The Pfrimm is a 42.7-kilometre long, left or western tributary of the Rhine in the Rhineland-Palatinate. The Pfrimm rises in the southern part of the Donnersbergkreis, its spring lies in the northern part of the Palatinate Forest Nature Park, about 3 kilometres southeast of the municipality Sippersfeld in the protected area Sippersfelder Weiher, which contains several ponds in the Hinterwald area. The spring is in a valley surrounded by the hills Sperberhöhe in the east, Salweidenkopf in the south and Schnepfberg in the southwest. In 1927, the spring was encased in basalt stones. About 10 metres north of the spring, the Pfrimm river flows through a pond named Pfrimmweiher and subsequently through a pond named Sippersfelder Weiher, it does not flow thought the nearby pond Retzbergweiher, which lies nearby to the west. The Pfrimm flows through agricultural areas, about parallel to the federal road B47; the upper part of the river drains the northern parts of the North Palatine Uplands. Below the Sippersfelder Weiher, it flows to the north, past Pfrimmerhof, which belongs to the municipality of Sippersfeld west past the hill Pfrimmer Berg and through the village of Breunigweiler, where the Mohbach joins from the southeast.
After entering the Alzey Hills, the Pfrimm takes up the Bornbach and flows northeastward past Standenbühl, while the Donnersberg mountains are a few kilometers further northeast. Between Standenbühl and Dreisen, the Münsterhof, the former Premonstratensian abbey Münsterdreisen, is situated on the Pfrimm's southern shore. An old bulging sandstone bridge from 1770 spans the river at this point. Below Dreisen, the Häferbach joins from the west. In Marnheim, the Gerbach joins from the west. From here, the Pfrimm flows past Albisheim the Leiselsbach joins from the northwest, it flows east to Harxheim, where the Ammelbach joins from the south. The Pfrimm continues thereby into Rhenish Hesse, it flows via Wachenheim to Monsheim, where it crosses under federal road B121. The section between Marnheim and Monsheim is known as the Zellertal valley. Within the municipality Monsheim, the Pfrimm forms the boundary between the wards Monsheim and Kriegsheim; the Pfrimm reaches the urban district of Worms. It flows through the western ward of Pfeddersheim, where in 1525 the Battle of Pfeddersheim took place.
To the west of the village, we find the reacrational area Wiesenbrünnchen and the first of two so-called ox pianos. The Pfrimm crosses under the 30-metre high and 1,471.4-metre long bridge Talbrücke Pfeddersheim of the Autobahn A61. The Pfrimm flows through the city of Worms itself; this is the most canalized section of the river. It follows the Leiselheimer Damm, constructed in the Middle Ages and raised in 1841 as part of a Pfrimm improvement project. A footpath runs on top of the Damm alognside the river since 1890; the Pfrimm flows through the 300-metre long Pfrimmweiher pond and into the Karl-Bittel-Park, where the other "ox piano" can be found. The Pfrimm flows through the city center of Worms and turns north-northeast, it crosses under the Worms Port Railway. About 3 kilometres north of the city center, it flows into the Upper Rhine at Rhine kilometer 446.7. The Rhine forms the Worms city limit and the boundary between the states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse. In some years, the Pfrimm causes major flooding, for example in 1882, 1892, 1902, 1940, 1950, 1978, 1995 and 2003.
A high flood occurred on 27 November 1882, when all the mills along the river were flooded and the fields along the river were transformed into a series of lakes. The water flowed into Gaustraße street in the district of Neuhausen, north of the Worms Central Station; the water flowed into the Rhine near the Liebfrauenkirche Church. In the late 19th century and Hochheim were independent municipalities. A weir was constructed across the Pfrimm in the 1890s above the modern Karl-Bittel-Park. Directly below the weir a series of stepping stones was deployed below the weir in 1898, it is a combination of stone stairs leading down to Pfrimm steps and stepping stones lying in the river allowing pedestrians to cross. In the local vernacular it was called an "ox piano": "ox", because Karl Bittel, who constructed it, claimed an ox would be capable of crossing, "piano" because the stones were raised above the water like the black keys on a piano. A regular footbridge was built above the weir, so that the ox piano lost its importance.
