Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that the non-physical essence of a living being starts a new life in a different physical form or body after biological death. It is called rebirth or transmigration. Reincarnation is a central tenet of Indian religions, namely Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism, although there are Hindu groups that do not believe in reincarnation but believe in an afterlife, it is an esoteric belief in many streams of Orthodox Judaism and is found in some beliefs of North American Natives and some Native Australians. A belief in rebirth/metempsychosis was held by Greek historic figures, such as Pythagoras and Plato, it is a belief in various modern religions. Although the majority of denominations within Christianity and Islam do not believe that individuals reincarnate, particular groups within these religions do refer to reincarnation; the historical relations between these sects and the beliefs about reincarnation that were characteristic of Neoplatonism, Hermeticism and Gnosticism of the Roman era as well as the Indian religions have been the subject of recent scholarly research.
In recent decades, many Europeans and North Americans have developed an interest in reincarnation, many contemporary works mention it. The word "reincarnation" derives from Latin meaning, "entering the flesh again"; the Greek equivalent metempsychosis derives from meta and empsykhoun, a term attributed to Pythagoras. An alternate term is transmigration implying migration from one life to another. Reincarnation refers to the belief that an aspect of every human being continues to exist after death, this aspect may be the soul or mind or consciousness or something transcendent, reborn in an interconnected cycle of existence; the term has been used by modern philosophers such as Kurt Gödel and has entered the English language. Another Greek term sometimes used synonymously is palingenesis, "being born again". Rebirth is a key concept found in major Indian religions, discussed with various terms. Punarjanman means "rebirth, transmigration". Reincarnation is discussed in the ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism and Jainism, with many alternate terms such as punarāvṛtti, punarājāti, punarjīvātu, punarbhava, āgati-gati, nibbattin and uppajjana.
These religions believe that this reincarnation is cyclic and an endless Saṃsāra, unless one gains spiritual insights that ends this cycle leading to liberation. The reincarnation concept is considered in Indian religions as a step that starts each "cycle of aimless drifting, wandering or mundane existence", but one, an opportunity to seek spiritual liberation through ethical living and a variety of meditative, yogic, or other spiritual practices, they consider the release from the cycle of reincarnations as the ultimate spiritual goal, call the liberation by terms such as moksha, nirvana and kaivalya. However, the Buddhist and Jain traditions have differed, since ancient times, in their assumptions and in their details on what reincarnates, how reincarnation occurs and what leads to liberation. Gilgul, Gilgul neshamot or Gilgulei Ha Neshamot is the concept of reincarnation in Kabbalistic Judaism, found in much Yiddish literature among Ashkenazi Jews. Gilgul means "cycle" and neshamot is "souls".
Kabbalistic reincarnation says that humans reincarnate only to humans unless YHWH/Ein Sof/God chooses. The origins of the notion of reincarnation are obscure. Discussion of the subject appears in the philosophical traditions of India; the Greek Pre-Socratics discussed reincarnation, the Celtic Druids are reported to have taught a doctrine of reincarnation. The idea of reincarnation, saṃsāra, did not exist in the early Vedic religions; the idea of reincarnation has roots in the Upanishads of the late Vedic period, predating the Buddha and the Mahavira. The concepts of the cycle of birth and death and liberation derive from ascetic traditions that arose in India around the middle of the first millennium BCE. Though no direct evidence of this has been found, the tribes of the Ganges valley or the Dravidian traditions of South India have been proposed as another early source of reincarnation beliefs; the early Vedas do not mention the doctrine of Karma and rebirth but mention the belief in an afterlife.
It is in the early Upanishads, which are pre-Buddha and pre-Mahavira, where these ideas are developed and described in a general way. Detailed descriptions first appear around the mid 1st millennium BCE in diverse traditions, including Buddhism and various schools of Hindu philosophy, each of which gave unique expression to the general principle; the texts of ancient Jainism that have survived into the modern era are post-Mahavira from the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE, extensively mention rebirth and karma doctrines. The Jaina philosophy assumes that the soul exists and is eternal, passing through cycles of transmigration and rebirth. After death, reincarnation into a new body is asserted to be instantaneous in early Jaina texts. Depending upon the accumul
Helena Skirmunt was a Polesian painter and sculptor. She was self-taught though she studied under several German and Italian artists. For participation in the January Uprising, she was deported to the interior of Russia and spent her last years in Crimea; as a painter she created landscapes and religious icons. In her years she turned to historical sculpture drawing inspiration from the history of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania, her daughter Konstancija Skirmuntt was a well-known historian. Skirmuntt was born in 1827 in Kalodnaje between Pinsk and Stolin in present-day Belarus part of the Russian Empire, her family was local nobles. Her parents were Pinsk district marshal Alexander Tomasevic-Skirmunt Adamovich and his wife, Hortense Mihalavny Orda, sister of the painter Napoleon Orda. From an early age, Skirmunt showed great interest in painting, she received education at home from private tutors, but studied for a few months under the landscape painter Vincent Dmachoŭski in Vilnius. In 1844, she accompanied an acquaintance to Berlin visiting Dresden and Paris to study western art.
