Inowrocław is a city in north-central Poland with a total population of 74,803 in 2014. It is situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999 in the Bydgoszcz Voivodeship. Inowrocław is an industrial town located about 40 kilometres southeast of Bydgoszcz known for its saltwater baths and salt mines; the town is the 5th largest agglomeration in its voivodeship, is a major railway junction, where the west-east line crosses the Polish Coal Trunk-Line from Chorzów to Gdynia. The town was first mentioned in 1185 as Novo Wladislaw in honor of Władysław I Herman or after the settlers from Włocławek. Many inhabitants of Włocławek settled in Inowrocław fleeing flooding. In 1236, the settlement was renamed Juveni Wladislawia, it was incorporated two years by Casimir Conradowicz. From 1466 to 1772, Inowrocław was the capital of Poland's Inowrocław Voivodeship, which covered northern Kuyavia; the town's development was aided by the discovery of extensive salt deposits in the vicinity during the 15th century.
Inowrocław was annexed to the Kingdom of Prussia in February 1772 during the First Partition of Poland and added to the Netze District. Following the Franco-Prussian Treaty in July 1807, Inowrocław was transferred to the newly created Duchy of Warsaw, a client state of the French Empire; the city was a headquarters for Napoleon Bonaparte during his 1812 invasion of Russia. Following the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Inowrocław was transferred back to Prussia as part of the Grand Duchy of Posen, it flourished after the establishment of a railway junction in 1872 and a spa in 1875. The city and the region were renamed Hohensalza on December 5, 1904, it was electrified in 1908. After the end of World War I, following the Treaty of Versailles, the name Inowrocław was restored and the city became part of the re-established sovereign Polish state. High unemployment resulting from trade embargoes led to violent confrontations between workers and the police in 1926 and hunger strikes killed 20 in 1930. Inowrocław was part of Poznań Voivodeship until 1925.
This district was annexed to Great Pomerania during the reform of Polish regional administration just before World War II. Captured by the German 4th Army on September 11, 1939, Inowrocław was again renamed Hohensalza and administered under the military district of Posen before being incorporated into Nazi Germany first as part of the Reichsgau of Posen and as part of Reichsgau Wartheland. Between 1940 and 1945, Hohensalza was used as a resettlement camp for Poles and an internment camp for Soviet and British POWs. Inowrocław returned to Poland and its original name following the arrival of the Soviet Red Army on January 21, 1945; the last German air raid occurred on April 4, 1945, when a single aircraft dropped four fragmentation bombs and fired on travelers waiting at the Inowrocław train platform. Between 1950 and 1998, the town was part of Bydgoszcz Voivodeship, but the 1999 reforms left it part of Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship. 1970: 54,900 1980: 66,100 1990: 77,700 2000: 79,400 2004: 77,647 2014: 74,803 1904–1920 as German: Hohensalza 1939–1945 as German: Hohensalza.
The Romanesque church of the St Virgin Mary, dating back to the end of the 12th century or beginning of the 13th century, built from granite stones and brick. In 1834 it was destroyed by fire, reconstructed in the 1950s. Since 13 July 2008 the St Virgin Mary's church is the Minor Basilica The Gothic church of St. Nicholas, first built in the middle of the 13th century, the present church was built after damage in the 15th century, rebuilt in the 17th century The Neo-Romanesque church of the Annunciation to the Virgin Mary, built between 1898 and 1900, consecrated in 1902, the largest church in the city, with an imposing 77-metre high tower; the north side of the transept collapsed in a construction disaster in 1909 and was not rebuilt until 1929. The garrison church of St. Barbara and St. Maurice The house of Czabańscy family from ca. 1800 The Inowrocław Synagogue Houses, hotel "Bast" and spa buildings from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries SSA Notec Inowrocław – men's basketball team, 7th in Era Basket Liga in 2003/2004 season.
