The Mark was the currency of Hamburg and of Germany until 1873. It was subdivided into each of 12 Pfennig; the Hamburg Mark was with the final peg being 1 Mark = 1⁄34 Cologne mark. It was replaced by the Goldmark at a rate of 1 Hamburg mark = 1.2 Goldmark. Images and history from Sean Breazeal
Danish West Indian daler
The daler was the currency of the Danish West Indies between 1849 and 1917, of the United States Virgin Islands between 1917 and 1934. The daler replaced the rigsdaler in 1849. No subdivisions were issued until 1859, although a variety of coins were countermarked for use on the islands. In 1859, coins denominated in cents were introduced, with 100 cents. In 1904, two new denominations were introduced, franc; the four units were related as 5 bit = 1 cent, 100 bit = 20 cents = 1 franc, 100 cents = 5 francs = 1 daler. Coins were issued each denominated in two units and cents, francs and cents, or francs and daler. Gold coins were struck and issued in 4 and 10 daler denominations only in 1904. Banknotes were issued denominated in francs; the franc was equal to the French franc, with text on the reverse of the banknotes giving the value in Danish kroner and øre, with 1 franc = 72 øre. The daler was replaced by the U. S. dollar 17 years after the Danish West Indies became the U. S. Virgin Islands in 1934, with 1 dollar = 1.0363 daler.
This was done through identical ordinances passed by the Colonial Councils for the municipality of Saint Thomas & Saint John and the municipality of Saint Croix, with the agreement of the US Treasury after the expiration of the charter of the National Bank of the Danish West Indies. The US dollar became legal tender on 1 July 1934, while the Danish West Indian daler coins remained legal tender until 14 July 1935. Just before September 28.th 1850, U. S. half dollars with the years 1848,1849 and 1850 and quarter dollars with the year 1849 were stamped with a crowned FRVII for circulation in the Danish West Indies as shown in the Standard World Coin catalog of Krause & Mishler 1801-1900. One of the half dollars and the quarter dollar was sent to the Colonial Central office in Copenhagen in 1850 - these coins are now kept in the Royal Coin Cabinet in the National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen. Only these denominations with the above mentioned years are considered genuine for circulation in Danish West Indies - and they were replaced in 1859 with new coins minted in Denmark for the Danish West Indies.
Until 1878 no other denominations was known with such countermarks - but denominations from U. S. Brazilian, British West Indies, French and Spanish coins were from on known to have been stamped with vaguely similar countermarks; these coins were fabricated in France to sell to coin collectors and have not been in circulation in the Danish West Indies. These fabricated denominations listed in another Krause & Mishler catalog as well as in the coin catalog Unusual World Coins are 1⁄2 and 1 cent, 1⁄4, 1⁄2 and 1 dollar from the U. S. A. 1⁄8 and 1⁄4 dollar from the British West Indies' anchor coinage, British farthings, 1⁄2 and 6 pence, 1 shilling, 1⁄2 and 1 crown, French 5 sous and 1⁄2 franc, Mexican 8 reales, Dutch 25 cent and Spanish 4 maravedíes, 1, 2 and 4 reales. In 1859, coins were introduced in denominations of 3, 5, 10 and 20 cents. Except for the bronze 1 cent, these coins were silver. In 1904, with the new currency system, gold coins were introduced in denominations of 4 daler and 10 daler.
These were followed in 1905 by denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 40 cents. These coins bore the denominations 2 1⁄2, 5, 10 and 50 bit, 1 and 2 francs; the 1⁄2, 1 and 2 cents were struck in bronze, the 5 cents in nickel and the other denominations in silver. In 1849, the State Treasury introduced notes in denominations of 3, 5, 10, 50 and 100 dalere; the Bank of St Thomas issued notes denominated in dollars between 1837 and 1889. It is not indicated on the notes. In 1905, the Dansk-Vestindiske Nationalbank introduced notes in denominations of 5, 10, 20 and 100 francs, which bore indications of their value in Danish kroner, 3.6, 7.2, 14.4 and 72 kroner
Prussia was a prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19; the Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. From 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state.