She took lessons with Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein. In 1848, she married Kazimierz Skirmunt, interested in painting and sculpture. In 1852, she traveled to Vienna for a treatment of her eyes. At the same time, she studied sculpture under Josef Cesar, she visited Italy and took lessons with Pietro Galli and L. Amici, she created some religious works for churches, but a woman painter and sculptor was received with skepticism. In 1863, during the January Uprising, she was arrested for attempting to deliver a dispatch from General Romuald Traugutt, she was exiled to the Tambov Governorate. They were settled in Kirsanov. In 1867, they were allowed to leave the exile but not allowed to settle in the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania, they moved to Balaklava in Crimea where her father-in-law had an estate with a winery. The Crimean years were her most productive period, she contracted diphtheria and sought treatment in Amélie-les-Bains-Palalda in France where she died in 1874. Her remains were buried in her native parish.
She started her artistic career with landscape paintings. She switched to portraits of family members. Around 1850, she started working on religious art, she painted altar picture for the Piarist church in Dūkštos near Vilnius, designed altar for the church in Achova near Pinsk, restored paintings in a church in Pinsk. After her trip to Austria and Italy, she took up sculpting creating bas-relief medallions with portraits of relatives and public figures, including Bronisław Zaleski, Joachim Lelewel, Józef Ignacy Kraszewski. In 1853–1871, she created four large crucifixes. After the January Uprisings, her works reflect romantic nationalism, she sculpted the knight of the Lithuanian coat of arms, portraits of Lithuanian heroes, two unfinished triptychs with portraits of religious leaders. Her best known work Historical Chess is unfinished, she completed figurines of 12 Polish and 10 Turkish soldiers of the Battle of Vienna in which Polish King John III Sobieski soundly defeated the Ottoman Empire.
The work was well received at the 1873 Vienna World's Fair and the figures were cast in bronze and gilded in silver and gold in Vienna by her former teacher Josef Cesar. Exhibitions of her works were organized by the Kraków Society of Friends of Fine Arts, in Lviv, in Warsaw. Excerpts of her diary were published, along with a collection of letters, by Bronisław Zaleski in 1876, her daughter published an album of her works in 1930
Dzikie Pola is a Polish role-playing game, set in the historical setting of the 17th century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It had two editions: first in 1997 and second in 2005; the first edition of the game was released in 1997. Its authors were Jacek Komuda, Maciej Jurewicz and Marcin Baryłka, there were two expansions: W stepie szerokim and Ogniem i mieczem; the second edition of the game has been released in 2005, its authors were Jacek Komuda, Michał Mochocki and Artur Machlowski. The game is only available in Polish language and is one of the most popular role-playing games in Poland; the second edition rulebook contains long and extensive sections describing the historical setting of the 17th century Commonwealth, some of which are presented from the viewpoint of contemporary storytellers, others resemble a modern encyclopedic entries. The game is set in the historical setting of the 17th century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Players characters are the Polish nobility, most of the adventures are set in the turbulent, south-eastern region of Zaporizhzhia.
It's the twilight time of the Polish Golden Age, with looming destabilization of Golden Liberty and government sliding into anarchy due to magnates plots and mounting serfdom-related tensions involving the Cossacks. Conflicts between numerous nobles and increasing internal unrest are common themes, while magic is rare. Dzikie Pola second edition has its own unique game mechanic, based on the d20 die. There are no die rolls needed during the character creation. Player characters abilities and skills are bought for a set number of points. Hit points are not dependent on advancement level and character advancement is slow, making it a more realistic than heroic system. Player characters are those of Polish nobles, but foreigners are permitted; some of the abilities or advantages are unique to this historical setting, like playing with a character sentenced to banishment or infamy, a fake noble, a newly ennobled character or a character with an official title. During the game, tests are made with a simple d20 die roll, modified by testing characters' attributes and other situation modifiers.
If the roll is higher than the difficulty level, the action is successful. Most of the mechanic is dedicated to the combat system. Game has mechanics for both the mêlée combat and firearm combat, but it is the former — with szablas or rapiers — that most rules are dedicated to. Players can use more than 30 different moves during combat, thus at the time of combat between experienced players, the games takes on an tactical flavour. Historical setting: History of Poland Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth SarmatismGames set in similar historical setting: Veto Games with similar mechanic: 7th Sea The Riddle of Steel Official homepage