Sportino Inowrocław – men's basketball team, which replaced SSA Notec, but in the 1st league. Goplania Inowrocław – men's football team, they are playing in 4th league. Cuiavia Inowrocław – men's football team, they are playing in 4th league. Adolph Salomonsohn, banker Berthold Fernow, historian Bernhard Fernow, chief of the USDA's Division of Forestry Jan Kasprowicz, playwright and translator Leopold Loeske, bryologist Gus Edwards, musician Alfred Herrmann, politician Gustav Heistermann von Ziehlberg, German general and resistance fighter Hans Jeschonnek, Luftwaffe general Arthur Sodtke, resistance fighter Justus Frantz, musician Tomasz Wasilewski, film director and screenwriter Krzysztof Szubarga, basketball player www.ino-online.pl/ www.zschie.kujawy.com.pl www.ikmedia.pl www.dawny-inowroclaw.info www.ino.webpark.pl
The Litzmannstadt Ghetto was a World War II ghetto established by the Nazi German authorities for Polish Jews and Roma following the 1939 invasion of Poland. It was the second-largest ghetto in all of German-occupied Europe after the Warsaw Ghetto. Situated in the city of Łódź, intended as a preliminary step upon a more extensive plan of creating the Judenfrei province of Warthegau, the ghetto was transformed into a major industrial centre, manufacturing much needed war supplies for Nazi Germany and for the German Army; the number of people incarcerated in it was augmented further by the Jews deported from the Reich territories. On 30 April 1940, when the gates closes on the ghetto, it housed 163,777 residents; because of its remarkable productivity, the ghetto managed to survive until August 1944. In the first two years, it absorbed 20,000 Jews from liquidated ghettos in nearby Polish towns and villages, as well as 20,000 more from the rest of German-occupied Europe. After the wave of deportations to Chełmno death camp beginning in early 1942, in spite of a stark reversal of fortune, the Germans persisted in eradicating the ghetto: they transported the remaining population to Auschwitz and Chełmno extermination camps, where most were murdered upon arrival.
It was the last ghetto in occupied Poland to be liquidated. A total of 210,000 Jews passed through it. About 10,000 Jewish residents of Łódź, who used to live there before the invasion of Poland, survived the Holocaust elsewhere; when German forces occupied Łódź on 8 September 1939, the city had a population of 672,000 people. Over 230,000 of them were Jewish, or 31.1% according to statistics. Nazi Germany annexed Łódź directly to the new Warthegau region and renamed the city Litzmannstadt in honour of a German general, Karl Litzmann, who had led German forces in the area in 1914; the Nazi German authorities intended to "purify" the city. All Polish Jews were to be expelled to the Generalgouvernement while the non-Jewish population of Polish people reduced and transformed into a slave labour force for Germany; the first known record of an order for the establishment of the ghetto, dated 10 December 1939, came from the new Nazi governor Friedrich Übelhör, who called on for the cooperation of major policing bodies in the confinement and mass transfer of the local Jews.
By 1 October 1940, the relocation of the ghetto inmates was to have been completed, the city's downtown core declared Judenrein. The new German owners pressed for the ghetto size to be shrunk beyond all sense in order to have their factories registered outside of it. Łódź was a multicultural mosaic before the war began, with about 8.8% ethnic German residents on top of Austrian, French and Swiss business families adding to its bustling economy. The securing of the ghetto system was preceded by a series of anti-Jewish measures as well as anti-Polish measures meant to inflict terror; the Jews were forced to wear the yellow badge. Their businesses were expropriated by the Gestapo. After the invasion of Poland, many Jews the intellectual and political elite, had fled the advancing German army into the Soviet-occupied eastern Poland and to the area of future General Government in the hope of the Polish counter-attack which never came. On 8 February 1940, the Germans ordered the Jewish residence to be limited to specific streets in the Old City and the adjacent Bałuty quarter, the areas that would become the ghetto.
To expedite the relocation, the Orpo Police launched an assault known as "Bloody Thursday" in which 350 Jews were fatally shot in their homes, outside, on 5–7 March 1940. Over the next two months and wire fences were erected around the area to cut it off from the rest of the city. Jews were formally sealed within the ghetto walls on 1 May 1940; as nearly 25 percent of the Jews had fled the city by the time the ghetto was set up, its prisoner population as of 1 May 1940 was 164,000. Over the coming year, Jews from German-occupied Europe as far away as Luxembourg were deported to the ghetto on their way to the extermination camps. A small Romany population was resettled there. By 1 May 1941, the population of the ghetto was 148,547. To ensure no contact between the Jewish and non-Jewish populations of the city, two German Order Police formations were assigned to patrol the perimeter of the ghetto including the Battalion 101 from Hamburg. Within the Ghetto, a Jewish Police force was created to ensure.