With the end of the Nazi regime, in 1945, the division of Germany into allied-occupation zones and the separation of its territories east of the Oder–Neisse line, which were incorporated into Poland and the Soviet Union, the State of Prussia ceased to exist de facto. Prussia existed de jure until its formal abolition by the Allied Control Council Enactment No. 46 of 25 February 1947. The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians. In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk, their monastic state was Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany, and, in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, the eastern part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia, a fief of the Crown of Poland up to 1657; the union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom, exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries.
During the 18th century it had a major say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany", which excluded the Austrian Empire. At the Congress of Vienna, which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia acquired rich new territories, including the coal-rich Ruhr; the country grew in influence economically and politically, became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians; the Kingdom ended in 1918 along with other German monarchies that collapsed as a result of the German Revolution. In the Weimar Republic, the Free State of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. Subsequently, it was dismantled into Nazi German Gaue in 1935.
Some Prussian ministries were kept and Hermann Göring remained in his role as Minister President of Prussia until the end of World War II. Former eastern territories of Germany that made up a significant part of Prussia lost the majority of their German population after 1945 as the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union both absorbed these territories and had most of its German inhabitants expelled by 1950. Prussia, deemed a bearer of militarism and reaction by the Allies, was abolished by an Allied declaration in 1947; the international status of the former eastern territories of Germany was disputed until the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in 1990, while its return to Germany remains a topic among far right politicians, the Federation of Expellees and various political revisionists. The term Prussian has been used outside Germany, to emphasise professionalism, aggressiveness and conservatism of the Junker class of landed aristocrats in the East who dominated first Prussia and the German Empire.
The main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background. The black and white national colours were used by the Teutonic Knights and by the Hohenzollern dynasty; the Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a black cross with gold insert and black imperial eagle. The combination of the black and white colours with the white and red Hanseatic colours of the free cities Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, as well as of Brandenburg, resulted in the black-white-red commercial flag of the North German Confederation, which became the flag of the German Empire in 1871. Suum cuique, the motto of the Order of the Black Eagle created by King Frederick I in 1701, was associated with the whole of Prussia; the Iron Cross, a military decoration created by King Frederick William III in 1813, was commonly associated with the country. The region populated by Baltic Old Prussians who were Christianised, became a favoured location for immigration by Germans, as well as Poles and Lithuanians along the border regions.
Before its abolition, the territory of the Kingdom of Prussia included the provinces of West Prussia.
Northern Europe is a general term for the geographical region in Europe, north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, about 54°N. Narrower definitions may be based on other geographical factors such as ecology. A broader definition would include the area north of the Alps. Countries which are central-western, central or central-eastern are not considered part of either Northern or Southern Europe; when Europe was dominated by the Roman Empire, everything not near the Mediterranean region was termed Northern Europe, including southern Germany, all of the Low Countries, Austria. This meaning is still used today in some contexts, for example, discussions of the Northern Renaissance. Northern Europe might be defined as the British Isles, the peninsula of Jutland, the Baltic plain that lies to the east and the many islands that lie offshore from mainland Northern Europe and the main European continent. Nations included within this region are Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Lithuania and Sweden, less the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, northern Germany, northern Belarus and northwest Russia.