The stones are still there and when the water level isn't too high, it can still be crossed. A fish ladder was added, allowing fish to overcome the weir. A much older ox piano could be found in the western part of in Pfeddersheimer in the middle of the Enzingerstraße. Here, a concrete dam and a weir were used to divert it into the Mühlbach. Water not needed by the mill was drained using an adjustable weir or, at higher water levels, across the entire width of the concrete barrier. Here, "ox piano" was constructed, allowing pedestrians to cross the Pfrimm with dry feet, if the water level permitted; the Mill Brook was about a meter deep, near the weir over two meters, was used by local residents for swimming and diving, as was the waterfall created by the weir. The Pfrimm is class
Ahr is a river in Germany, a left tributary of the Rhine. Its source is at an elevation of 470 metres above sea level in Blankenheim in the Eifel, in the cellar of a timber-frame house near the castle of Blankenheim. After 18 kilometres it crosses from North Rhine-Westphalia into Rhineland-Palatinate; the Ahr flows through Ahr valley or Ahrtal, passing through the towns of Schuld and Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler. Between Remagen and Sinzig, at about 50 metres above sea level, it flows into the Rhine; the length is 89 kilometres, of which 68 kilometres is within Rhineland-Palatinate. The Ahr has a gradient of 0.4 percent in its lower course, 0.4 to 0.8 percent in its upper course. The Ahr and its tributaries are a main drainage system of the eastern Eifel; the watershed is 900 square kilometres. There were isolated settlements in the Ahr valley beginning at the latest in Roman times, evidenced by the Roman villa near Ahrweiler. Owing to their isolated location, the upper and middle parts of the course were sparsely populated.
That changed from the mid-19th century. The development of the settlements, the traffic routes and the agricultural areas in the Ahr valley led to the fact that the riverbed was fixed; the Ahr rises in the middle of the village of Blankenheim, in the Eifel region of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, in the basement of a timber-framed house in an enclosed spring at a height of 474 m above sea level. It flows through the Schwanenweiher pond below Blankenheim Castle; the stream, which runs in a south-easterly direction, through the valley meadows of upper Ahr valley, has not cut deeply into the heights of the Eifel. Much of the upper Ahr valley follows the B 258 federal road. Below the hamlet of Ahrdorf in the municipality of Blankenheim, the Ahr reaches its southernmost point and enters the state of Rhineland-Palatine. From Müsch via Antweiler to Fuchshofen, the river runs northwards and turns east at Schuld heading through Insul to Dümpelfeld. Here, the Ahr collects the waters of the Adenauer Bach coming from the right and flowing in a northeasterly direction.
In Altenahr, the valley bends to the east and follows a winding course. Here the river is accompanied by the B 267. In Altenahr, the largest bend in the river beings. From here, the valley becomes a gorge bordered by the steep cliffs of the Ahr Hills. From Reimerzhoven the valley sides are dominated by vineyards on the south-facing slopes north of the river around the villages of Mayschoß, Rech and Marienthal; the last narrow point in the Ahr valley occurs below the Bunte Kuh, a rock formation that reaches the river and leaves little room for road and railway. In Walporzheim, the valley widens abruptly, the Ahr passes through the county town of Bad Neuenahr. In Heimersheim, the vineyards end; the valley floor between Bad Bodendorf on the northern side and Sinzig on a terrace in the south is dominated by agriculture and fruit and vegetable growing. The mouth of the Ahr lies on the plain of the Golden Mile, between the Remagen district of Kripp and the town of Sinzig at a height of about 53 m above NHN.