On 10 May 1940 orders went into effect prohibiting any commercial exchange between Jews and non-Jews in Łódź. By the new German decree, those caught outside the ghetto could be shot on sight; the contact with people who lived on the "Aryan" side was impaired by the fact that Łódż had a 70,000-strong ethnic German minority loyal to the Nazis, making it impossible to bring food illegally. To keep outsiders out, rumours were spread by Hitler's propaganda saying that the Jews were the carriers of infectious diseases. For the week of 16–22 June 1941, the Jews reported 206 deaths and two shootings of women near the barbed wire. In other ghettos throughout Poland, thriving underground economies based on smuggling of food and manufactured goods developed between the ghettos and the outside world. In Łódź, this was impossible due to heavy security; the Jews were dependent on the German authorities for food and other vital supplies. To exacerbate the situation, the only legal currency in the ghetto was a specially created ghetto currency.
Faced with starvation, Jews traded their remaining possessions and savings for this scrip, th
Prussia was a prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19; the Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. From 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state.
With the end of the Nazi regime, in 1945, the division of Germany into allied-occupation zones and the separation of its territories east of the Oder–Neisse line, which were incorporated into Poland and the Soviet Union, the State of Prussia ceased to exist de facto. Prussia existed de jure until its formal abolition by the Allied Control Council Enactment No. 46 of 25 February 1947. The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians. In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk, their monastic state was Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany, and, in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, the eastern part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia, a fief of the Crown of Poland up to 1657; the union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom, exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries.
During the 18th century it had a major say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany", which excluded the Austrian Empire. At the Congress of Vienna, which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia acquired rich new territories, including the coal-rich Ruhr; the country grew in influence economically and politically, became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians; the Kingdom ended in 1918 along with other German monarchies that collapsed as a result of the German Revolution. In the Weimar Republic, the Free State of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. Subsequently, it was dismantled into Nazi German Gaue in 1935.
Some Prussian ministries were kept and Hermann Göring remained in his role as Minister President of Prussia until the end of World War II. Former eastern territories of Germany that made up a significant part of Prussia lost the majority of their German population after 1945 as the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union both absorbed these territories and had most of its German inhabitants expelled by 1950. Prussia, deemed a bearer of militarism and reaction by the Allies, was abolished by an Allied declaration in 1947; the international status of the former eastern territories of Germany was disputed until the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in 1990, while its return to Germany remains a topic among far right politicians, the Federation of Expellees and various political revisionists. The term Prussian has been used outside Germany, to emphasise professionalism, aggressiveness and conservatism of the Junker class of landed aristocrats in the East who dominated first Prussia and the German Empire.
The main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background. The black and white national colours were used by the Teutonic Knights and by the Hohenzollern dynasty; the Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a black cross with gold insert and black imperial eagle. The combination of the black and white colours with the white and red Hanseatic colours of the free cities Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, as well as of Brandenburg, resulted in the black-white-red commercial flag of the North German Confederation, which became the flag of the German Empire in 1871. Suum cuique, the motto of the Order of the Black Eagle created by King Frederick I in 1701, was associated with the whole of Prussia; the Iron Cross, a military decoration created by King Frederick William III in 1813, was commonly associated with the country. The region populated by Baltic Old Prussians who were Christianised, became a favoured location for immigration by Germans, as well as Poles and Lithuanians along the border regions.
Before its abolition, the territory of the Kingdom of Prussia included the provinces of West Prussia.
Provisional Government of National Unity
The Provisional Government of National Unity was a government formed by a decree of the State National Council on 28 June 1945. It was created as a coalition between the Polish Workers' Party and Stanisław Mikołajczyk, former Prime Minister of the Polish government-in-exile; when Poland was conquered by Germany in 1939, members of the government escaped to Britain, where they established a government-in-exile, recognized by the British government, controlled the main Polish resistance force, the Armia Krajowa. In 1943, the PPR and some other left-wing resistance groups formed the KRN as a national government of Poland, in rivalry to the exile government. In July 1944, the KRN proclaimed the Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland in territory liberated from Germany by the Soviet Army; the exile government denounced this, but was powerless to interfere after the Armia Krajowa was destroyed in the 1944 Warsaw Uprising. The exile government was dependent on the support of the British and American governments, which did not grasp Communist intentions and pressured the exile government to cooperate with the KRN.
