern grants, as opposed to being similar to the Mosaic covenant, according to Weinfeld, is an example of a suzerainty treaty. He goes on to argue that phrases about having a "whole heart" or having "walked after me with all his heart" parallels with Neo-Assyrian grant language, such as "walked with royalty", he further argues that in Jeremiah, God uses prophetic metaphor to say that David will be adopted as a son. Expressing legal and political relationships through familial phraseology was common among Near Eastern cultures. Babylonian contracts expressed fathership and sonship in their grants to mean a king to vassal relationship. Further underlying the idea that these covenants were grant-like in nature is the similar language used in both. In the grant of Ashurbanipal, an Assyrian, to his servant Bulta, he describes Bulta's loyalty with the phrase "kept the charge of my kinship".
Abraham kept God's charge in Genesis 26: 4–5: "I will give to your descendants all these lands...in as much as Abraham obeyed me and kept my charge, my commandments, my rules and my teachings."Furthermore, in Jeremiah, God says, through prophetic metaphor, that David will be adopted as a son. Expressing legal and political relationships through familial phraseology was common among Near Eastern cultures. Babylonian contracts expressed fathership and sonship, in their grants to mean a king to vassal relationship. According to Mendhenhall, pressures from outside invaders led the loosely bound Israelite tribes to converge into monarchical unity for stability and solidarity, he argues that during this consolidation, the new state had to unify the religious traditions that belonged to the different groups to prevent dissent from those who might believe that the formation of a state would replace direct governance from God. Therefore, Mendenhall continues, these loosely bound tribes merged under the Mosaic covenant to legitimize their unity.
They believed. They believed that the king was put into power as a result of God's benefaction, that this accession was the fulfillment of God's promise of dynasty to David. Mendenhall notes that a conflict arose between those who believed in the Davidic covenant, those who believed that God would not support all actions of the state; as a result, both sides became aloof, the Davidic covenant and the Mosaic covenant were entirely forgotten. Students of the Bible hold wildly differing opinions as to how many major covenants exist between God and humanity, with numbers ranging from one to at least twelve; the Noahic covenant applies to all of all other living creatures. In this covenant, God promises never again to destroy all life on Earth by flood and creates the rainbow as the sign of this "everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh, on the earth"; the covenant found in Genesis 12–17 is known as the Brit bein HaBetarim, the "Covenant Between the Parts" in Hebrew, is the basis for brit milah in Judaism.
The covenant was for offspring, both of natural birth and adoption. In Genesis chapters 12–17 three covenants can be distinguished based on the differing Jahwist and Priestly sources. In Genesis 12 and 15, God grants Abraham land and a multitude of descendants but does not place any st
Jeconiah known as Coniah and as Jehoiachin, was a king of Judah, dethroned by the King of Babylon in the 6th century BC and was taken into captivity. He was the successor of King Jehoiakim. Most of what is known about Jeconiah is found in the Hebrew Bible. Records of Jeconiah's existence have been found in Iraq, such as the Jehoiachin's Rations Tablets; these tablets were excavated near the Ishtar Gate in Babylon and have been dated to c. 592 BC. Written in cuneiform, they mention Jeconiah and his five sons as recipients of food rations in Babylon. Jeconiah reigned three months and ten days, beginning December 9, 598, he succeeded Jehoiakim as king of Judah after raiders from surrounding lands invaded Jerusalem and killed his father. It is that the king of Babylon was behind this effort, as a response to Jehoiakim's revolt, starting sometime after 601 BC. Three months and ten days after Jeconiah became king, the armies of Nebuchadnezzar II seized Jerusalem; the intention was to assimilate them into Babylonian society.
On March 15/16th, 597 BC, his entire household and three thousand Jews, were exiled to Babylon. The Masoretic Text of 2 Chronicles states that Jeconiah's rule began at the age of eight, while in 2 Kings 24:8 Jeconiah is said to have come to the throne at eighteen. Modern scholars have treated the difference between "eight" and "eighteen" as reflecting a copying error on one side or the other of the question. After Jeconiah was deposed as king, Jeconiah's uncle, was appointed by Nebuchadnezzar to rule Judah. Zedekiah was the son of Josiah. Jeconiah would be regarded as the first of the exilarchs. In the Book of Ezekiel, the author refers to Jeconiah as king and dates certain events by the number of years he was in exile; the author identifies himself as Ezekiel, a contemporary of Jeconiah, he never mentions Zedekiah by name. According to 2 Kings 25:27-30, Jeconiah was released from prison "in the 37th year of the exile", in the year that Amel-Marduk came to the throne, given a prestigious position at court.
Jeconiah's release in Babylon brings to a close the Books of the Deuteronomistic history. Babylonian records show that Amel-Marduk began his reign in October 562 BC. According to 2 Kings 25:27, Jeconiah was released from prison "on the 27th day of the twelfth month": this indicates the first year of captivity to be 598/597 BC, according to Judah's Tishri-based calendar; the 37th year of captivity was thus, by Judean reckoning, the year that began in Tishri of 562, consistent with the synchronism to the accession year of Amel-Marduk given in Babylonian records. Jeremiah cursed Jeconiah that none of his descendants would sit on the throne of Israel: This is what the LORD says:'Record this man as if childless, a man who will not prosper in his lifetime, for none of his offspring will prosper, none will sit on the throne of David or rule anymore in Judah.'" -- Jeremiah 22:30, NIV Jeconiah was the son of Jehoiakim and Nehushta, the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem. He had seven children: Shealtiel, Pedaiah, Jekamiah and Nedabiah..
Jeconiah is mentioned in the first book of Chronicles as the father of Pedaiah, who in turn was the father of Zerubbabel. A list of his descendants is given in 1 Chronicles 3:17–24. In listing the genealogy of Jesus Christ, Matthew 1:11 records Jeconiah as an ancestor of Joseph, the husband of Mary; the Babylonian Chronicles establish that Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem the first time on 2 Adar 597 BC. Before Wiseman's publication of the Babylonian Chronicles in 1956, Thiele had determined from biblical texts that Nebuchadnezzar's initial capture of Jerusalem and its king Jeconiah occurred in the spring of 597 BC, whereas Kenneth Strand points out that other scholars, including Albright, more dated the event to 598 BC. Thiele said that the 25th anniversary of Jeconiah's captivity was April 25, 573 BC, implying that he began the trip to Babylon on 10 Nisan 597, 24 years earlier, his reasoning in arriving at this exact date was based on Ezekiel 40:1, where Ezekiel, without naming the month, says it was the tenth day of the month, "on that day."
Since this fits with his idea that Jeconiah's trip to Babylon began a month than the capturing of the city, thus allowing a new Nisan-based year to begin, Thiele took these words in Ezekiel as referring to the day in which the captivity or exile proper began. He therefore ended Jehoiachin's reign of ten days on this date; the dates he gives for Jeconiah's reign are then: 21 Heshvan 598 BC to 10 Nisan 597 BC. Thiele's reasoning in this regard has been criticized by Rodger C. Young, who advocates the 587 date for the fall of Jerusalem. Young argues that Thiele's arithmetic is inconsistent, adds an alternative explanation of the phrase "on that day" in Ezekiel 40:1; this phrase is used three times in Leviticus 23:28-30 to refer the Day of Atonement, always observed on the tenth of Tishri, Ezekiel's writings in several places show familiarity with the Book of Leviticus. A further argument in favor of this interpretation is that in the same verse, Ezekiel says it was Rosh Hashanah and the tenth of the month, indicating the start of a Jubilee year, since only in a Jubilee year did the year begin on the tenth of Tishri, the Day of Atonement.
The Talmud and the Seder Olam say that Ezek
Hans Holbein the Younger
Hans Holbein the Younger was a German painter and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style, is considered one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century. He produced religious art and Reformation propaganda, he made a significant contribution to the history of book design, he is called "the Younger" to distinguish him from his father Hans Holbein the Elder, an accomplished painter of the Late Gothic school. Holbein was born in Augsburg, but he worked in Basel as a young artist. At first, he painted murals and religious works, designed stained glass windows, printed books, he painted an occasional portrait, making his international mark with portraits of humanist Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam. When the Reformation reached Basel, Holbein worked for reformist clients while continuing to serve traditional religious patrons, his Late Gothic style was enriched by artistic trends in Italy and the Netherlands, as well as by Renaissance humanism. The result was a combined aesthetic uniquely his own.
Holbein travelled to England in 1526 with a recommendation from Erasmus. He was welcomed into the humanist circle of Thomas More, where he built a high reputation, he returned to Basel for four years resumed his career in England in 1532 under the patronage of Anne Boleyn and Thomas Cromwell. By 1535, he was King's Painter to Henry VIII of England. In this role, he produced portraits and festive decorations, as well as designs for jewellery and other precious objects, his portraits of the royal family and nobles are a record of the court in the years when Henry was asserting his supremacy over the Church of England. Holbein's art was prized from early in his career. French poet and reformer Nicholas Bourbon dubbed him "the Apelles of our time," a typical accolade at the time. Holbein has been described as a great "one-off" of art history, since he founded no school; some of his work was lost after his death, but much was collected, he was recognised among the great portrait masters by the 19th century.
Recent exhibitions have highlighted his versatility. He created designs ranging from intricate jewellery to monumental frescoes. Holbein's art has sometimes been painted with a rare precision, his portraits were renowned in their time for their likeness, it is through his eyes that many famous figures of his day are pictured today, such as Erasmus and More. He was never content with outward appearance, however. In the view of art historian Ellis Waterhouse, his portraiture "remains unsurpassed for sureness and economy of statement, penetration into character, a combined richness and purity of style". Holbein was born in the free imperial city of Augsburg during the winter of 1497–98, he was a son of the painter and draughtsman Hans Holbein the Elder, whose trade he and his older brother, followed. Holbein the Elder ran a large and busy workshop in Augsburg, sometimes assisted by his brother Sigmund a painter. By 1515, Hans and Ambrosius had moved as journeymen painters to the city of Basel, a centre of learning and the printing trade.
There they were apprenticed to Basel's leading painter. The brothers found work in Basel as designers of metalcuts for printers. In 1515, the preacher and theologian Oswald Myconius invited them to add pen drawings to the margin of a copy of The Praise of Folly by the humanist scholar Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam; the sketches provide early evidence of Holbein's humanistic leaning. His other early works, including the double portrait of Basel's mayor Jakob Meyer zum Hasen and his wife Dorothea, follow his father's style; the young Holbein, alongside his brother and his father, is pictured in the left-hand panel of Holbein the Elder's 1504 altar-piece triptych the Basilica of St. Paul, displayed at the Staatsgalerie in Augsburg. In 1517, father and son began a project in Lucerne, painting internal and external murals for the merchant Jakob von Hertenstein. While in Lucerne Holbein designed cartoons for stained glass; the city's records show that on 10 December 1517, he was fined five livres for fighting in the street with a goldsmith called Caspar, fined the same amount.
That winter, Holbein visited northern Italy, though no record of the trip survives. Many scholars believe he studied the work of Italian masters of fresco, such as Andrea Mantegna, before returning to Lucerne, he filled two series of panels at Hertenstein's house with copies of works by Mantegna, including The Triumphs of Caesar. In 1519, Holbein moved back to Basel, his brother fades from the record at about this time, it is presumed that he died. Holbein re-established himself in the city, running a busy workshop, he took out Basel citizenship. He married Elsbeth Schmid, a widow a few years older than he was, who had an infant son and was running her late husband's tanning business, she bore Holbein a son of his own, Philipp, in their first year of marriage. Holbein was prolific during this period in Basel, which coincided with the arrival of Lutheranism in the city, he undertook a number of major projects, such as external murals for The House of the Dance and internal murals for the Council Chamber of the Town Hall.
The former are known from preparatory drawings. The Council Chamber murals survive in a few poorly preserved fragments. Holbein produced a series of religious paintings and designed cartoons for stained glass windows. In a period of revolution in book design, he illustrated for