Since being re-naturalised it has been one of the few natural river mouths on the Rhine and is under protection. Ahr - Source, Mouth The tributaries of the Ahr include: Tributaries with a length of over 7 km: Left tributaries are in dark blue; the Ahr is well known for the many vineyards that grace the hillsides downstream of the village of Altenahr. The small Ahr wine region is the largest contiguous red wine-growing area in Germany, noted for wines made from the Spätburgunder grape; the Red Wine Trail runs through the southern slopes of the lower Ahr Valley, passing inter alia the former government bunker. Golden Mile, the fertile plain at the mouth of the Ahr List of rivers of Rhineland-Palatinate List of rivers of North Rhine-Westphalia AhrtalGuide.com Pictures of this region Ahr 2000
The Rabiusa is a 32 km long tributary of the Rhine. The river originates in the district Hinterrhein in the canton of Graubünden, in the mountains surrounding the Bärenhorn, where the old bridle path from Safien to Splügen crosses the Safierberg Pass, it flows through the wooded Safien valley and into the rough Versam Gorge, where it is spanned by the Versam Gorge Bridge. The confluence with the Anterior Rhine is located in the deep Ruinaulta; the Carnusbach flows into the Rabiusa in a hamlet above the village of Safien-Platz. The Walser village of Safien is the only municipality on the river
The Eckbach is a small river in the northeastern Palatinate and the southeastern Rhenish Hesse. It is over 39 kilometres long. Linguistic Research into the old name of die Eck shows that it is related to the Upper German word Ache, which means "river" or "creek" and is derived from the Old High German aha. In the Middle Ages, the river was known as Leinbach; this name refers to the Leinbaum. In those days, both the Norway Maple and the Large-leaved Linden were called Leinbaum in German. Both species were common on the banks of the Eckbach. One difference between the species is the shape of the leaves: maple leaves are five lobed, lime leaves are undivided; the coat of arms of the House of Leiningen shows a stylized tree with five-lobed leaves and five-pointed flowers point to a maple. The House of Leiningen originated in the area around the upper Eckbach, it is possible that they named their ancestral castle after the river. The family was named after their castle and the area around the upper Eckbach is now called Leininger Land.
In the early 19th century, the local name of the river was Eck. The Kingdom of Bavaria acquired the Palatinate in 1816; when Bavarian cartographers mapped the area, they were unaware of the meaning of the word Eck and wanted to make it clear that the "Eck" is a brook, so they recorded the name as Eckbach. Linguistically speaking, this name means "brook brook"; the Eckbach rises near Carlsberg in northern Palatinate forest. The spring is framed in sandstone and is southeast of A6 at an elevation of 313 metres above sea level in the Kleinfrankreich section of the Hertlingshausen district of Carlsberg; the spring is marked by a so-called Ritterstein. The area surrounding the upper Eckbach is known as the Leininger Land or Leiningerland, after the aristocratic Leiningen family who ruled the area in the High Middle Ages; the Eckbach is the central watercourse in this area. This part of the river is managed by the Gewässer-Zweckverband Isenach-Eckbach, a division of the county of Bad Dürkheim; the river flows in an easterly direction through Hertlingshausen northeast through Altleiningen, where it receives water from the artificial 20-Pipe Well.
In the northeastern outskirts of Altleiningen, the Eckbach takes up the 4-kilometre long Rothbach from the left the 5-kilometre long Höninger Bach from the right. After flowing through the Eckbachweiher reservoir at Neuleiningen-Tal, the Eckbach breaks through the eastern edge of the Palatinate Forest, the Haardt, between the village of Battenberg on the south bank and Neuleiningen on the north bank, it reaches the vineyard-covered hills around the German Wine Route at Kleinkarlbach. In Kirchheim an der Weinstrasse, the Eckbach, now flowing eastward, passes under the north-south running B271 highway, before flowing through Bissersheim. From there, the Eckbach flows in a northeasterly direction to Großkarlbach, where it crosses the A6 motorway before flowing through Laumersheim. In Dirmstein, the Eckbach collects the 8-kilometre long Floßbach, locally known as the Landgraben, the Eckbach's largest tributary. To the left, that is, to the north of the Eckbach, the structure of the hills is defined.