By the time of the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Soviet forces had overrun nearly all of Poland, giving them and the KRN effective control. The US and Britain tacitly accepted this at Yalta, in return for Stalin's promise of free elections in Poland; the Polish exile government still was ignored. A group including Stanisław Mikołajczyk, Prime Minister in 1943-1944, broke with the rest of the exiles and began seeking a deal with the Communists; the TRJN was a result of the negotiations held in Moscow from 17 June to 21 June 1945, between the PPR, the Soviet Union, Mikołajczyk, who had created the Polish People's Party as the political vehicle for his participation. The PSL was a centrist continuation of the prewar Polish agrarian movement; the pre-war People's Party supported Mikołajczyk. The TRJN government was composed of: Prime Minister: Edward Osóbka-Morawski Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Regained Territories: Władysław Gomułka Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Agriculture and Agricultural Reform: Stanisław Mikołajczyk The entire government was composed of: PPR: 7 ministers Socialist Party: 6 ministers People's Party: 3 ministers PSL: 3 ministers Democratic Party: 2 ministersThe exile government did not recognize the TRJN.
The Communists had no intention of giving the opposition any real power, or carrying out the promised'free and fair' elections. The members of the opposition that received government positions were kept in check by their deputies and staff, loyal to the Communists, so they had little real power. On 21 June, General Leopold Okulicki, former Commander of the Polish Home Army was sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment in Moscow for the alleged sabotage against the Soviet Army. Ten other Poles were given similar sentences in the staged Trial of the Sixteen. On 24 December 1946, Okulicki died in Butyrka prison; the TRJN was bound by the "Treaty of Friendship, Mutual Help, Cooperation" with the USSR which the Provisional Government had signed on 21 April. This treaty formed the basis for Soviet interference in Poland's internal politics for the next 40 years. On 5 July 1945, the TRJN was recognized by the United States, it was soon recognized by the other major Allies and the United Kingdom. It was not recognized by the Vatican.
On 6 July, while the Polish government-in-exile maintained its existence, both the United States and the United Kingdom formally withdrew the recognition of it. On 10 July, Osóbka-Morawski announced the expulsion of all Germans from Poland. From 17 July to 2 August, a delegation from the TRJN attended the 1945 Potsdam Conference. On 16 August, a Soviet-Polish border agreement was signed in Moscow. Before the end of August, Poland agreed to cede the eastern provinces to the Soviet Union and recognized the eastern border based on a modified Curzon line. On 16 October, delegates of the TRJN signed the United Nations Charter and Poland became a member of the United Nations. The'free and fair' elections promised by the TRJN were postponed until the Communists were sure they could control the election process. In the meantime, they increased repressions of opposition members, who were bribed, delegalised, or murdered. In the words of Gomułka, the goal of the Communists was to be the "hegemon of the nation" and nothing would stop them.
On 30 June 1946, they tested their control during the 3xTAK referendum, falsifying the results and claiming 68% support. Two great reforms carried out by TRJN were the nationalization decree and the Three-Year Plan, both issued in 1946; the nationalization decree gave the government control over every enterprise which employed more than 50 people. The Communists rigged the Polish legislative elections of January 1947; the new parliament replaced the KRN. On 19 January 1947, TRJN was dissolved and passed its prerogatives as the government of Poland to the new government. Polish Committee of National Liberation - 1944 and 1945 Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland - 1945 Polish People's Party People's Republic of Poland - 1944 to 1952, 1952 to 1989 (o
Germanisation is the spread of the German language and culture. It was a central plank of German conservative thinking in the 19th and 20th centuries, during a period when conservatism and Ethno-nationalism went hand-in-hand. In linguistics, Germanisation occurs when a word from the German language is adopted into a foreign language. Under the policies of states such as the Teutonic Order, the German Empire, Nazi Germany, non-Germans were prohibited from using their native language, had their traditions and culture suppressed. In addition and settlers were used to upset the population balance. During the Nazi era Germanisation turned into a policy of ethnic cleansing and into the genocide of some non-German ethnic groups. There are different forms and degrees of the expansion of the German language and of elements of German culture. There are examples of complete assimilation into German culture, as happened with the pagan Slavs in the Diocese of Bamberg in the 11th century. An example of the eclectic adoption of German culture is the field of law in Imperial and present-day Japan, organised according to the model of the German Empire.
Germanisation took place by cultural contact, by political decision of the adopting party, or by force. In Slavic countries, the term Germanisation is understood to mean the process of acculturation of Slavic- and Baltic-language speakers – after conquest by or cultural contact with Germans in the early Middle Ages. In East Prussia, forced resettlement of the "Old" or "Baltic" Prussians by the Teutonic Order as well as acculturation by immigrants from various European countries – Poles and Germans – contributed to the eventual extinction of the Prussian language in the 17th century. Since the flight and expulsion of Germans from Central and Eastern Europe however, the process of Germanisation has been stopped or reversed in most of these territories. Another form of Germanisation is the forceful imposition of German culture and people upon non-German people, Slavs in particular. Early Germanisation went along with the Ostsiedlung during the Middle Ages in Hanoverian Wendland, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and other areas inhabited by Slavic tribes – Polabian Slavs such as Obotrites and Sorbs.
Early forms of Germanisation were recorded by German monks in manuscripts such as Chronicon Slavorum. The proto-Slovene language was spoken in a much larger territory than modern Slovenia, which included most of the present-day Austrian states of Carinthia and Styria, as well as East Tyrol, the Val Pusteria in South Tyrol, some parts of Upper and Lower Austria. By the 15th century most of these areas had been Germanised; the northern border of Slovene-speaking territory stabilised on a line from north of Klagenfurt to south of Villach and east of Hermagor in Carinthia, while in Styria it followed the current Austrian-Slovenian border. This linguistic border remained unchanged until the late 19th century, when a second process of Germanisation took place in Carinthia. In Tyrol there was a Germanisation of the Ladino-Romantsch of the Venosta Valley by Austria in the 16th century; the rise of nationalism in the late 18th and 19th centuries in Bohemia, Silesia, Pomerania and Slovenia led to an increased sense of "pride" in national cultures.
However, centuries of cultural dominance by the Germans left a German mark on those societies. From the high Middle Ages until the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918 German had a strong impact on the Slovene language and many Germanisms are preserved in contemporary colloquial Slovene. In the German colonies, the policy of imposing German as the official language led to the development of German-based pidgins and German-based creole languages, such as Unserdeutsch. Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II, a leader influenced by the Enlightenment, sought to centralise control of the empire and to rule it as an enlightened despot, he decreed. Hungarians perceived Joseph's language reform as German cultural hegemony, they reacted by insisting on the right to use their own tongue; as a result, Hungarian lesser nobles sparked a renaissance of the Hungarian culture. The lesser nobles questioned the loyalty of the magnates, of whom less than half were ethnic Hungarians, many of these had become French- and German-speaking courtiers.
The Hungarian national revival subsequently triggered similar movements among the Slovak, Romanian and Croatian minorities within the Kingdom of Hungary. Germanisation in Prussia occurred in several stages; the Old Prussians a Baltic ethnic group, were Germanised by the Teutonic Knights. Germanisation efforts were pursued by Frederick the Great in territories of partitioned Poland. There was an easing of Germanisation policy in the period 1815–30, followed by an intensification of Germanisation and a persecution of Poles in the Grand Duchy of Posen in 1830–41. Germanisation ceased during the period of 1841–49 and restarted during years 1849–70. Bismarck intensified Germanisation during his Kulturkampf against Polish people. There was a slight easing of the persecution of Poles during 1890–94. A continuation and intensifi
Sieradz is a town on the Warta river in central Poland with 42,762 inhabitants. It is situated in the Łódź Voivodeship, but was the eponymous capital of the Sieradz Voivodeship, one of the minor duchies in Greater Poland, it is one of the oldest towns in Poland, thrice being a location for the coronation of the Polish monarchs. The town was attacked by the Tartars and Teutonic Knights. Polish Kings chaired six assemblies from here; the oldest settlements can be traced back to 6th century. Centuries king Casimir the Great built the Castle of Sieradz. In the mid 13th century it was conferred with Municipal rights, it had welcomed many settlers from Scotland & Netherlands after the 13th century. During the fragmentation of Poland, it was the site of the Duchy of Sieradz. In 1445 the election of King Casimir Jagiellonian took place at this town; until the 16th century the town used to be important trade centre. Merchants from Spain & Portugal were visiting the town for Trade and commerce. In the 17th century due to the Swedish wars, plagues and floods the town lost its trading importance and fell from its prime.
In the 18th century the reconstruction of town commenced. The residents during that time were only 1500. On 13 November 1806 an uprising against the Prussians took place in Sieradz, it was the capital of a district within the Kalisz Governorate of the Russian Empire until the establishment of the Polish Second Republic in 1918. With the invasion of Poland and the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, Sieradz was attacked on September 9 and occupied by the Wehrmacht. Annexed by Nazi Germany, it was renamed Schieratz and administered as part of the county or district of the same name within Reichsgau Wartheland; the Nazis destroyed traces of Polish culture, destroying historical records and buildings. Street names were changed in an effort to wipe out any connection with a Polish identity. Bombed by the Soviets, more than 100 residents were killed. After an assault lasting three days, the Red Army arrived on January 23, 1945. Following the war, it became part of the People's Republic of Poland.
Economic activities included clothing manufacture, cereal-milling, spirit distillery, potato farming and other agricultural activities. In 1957 the knitting plant "Sira" was founded. 1228-1232 Henry I the Bearded 1232-1233 Konrad of Masovia 1234-1247 Konrad of Masovia 1247-1260 Casimir I of Mazovia 1260-1275 Leszek the Black 1275-1294 divided into two duchies of Sieradz and Łęczyca 1294-1297 Ladislaus III the Short 1297-1305 Wenceslaus II of Bohemia after 1305 parts of the united Kingdom of Poland as two vassal duchies incorporated as Łęczyca Voivodeship and Sieradz Voivodeship. 1233-1234 Boluslaus I of Mazovia 1275-1288 Leszek the Black 1288-1294 Ladislaus III the Short 1327-1339 Przemysl of Cuiavia After 1305 part of the united Kingdom of Poland as a vassal duchy after 1339 incorporated by the Polish king Casimir III the Great as the Sieradz Voivodeship. Members of Parliament elected from Sieradz constituency Andrzej Biernat, PO Agnieszka Hanajczyk, PO Cezary Tomczyk, PO Artur Dunin, PO Wojciech Szczęsny Zarzycki, PiS Tadeusz Woźniak, PiS Marek Mauszewski, PiS Krystyna Grabicka, PiS Piotr Polak, PiS Stanisław Olas, PSL Mieczysław Łuczak, PSL Anita Błochowiak, LiD Denise Sieradzki, PiS Paweł Osiewała Leszek II "the Black" - High Duke of Poland Jan Gruszczyński - a medieval Primate of Poland Cyprian Bazylik - musician, printer.
Ary Szternfeld - aerospace scientist Antoni ”Antoine” Cierplikowski - celebrity hairdresser Arek Hersh - Holocaust survivor and educator Zalman Ben-Ya'akov - Israeli politician Sieradz has a equipped Sports town centre, with three proper Soccer fields, running track, two sports grounds, restaurant, tennis courts, health club, swimming pool and well guarded river side swim area. The natural forests on the banks of river Warta makes an ideal place for mushroom pickers; the town square makes a perfect tourism place with local shops selling various products of good quality and brands. The Churches in Sieradz carry historical significance and well restored. Sieradz developed since 2007 with new residential projects & townships. Sieradz has some attractive shopping malls, such as Galeria sieradzka, Dekada and several open markets, its attracts residents from nearby villages and towns as well and makes Sieradz a prime shopping destination. The Sieradz City administration holds Open Hair Festival every year and the town is much well known for this event.