The area is mountainous, including the northern volcanic islands of Iceland and Jan Mayen, the mountainous western seaboard and Scandinavia, includes part of a large eastern plain, with Lithuania, Latvia and Finland. The entire region's climate is at least mildly affected by the Gulf Stream. From the west climates vary from maritime subarctic climates. In the north and central climates are subarctic or Arctic and to the east climates are subarctic and temperate/continental. Just as both climate and relief are variable across the region, so too is vegetation, with sparse tundra in the north and high mountains, boreal forest on the north-eastern and central regions temperate coniferous forests and temperate broadleaf forests growing in the south and temperate east. Countries included in their entirety within the region, by population count: United Kingdom 66,040,229 Sweden 10,067,744 Denmark 5,769,603 Finland 5,513,000 Norway 5,282,223 Ireland 4,813,608 Lithuania 2,827,721 Latvia 1,940,740 Estonia 1,317,800 Iceland 341,284Countries in Northern Europe have developed economies and some of the highest standards of living in the world.
They score on surveys measuring quality of life, such as the Human Development Index. Aside from the United Kingdom, they have a small population relative to their size, most of whom live in cities. Most peoples living in Northern Europe are traditionally Protestant Christians, although many are non-practicing. There are growing numbers of non-religious people and people of other religions Muslims, due to immigration. In the United Kingdom, there are significant numbers of Indian religions such as Hindus and Sikhs, due to the large South Asian diaspora; the quality of education in much of Northern Europe is rated in international rankings, with Estonia and Finland topping the list among the OECD countries in Europe. The Hansa group in the European Union comprises most of the Northern European states. Media related to Northern Europe at Wikimedia Commons
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 581,980 inhabitants as of 2017, it is Germany's tenth most populous city. Leipzig is located about 160 kilometres southwest of Berlin at the confluence of the White Elster, Pleiße and Parthe rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain. Leipzig has been a trade city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire; the city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and the Via Imperii, two important medieval trade routes. Leipzig was once one of the major European centers of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing. Leipzig became a major urban center within the German Democratic Republic after the Second World War, but its cultural and economic importance declined. Events in Leipzig in 1989 played a significant role in precipitating the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe through demonstrations starting from St. Nicholas Church. Since the reunification of Germany, Leipzig has undergone significant change with the restoration of some historical buildings, the demolition of others, the development of a modern transport infrastructure.
Leipzig today is an economic centre, the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK marketing research institution and has the second-best future prospects of all cities in Germany, according to HWWI and Berenberg Bank. Leipzig Zoo is one of the most modern zoos in Europe and ranks first in Germany and second in Europe according to Anthony Sheridan. Since the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel in 2013, Leipzig forms the centrepiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system. Leipzig is listed as a Gamma World City, Germany's "Boomtown" and as the European City of the Year 2019. Leipzig has long been a major center for music, both classical as well as modern "dark alternative music" or darkwave genres; the Oper Leipzig is one of the most prominent opera houses in Germany. It was founded in 1693, making it the third oldest opera venue in Europe after La Fenice and the Hamburg State Opera. Leipzig is home to the University of Music and Theatre "Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy", it was during a stay in this city that Friedrich Schiller wrote his poem "Ode to Joy".
The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, established in 1743, is one of the oldest symphony orchestras in the world. Johann Sebastian Bach is one among many major composers who lived in Leipzig; the name Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means "settlement where the linden trees stand". An older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic; the Latin name Lipsia was used. The name is cognate with Lipetsk in Liepāja in Latvia. In 1937 the Nazi government renamed the city Reichsmessestadt Leipzig. Since 1989 Leipzig has been informally dubbed "Hero City", in recognition of the role that the Monday demonstrations there played in the fall of the East German regime – the name alludes to the honorary title awarded in the former Soviet Union to certain cities that played a key role in the victory of the Allies during the Second World War; the common usage of this nickname for Leipzig up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt.de.
More the city has sometimes been nicknamed the "Boomtown of eastern Germany", "Hypezig" or "The better Berlin" for being celebrated by the media as a hip urban centre for the vital lifestyle and creative scene with many startups. Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg as urbs Libzi and endowed with city and market privileges in 1165 by Otto the Rich. Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, has become an event of international importance and is the oldest surviving trade fair in the world. There are records of commercial fishing operations on the river Pleiße in Leipzig dating back to 1305, when the Margrave Dietrich the Younger granted the fishing rights to the church and convent of St Thomas. There were a number of monasteries in and around the city, including a Franciscan monastery after which the Barfußgäßchen is named and a monastery of Irish monks near the present day Ranstädter Steinweg; the foundation of the University of Leipzig in 1409 initiated the city's development into a centre of German law and the publishing industry, towards being the location of the Reichsgericht and the German National Library.
During the Thirty Years' War, two battles took place in Breitenfeld, about 8 kilometres outside Leipzig city walls. The first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in 1631 and the second in 1642. Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side. On 24 December 1701, an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced; the city employed light guards who had to follow a specific schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the 700 lanterns. The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig between Napoleonic France and an allied coalition of Prussia, Russia and Sweden, it was the largest battle in Europe before the First World War and the coalition victory ended Napoleon's presence in Germany and would lead to his first exile on Elba. The Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed in 1913. In addition to stimulating German nationalism, the war had a major impact in mobilizing a civic spirit in numerous volunteer activities. Many volunteer militi
The rigsdaler was the name of several currencies used in Denmark until 1875. The named Reichsthaler and rijksdaalder were used in Germany and Austria-Hungary and the Netherlands, respectively; these currencies were anglicized as rix-dollar or rixdollar. The Danish currency system established in 1625 consisted of 12 penning = 1 skilling, 16 skilling = 1 mark, 6 mark = 1 rigsdaler and 8 mark = 1 krone. From 1713, two separate systems coexisted and species, with courant being a debased currency used for banknote issue; the rigsdaler species contained 4⁄37 of a Cologne mark of fine silver. In 1813, following a financial crisis, a new currency system was introduced, based on the rigsbankdaler. For six rigsdaler in old banknotes, a new one rigsbankdaler note was exchanged; the rigsbankdaler This was divided into 96 rigsbank skilling and was equal to half a rigsdaler species or 6 rigsdaler courant. A further change was made in 1854; the rigsdaler species name disappeared and the names rigsbankdaler and rigsbank skilling became rigsdaler and skilling rigsmønt.
Thus, there were 96 skilling rigsmønt to the rigsdaler. In 1873, Denmark and Sweden formed the Scandinavian Monetary Union and the rigsdaler was replaced by the Danish krone on 1 January 1875. An equal valued krone/krona of the monetary union replaced the three currencies at the rate of 1 krone/krona = 1⁄2 Danish rigsdaler = 1⁄4 Norwegian speciedaler = 1 Swedish riksdaler; because of this reform, where two Danish kroner was of equal worth to the Danish daler, the "tokrone" coins got the common name of "daler" as they were functionally the same. This has however, become an uncommon name as a result of a gap in the "tokrone" coin's existence from 1959 to 1993. In the late 18th century, coins were issued in denominations of 1⁄2, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 32 skilling, 1⁄15, 1⁄4, 1⁄3, 1⁄2 and 1 rigsdaler specie. Between 1813 and 1815, copper coins bearing the legend "rigsbanktegn" were issued in denominations of 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 and 16 skilling. From 1818, 1, 2 and 32 rigsbank skilling coins were issued, with 1 rigsdaler species from 1820.
From 1826, gold coins were issued denominated in "Frederiks d'Or" or "Christians d'Or". The "d'or" was nominally worth 10 rigsdaler. In 1838, 1⁄2 rigsbank skilling coins were introduced. Between 1840 and 1843, a new coinage was introduced, consisting of 1⁄5, 1⁄2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 16 and 32 rigsbank skilling, 1 rigsbankdaler and 1 rigsdaler species. Denominations between 4 rigsbank skilling and 1 rigsbankdaler were inscribed with the denomination in the currency of Schleswig-Holstein, the Schilling Courant, of which there were 60 to the Speciethaler, equal to the rigsdaler species; these denominations were 2 1⁄2, 5, 10 and 30 Schilling Courant. The renaming of the currency units in 1854 lead to the issuing of coins for 1⁄2, 1, 4 and 16 skilling rigsmønt, 1 and 2 rigsdaler. Gold "d'or" coins continued to be issued. In 1713, the government introduced notes for 2 and 3 mark, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 rigsdaler; the Copenhagen Assignation and Loans Bank issued notes between 1737 and 1804 for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100 rigsdaler courant.
Between 1791 and 1797, the Danish-Norwegian Specie Bank issued notes for 4, 8, 20, 40 and 80 rigsdaler specie. The treasury issued notes for 2 and 20 rigsdaler courant in 1808, followed by 8, 12 and 24 skilling notes in 1809-1810. In 1813, the Rigsbank introduced notes in denominations of 5, 10, 50 and 100 rigsbankdaler; these were followed, by notes of the National Bank in the same denominations. After the change in name of the currency, the National Bank issued notes for 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 rigsbankdaler. Norwegian rigsdaler Norwegian speciedaler Swedish riksdaler
The rijksdaalder was a Dutch coin first issued by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in the late 16th century during the Dutch Revolt. Featuring an armored half bust of William the Silent, rijksdaalder was minted to the Saxon reichsthaler weight standard – 448 grains of.885 fine silver. Friesland, Holland, Overijssel, West Friesland and Zwolle minted armored half bust rijksdaalders until the end of the 17th century. 17th century rijksdaalder was set to be equal to from 48 to 50 stuivers and circulated along with silver florins, leeuwendaalders, silver ducats, ducatons. While liondaalders were made of less pure silver at 427.16 grains of.750 fineness, silver ducats and rijksdaalders were of the same size and quality. With the disappearance of the original armored half bust rijksdaalder design, silver ducats and 2 1⁄2 guilders started to be called rijksdaalders. Unification of the Dutch monetary system in the beginning of the 18th century introduced guilder and set rijksdaalders and silver ducats at 2 1⁄2 guilders.
Following decimalization, 2 1⁄2-guilder coins were no longer produced because a 3-guilder coin was thought to better fit in the series of denominations. This turned out to be a mistake and from 1840 onward 2 1⁄2-guilder coins were produced again. Production stopped in 2002 due to the introduction of the euro. 2 1⁄2-guilder coins continued to be called by their nicknames rijksdaalder and knaak until the introduction of the euro. The Royal Dutch Mint still mints a silver ducat today; the Dutch rijksdaalder or the local versions of the 2 1⁄2-guilder coin were circulating in Dutch East India from 1602 until 1949. In this year the Netherlands Indies gulden was replaced by the Indonesian rupiah; the Netherlands United East India Company issued the rijksdaalder in the Cape Colony in the 16th century. The Dutch monetary system overseas of a rijksdaalder – or rixdollar – of 48 stuiver was continued in the Cape Province by the British in the early nineteenth century. In Ceylon, the VOC issued coins during the 18th century in denominations of 1⁄8 and 1 duit, 1⁄4, 1, 2 and 4 3⁄4 stuiver and 1 rijksdaalder.
The currency derived from the Dutch rijksdaalder, although again the Dutch rijksdaalder was worth 50 stuiver and the Ceylon version 48 stuiver. After the British took over Ceylon, the rixdollar was the currency of Ceylon until 1828; the rixdollar was replaced by the British pound at a rate of 1 rixdollar = 1 shilling 6 pence. In Suriname the Surinamese Rijksdaalder circulated until 2004, when the Surinamese guilder was replaced by the Surinamese dollar. In the former Netherlands Antilles the rijksdaalder circulated until 2011. In that year the Netherlands Antillean guilder will be replaced by the American dollar and the Caribbean guilder; the named Reichsthaler and rigsdaler were used in Germany and Austria-Hungary, Sweden and Norway, respectively. The American dollar is named after the Dutch daalder, the little brother of the rijksdaalder, with a value of 30 stuiver