There is a long, low ridge with three summits marking the divide between the Eisbach and the Eckbach: the Wörschberg, elevation 163 metres, north of the road connecting Obersülzen and Dirmstein, the Schneckenberg, elevation 143 metres, between Dirmstein and Offstein and the Stahlberg, elevation 134 metres, between Dirmstein and the Heppenheim district of Worms. The area south and to the right or the Eckbach is flatter and the Großkarlbach-Laumersheim-Dirmstein-Gerolsheim area used to be a boggy lowland, used as pasture land. Further south lies its southern neighbour, the Fuchsbach; this was a left tributary of the Isenach until the second half of the 20th century, when most of its water was diverted into Schrakelbach. The area between Laumersheim, Dirmstein and Heuchelheim contains a number of irrigation canals: Weihergraben, Altbach, Kühweidegraben, Altgraben and Lerchengraben; these ditches begin as distributaries of the Eckbach and return to the Eckbach 4 to 8 kilometres downstream, some of them directly into Eckbach, some flow into Schrakelbach.
East of Heuchelheim and to the north of the Frankenthal Interchange, the A61 crosses the Eckbach. The Eckbach flows past Beindersheim. Just north of Beindersheim, it accepts from the right the Schrakelbach, which contains water from the Fuchsbach and from some of the irrigation canals mentioned earlier; the Eckbach the flows through the western part of the Upper Rhine Plain, flowing north-northeast past the villages Großniedesheim and Kleinniedesheim. It continues northeast through Bobenheim, the northern part of Bobenheim-Roxheim; the next section is called flows due north. Southeast of Worms Airport, the Eckbach swings east; the river flows into the Wormser Ried nature reserve. It crosses the municipal border into Worms; the last bridge across the Eckbach carries the B9. It flows past the recreational area Bürgerweide on the southern side into the Upper Rhine at an elevation of 90 metres; the old name of the river, the Eck is thought by linguistic experts to be derived from the word Ache used in the
The Isenach is a left tributary of the Rhine in the northeastern Palatine region of Rhineland-Palatinate. It is nearly 36 kilometres long; the Isenach rises in the northern Palatinate Forest, 2 kilometres southwest of Carlsberg Hertlingshausen. Its source in the Diemerstein Forest on the southeast flank of a saddle between the peaks Krummes Eck, elevation 449 metres, Hohe Bühl, elevation 444 metres, is marked with Ritterstein number 277, with the inscription "Isenach source"; the first 5 kilometres of the river flow in a southeasterly direction. After the Isenach passes the Isenachweiher reservoir, it flows east through a valley it shares with Bundesstraße 37, Kaiserslautern-Bad Dürkheim. In Bad Dürkheim, the Isenach breaks through the Haardt, the eastern edge of the Palatinate Forest, enters the hills flanking the German Wine Road, it the flows northeast through the Upper Rhine Plain. Between Lambsheim and the Frankenthal district of Eppstein, the Isenach is joined by the Floßbach from the right.
In the city of Frankenthal, the Isenach turns northwards. It is joined by the Fuchsbach from the left, it flows through the suburb of Mörsch, where the Isenach is known as the Mörschbach, before passing through the southeast of Bobenheim-Roxheim into a loop of the Roxheimer Altrhein known as the Silbersee, discharges into the Upper Rhine 4 kilometres south of Worms. A dam was constructed in the Isenach in 1736–37 at about 5 kilometres from the source, forming a reservoir named the Isenachweiher; the aim was to ensure an flow of the river. This was necessary because until 1850 the pumps of the Bad Dürkheim Salt Works were operated using the Isenach as a source of water power; the dam ensured the water supply of a water wheel below the dam. The dam was restored in the mid-1980s. In the mid-18th century a mill was constructed as the Lambsheimer Mühle. In order to provide this mill with a stronger gradient, the stream bed above the mill with raised by 2 metres over a length of about 1,400 metres, some of the river's water was diverted into a new mill channel.