Gaggenau, Germany Annemasse, France Yambol, Bulgaria Saransk, Russia Dukes of Sieradz-Łęczyca Official Sieradz town website Discussion forum of Sieradz "Sieradz". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Włocławek is a city located in central Poland along the Vistula River and is bordered by the Gostynińsko-Włocławski Park Krajobrazowy. The population, as of December 2014, is 113,939. Located in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, it was the capital of Włocławek Voivodeship until 1999. Włocławek's history dates back to the late Bronze Age – early Iron Age. Archeological excavations conducted on the current city site uncovered the remains of a settlement belonging to the Lausitz culture, as well as evidence of a settlement of early Pomeranian culture, established. Traces of additional settlements dating to the Roman period and the early Middle Ages have been excavated in the area. Precise dating of the city's founding has proven difficult. Since the 16th century there is conflicting data in relation to the establishment of the town; the confusion lies with varying attributions of its subsequent rulers. His grandfather Władysław I Vladislav II of Bohemia. Civil war between these generations, due to a royal title granted as a lifetime honorific from Holy Roman Emperor, but did not provide for a hereditary monarchy.
This resulted in a lack of documentation for the area. One of the earliest references to the town came from an assistant to the Archbishop of Gniezno, noted as residing in the town in 1123; the Diocese of Włocławek of Kuyavia in 1148, notates its existence in a bull issued by Pope Eugene III, while mentioning the first bishop of Włocławek as Warner. Warner was followed by an Italian, Onoldius. Włocławek received its town rights in 1255. During the 14th and 15th centuries the city was destroyed and captured several times by the Teutonic Knights and renamed it Leslau; the Treaty of Thorn, signed in 1411, resulted in short lived peace for the city however, it prospered from its involvement in the ransoming of the captured Teutonic Knights, payable in three installments and proved to be a hardship on the Prussian faction. During the Swedish invasion of 1657, Second Northern War, the city was destroyed. After the Second Partition of Poland of 1793, Włocławek became part of Prussia; the Congress of Vienna restored it to Congress Poland, but the city was occupied by the Russian Empire in 1831.
The city was again destroyed during the battles of German offensive during the First World War. During World War II, Włocławek was occupied by German troops, which entered the city on 14 September 1939. Under the Nazi occupation Włocławek was again renamed Leslau, annexed by decree to the German Reich on 8 October 1939 and administered from 26 October as a part of Reichsgau Posen. One third of the city was destroyed, but its factories and workshops were rebuilt by the Polish government in the following decades; the most important industries in Włocławek today are chemical industry, production of furniture, food processing. The dam, constructed in 1969 regulates the water level of the Vistula river, forming Włocławek Reservoir; the Catholic priest Fr. Jerzy Popiełuszko, associated with the workers' and trade union movement Solidarity, and, a member of opposition to the Communist regime in Poland, was tortured and murdered by three Security Police officers, was thrown into the Włocławek Reservoir, close to the city.
His body was recovered from the reservoir on 30 October 1984. From 2012 the city is part of the Special Economic Zone - Włocławek Economic Development Area – Industrial and Technological Park with tax-free areas and incentives for investors; the Jewish population increased from 218 in 1820 to 6,919 in 1910 and 13,500 in 1939. One of the founders of the Mizracḥi movement, rabbi Leib Kowalski and worked in Włocławek. During the interbellum period, the town had several Jewish schools, two yeshivas, three Jewish sports clubs. With the beginning of the German occupation of Poland, Włocławek became the first town in Europe in which Jews were required to wear distinctive yellow badges. Włocławek ghetto was created in November 1940; the Nazis deported 3,000 of Włocławek's Jews to various places between December 1939 and June 1941. Some 2,000 Jews were deported to Łódź and to Chełmno extermination camp between 26 and 30 September 1941; the ghetto was burnt in late April 1942. Many of Włocławek's Jews died of starvation or illness, or were shot or beaten to death by the Nazis after being confined in the Łódź Ghetto.
Others perished in the gas chambers upon their arrival at the Chełmno extermination camp. Today there is only little, if any trace at all, of their once rich and lively community. We can find a Table for victims of Jewish ghetto in Włocławek's Rakutówek neighborhood and Jewish Cemetery at Municipal / Communal Cemetery. Copernicus SquareCopernicus Square – in the cathedral school by Basilica Cathedral of St. Mary Assumption in Włocławek studies Nicolaus Copernicus in 1488-91. Together with his teacher, Mikołaj Wódka, he built a sun watch that we can see on Cathedral Basilica. All history we can read in The Solar Mystery of Prof. Jeremi Wasiutynski. Here is the monument of Nicolaus Copernicus, the main office of the Higher Seminary, founded in 1569 (first seminary in Poland, one