Reich Chancellery

The Reich Chancellery was the traditional name of the office of the Chancellor of Germany in the period of the German Reich from 1878 to 1945. The Chancellery's seat and prepared since 1875, was the former city palace of Prince Antoni Radziwiłł on Wilhelmstraße in Berlin. Both the palace and a new Reich Chancellery building were damaged during World War II and subsequently demolished. Today the office of the German chancellor is called Kanzleramt, or more formally Bundeskanzleramt; the latter is the name of the new seat of the Chancellor's Office, completed in 2001. When the military alliance of the North German Confederation was reorganised as a federal state with effect from July 1, 1867, the office of a Federal Chancellor was implemented at Berlin and staffed with the Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck. After the unification of Germany on January 18, 1871 by accession of the South German states, Bismarck became Reich Chancellor of the new German Empire. In 1869 the Prussian state government had acquired the Rococo city palace of late Prince Radziwiłł on Wilhelmstraße No.

77, which from 1875 was refurbished as the official building of the Chancellery. It was inaugurated with the meetings of the Berlin Congress in July 1878, followed by the Congo Conference in 1884. In the days of the Weimar Republic the Chancellery was enlarged by the construction of a Modern southern annex finished in 1930. In 1932/33, while his nearby office on Wilhelmstraße No. 73 was renovated, the building served as the residence of Reich President Paul von Hindenburg, where he appointed Adolf Hitler chancellor on 30 January 1933. The Hitler Cabinet held few meetings here. In 1935 the architects Paul Troost and Leonhard Gall redesigned the interior as Hitler's domicile, they added a large reception hall/ballroom and conservatory known as the Festsaal mit Wintergarten in the garden area. The latter addition was unique because of the large cellar that led a further one-and-a-half meters down to an air-raid shelter known as the Vorbunker. Once completed in 1936, it was called the "Reich Chancellery Air-Raid Shelter" until 1943, with the construction to expand the bunker complex with the addition of the Führerbunker, located one level below.

The two bunkers were connected by a stairway set at right angles which could be closed off from each other. Devastated by air raids and completely destroyed during the Battle of Berlin, the ruins of the Old Reich Chancellery were not cleared until 1950. In late January 1938, Adolf Hitler assigned his favourite architect Albert Speer to build the New Reich Chancellery around the corner on Voßstraße, a western branch-off of Wilhelmstraße, requesting that the building be completed within a year. Hitler commented that Bismarck's Old Chancellery was "fit for a soap company" but not suitable as headquarters of a Greater German Reich, it remained his official residence with its refurbished representation rooms on the ground floor and private rooms on the upper floor where Hitler lived in the so-called Führerwohnung. The Old and New Chancellery shared the large garden area with the underground Führerbunker, where Hitler committed suicide at the end of April 1945. Speer claimed in his autobiography that he completed the task of clearing the site, designing and furnishing the building in less than a year.

In fact, preliminary planning and versions of the designs were being worked on as early as 1935. To clear the space for the New Reich Chancellery, the buildings on the northern side of Voßstraße No. 2–10 had been demolished in 1937. Hitler placed the entire northern side of the Voßstraße at Speer's disposal assigning him the work of creating grand halls and salons which "will make an impression on people". Speer was given a blank cheque — Hitler stated that the cost of the project was immaterial — and was instructed that the building be of solid construction and that it be finished by the following January in time for the next New Year diplomatic reception to be held in the new building. Over 4,000 workers toiled in shifts, so the work could be accomplished round-the-clock; the immense construction was finished 48 hours ahead of schedule, the project earned Speer a reputation as a good organiser, combined with Hitler's fondness for Speer played a part in the architect becoming Armaments Minister and a director of forced labour during the war.

Speer recalls that the whole work force — masons, plumbers, etc. were invited to inspect the finished building. Hitler addressed the workers in the Sportpalast. However, interior fittings were not finished until the early 1940s. In the end it cost over 90 million Reichsmarks, hosted the various ministries of the Reich. In his memoirs, Speer described the impression of the Reichskanzlei on a visitor: From Wilhelmsplatz an arriving diplomat drove through great gates into a court of honour. By way of an outside staircase he first entered a medium-sized reception room from which double doors seventeen feet high opened into a large hall clad in mosaic, he ascended several steps, passed through a round room with domed ceiling, saw before him a gallery 480 feet long. Hitler was impressed by my gallery because it was twice as long as the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles. Hitler was delighted: "On the long walk from the entrance to the reception hall they'll get a taste of the power and grandeur of the German Reich!"

During the next several months he asked to see the plans again and again but interfere

May Day Park (Rostov-on-Don)

May Day Park is a park in Rostov-on-Don established in 1855. It is situated in Kirovskiy City District at the site of the former Fortress of Saint Dimitry of Rostov. May Day Park have retained its historical planning and, to some extent, landscaping, as it was inititially organized in the second half of the 19th century; the park has underground structures, so it is an archeological site. The territory of the former Fortress of St. Dmitry of Rostov in 1855 became the property of Rostov-on-Don Summer Commercial Club; the owners once decide to invite mr. Peters, an architect from St. Petersburg, to draft a project for the arrangement of the garden. During the construction works, the builders discovered tunnels; this was taken into account by Peters: when he was drawing his plan, he decided to arrange all the massive structures on sections that were free of underground structures. Thus, above the tunnels there were garden alleys, a fountain was built above the two-level underground room; the main alley of the park was paved in the form of a diagonal line from the rotunda to the flower garden.

On the territory of the new garden sports grounds were arranged, a greenhouse was established and an alley of lime trees was planted. In 1901, a rotunda with 6 columns in neoclassical style was built there; the builders used old fortress brick and the author of this project was architect Nikolai Aleksandrovich Doroshenko. Under the basement of the rotunda there was an underground room. In 1912-1913 in the western part of the garden was constructed a three-storey brick building of Summer Commercial Club in Art Nouveau style, designed by architect Georgi Gelat. At the beginning of the 20th century, this garden, which would be known as May Day Park, was a favorite meeting place for Rostov-on-Don and Nakhichevan-on-Don dwellers. In the summer time, an orchestra played here, art performances and various musical concerts were held. In the greenhouses grew palm trees, lighting was established here. Among the visitors were influential people of the city and local government officials. Back in time, the park had a fence.

In the 1920s, garden and park compositions with geometric patterns embedded in them still remained in the park. There was a floral calendar, updated. In the 1970s, flower exhibitions were held there. In 1986, because of the fire, the greenhouse was damaged, at its place a parking lot was subsequently established. At the territory of the park there is a linden alley. In 2000, a new alley was planted out of 55 linden seedlings. By May 2005, five more trees were planted. In October 2015 it was announced that the park would be reconstructed with the help of attracted investors

Philip Sargant Florence

Philip Sargant Florence was an American economist who spent most of his life in the United Kingdom. Born in Nutley, New Jersey in the United States, he was the son of Henry Smyth Florence, an American musician, Mary Sargant Florence, a British painter, his sister was Alix Strachey. He was educated at Rugby School and Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge in England, before studying for his PhD at Columbia University in New York City. In 1917 he married the birth control advocate Lella Faye Secor. In 1921 he was appointed as a lecturer in economics at the University of Cambridge, in 1929 he was made Professor of Commerce at the University of Birmingham, where he remained until his retirement in 1955, he was a friend of Robert Dudley Best, a mentor of Hilde Behrend