However, the combination of this situation and a straightening of the Isenach further upstream, caused floods in Lambsheim whenever it rained heavily. In 2008, after more than 250 years, the raising of the riverbed was reverted and the stream was restored to its old riverbed; the dirt excavated from the old riverbed contained occurring arsenic and had to be treated as chemical waste. The mill channel was preserved. Water is continuously pumped into the channel to prevent it from falling dry; the total cost of the restautation project was 780000euros. Until the 1780s, the Isenach flowed from the southern edge of Frankenthal to the east. However, when the city of Frankenthal had dug its Kanalhafen, the Isenach and the Fuchsbach were diverted to fill it. For more than a century and a half, the Isenach flowed via the Frankenthal Canal into the Rhine, it 1944, the canal had to be closed due to severe bomb damage. The Isenach was diverted further north, to its current mouth, about 8 kilometres from its original confluence with the Rhine.
The first public swimming facility in the town of Frankenthal was a pond-like widening of the Isenach, just outside the southern edge of the city, near the Post Bridge. It was operated until the Frankenthal lido was opened in the east of the city in 1934. Isenachweiher — At the spot where once the house of the keeper stood, who had to supervise the reservoir, there is now a spacious forest guest house, built as a log cabin. Row boats can be rented here. Iron Mill — The guest house Alte Schmelz, 3 kilometres below the Isenachweiher dam still contains part of the Iron Mill, driven by water from the Isenach. Castle and Abbey — Just before the Isenach breaks through the eastern edge of the Palatinate Forest, the ruins of two medieval buildings can be seen above Dürkheim valley: the castle Hardenburg and Limburg Abbey; the castle was owned by the noble Leiningen family. Graduation tower — The graduation tower Bad Dürkheim produced medicinal salts, until it was destroyed by arson attacks in 1992 and 2007.
Rebuilding the plant is expected to begin in 2009. Frankenthal Canal — The Frankenthal Canal used to be the lower 4 kilometres of the Isenach. After the canal was abandoned, most of it was filled in 22 years in 1966, except for the old lock, expanded to a retention basin in the second half of the 20th century. On the left of the Dürkheim valley, there are several ancient sights: the Heidenmauer, a Celtic hill fort from about 500 BCE the Kriemhildenstuhl, a quarry dating back to Roman times the Teufelsstein, a monolith, used in religious rites during the Celtic period; the Isenach is still important as a source of water for the paper manufacturing industry in the Dürkheim valley. For a long time, sewage water was fed back into the stream untreated; this cause the water of the river to be coloured brown, giving it the nickname "Cola Brook". Today, sewage is properly treated before being allowed back into the river; some of the damage done to the environment in the past, has not been put right, yet.
The Struktur- und Genehmigungsdirektion Süd in Neustadt an der Weinstrasse has started a "Pilot Project Isenach", which aims at restoring the natural state of the Isenach. On a municipal level, the Isenbach is a responsibility of the Gewässer-Zweckverband Isenach-Eckbach, subordinate to
Glatt is the name of a lesser affluent to the High Rhine in the Unterland of the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. It is 35.7 kilometres long and flows out from the Greifensee through the Glatt Valley, discharging into the Rhine by Glattfelden. Whereas the upper reaches are only inclined, the stream gets steeper beneath, forming banks of bed load; the earliest mention of the Glatt dates to 1034. The hydronym reflects the OHG adjective glat, meaning either "bright, clear" or "plane, smooth". Since the 15th century, the Glatt had been subject to the sovereignty of the city of Zurich, the council of which assigned the custody over the river to two reeves in the 16th century. After a first attempt to regulate the stream in 1593 and a rudimentary project in the early 19th century, the largest reshapings took place during the time from 1878 to 1895. In 1936, another straightening was carried out as a preliminary work to the construction of the Zurich Airport as well as to land improvement and future overbuilding.
Due to the last regulation works in 1975 between Niederglatt and the Glatt’s confluence to the Rhine, the hydroelectric power stations built in the late 19th century at the lower course of the stream disappeared. The Glatt was abounding with fish. Owing to the accelerated growth of Zurich's agglomeration during the 20th century and the insufficiency of the purification plants built in the 1960s, it has been polluted. Media related to Glatt at Wikimedia Commons Martin Illi: Glatt in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 2005-02-11
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree