The reindeer known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra and mountainous regions of northern Europe and North America. This includes both migratory populations. Rangifer herd size varies in different geographic regions; the Taimyr herd of migrating Siberian tundra reindeer in Russia is the largest wild reindeer herd in the world, varying between 400,000 and 1,000,000. What was once the second largest herd is the migratory boreal woodland caribou George River herd in Canada, with former variations between 28,000 and 385,000; as of January 2018, there are fewer than 9,000 animals estimated to be left in the George River herd, as reported by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. The New York Times reported in April 2018 of the disappearance of the only herd of southern mountain caribou in the lower 48 states, with an expert calling it "functionally extinct" after the herd's size dwindled to a mere three animals.

Rangifer varies in size and colour from the smallest, the Svalbard reindeer, to the largest, the boreal woodland caribou. The North American range of caribou extends from Alaska through Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut into the boreal forest and south through the Canadian Rockies and the Columbia and Selkirk Mountains; the barren-ground caribou, Porcupine caribou, Peary caribou live in the tundra, while the shy boreal woodland caribou prefer the boreal forest. The Porcupine caribou and the barren-ground caribou form large herds and undertake lengthy seasonal migrations from birthing grounds to summer and winter feeding grounds in the tundra and taiga; the migrations of Porcupine caribou herds are among the longest of any mammal. Barren-ground caribou are found in Kitaa in Greenland, but the larger herds are in Alaska, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut; some subspecies are rare and at least one has become extinct: the Queen Charlotte Islands caribou of Canada. The range of the sedentary boreal woodland caribou covered more than half of Canada and into the northern States in the U.

S. Woodland caribou have disappeared from most of their original southern range and were designated as threatened in 2002 by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Environment Canada reported in 2011 that there were 34,000 boreal woodland caribou in 51 ranges remaining in Canada.. Siberian tundra reindeer herds are in decline, Rangifer tarandus is considered to be vulnerable by the IUCN. Arctic peoples have depended on caribou for food and shelter, such as the Caribou Inuit, the inland-dwelling Inuit of the Kivalliq Region in northern Canada, the Caribou Clan in Yukon, the Inupiat, the Inuvialuit, the Hän, the Northern Tutchone, the Gwich'in. Hunting wild reindeer and herding of semi-domesticated reindeer are important to several Arctic and sub-Arctic peoples such as the Duhalar for meat, antlers and transportation; the Sami people have depended on reindeer herding and fishing for centuries. In Sápmi, reindeer pull pulks. Male and female reindeer can grow antlers annually, although the proportion of females that grow antlers varies between population and season.

Antlers are larger on males. In traditional festive legend, Santa Claus's reindeer pull a sleigh through the night sky to help Santa Claus deliver gifts to good children on Christmas Eve. Carl Linnaeus chose the name Rangifer for the reindeer genus, which Albertus Magnus used in his De animalibus, fol. Liber 22, Cap. 268: "Dicitur Rangyfer quasi ramifer". This word may go back to the Saami word raingo. Linnaeus chose the word tarandus as the specific epithet, making reference to Ulisse Aldrovandi's Quadrupedum omnium bisulcorum historia fol. 859–863, Cap. 30: De Tarando. However and Konrad Gesner – thought that rangifer and tarandus were two separate animals. In any case, the tarandos name goes back to Theophrastus; the use of the terms Reindeer and caribou for the same animal can cause confusion, but the IUCN delineates the issue: "The world's Caribou and Reindeer are classified as a single species Rangifer tarandus. Reindeer is the European name for the species while in North America, the species is known as Caribou."

The word rein is of Norse origin. The word deer was broader in meaning, but became more specific over time. In Middle English, der meant a wild animal of any kind, in contrast to cattle; the word caribou comes through French, from the Mi'kmaq qalipu, meaning "snow shoveler", referring to its habit of pawing through the snow for food. Because of its importance to many cultures, Rangifer tarandus and some of its subspecies have names in many languages. Inuktitut is spoken in the eastern Arctic, the caribou is known by the name tuktu; the Gwich’in people have over two dozen distinct caribou-related words. Names for reindeer in languages spoken throughout their native range The species' taxonomic name, Rangifer tarandus, was defined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758; the woodland caribou subspecies' taxonomic name Rangifer tarandus caribou was defined by Gmelin in 1788. Based on Banfield's often-cited A Revision of the Reindeer and Caribou, Genus Rangifer, R. t. caboti, R. t. osborni and R. t. terraenovae were considered invalid and included in R. t. caribou.

Some recent authorities have considered them all valid suggesting that they are quite distinct. In their book entitled Mammal Species of the World, American zoologist Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn Reeder agre


К1839 is a microprocessor chipset developed between 1984 and 1989 at the Angstrem Research Institute by the same team that developed the 1801BMx series of CPUs. It was the first Soviet, the first Russian 32-bit microprocessor system. From a programmer's point of view, it was a complete replica of the VAX 11/750 Comet and included floating point arithmetic, unlike the MicroVAX microprocessors produced by DEC; the chipset included a processor, a coprocessor for integer and floating-point arithmetic, a memory controller and a bus adapter. It was fabricated in a 3 µm process; the Electronika-32 computer and a VAX-PC board were built based on this chipset, as well as the aerospace on-board digital computer SB3541. The 1839 chipset is still in production, is used in the control systems of the GLONASS-M satellites; the processor had external microprogram control, that is, in addition to the CPU, a separate ROM was required. However, this does not mean that the instruction set could be modified arbitrarily since the instruction decoder was included in the circuitry of the CPU.

According to posts on the FidoNet forum MO. DEC, the arithmetic coprocessor was released with errors, it was not always possible to run software written for the VAX. To circumvent this, updated microprograms were released to emulate the coprocessor functions in microcode on the CPU.. Bug fixed chips were introduced at the Comtek'93 exhibition. L1839VM1 — The central processor; the VAX-11 instruction set includes 304 instructions, 21 addressing modes, 8/16/32/64 bits of data, 32 bit machine word, 16 GPRs and hardware support for multitasking and virtual memory. Virtual addressing is 32-bit, the physical address bus is 24 bits wide and the data bus is 32 bits wide. Frequency 10 consisted of 150,000 transistors. Register/register addition takes 2 cycles or 0.2 μs, memory access 0.6 μs. L1839VM2 – Arithmetic and Floating point coprocessor.252 instructions, 8/16/32/64 bits integers, floating point F / D / G formats, 24 bit addressing. Frequency 10 MHz. Integer multiply 0.8μs, floating point multiply 1.5μs.

L1839VT1 – DRAM and cache controller. Supports 256 kBit and 1 Mbit DRAMs. Frequency 10 MHz. DRAM word access time 800ns, cache access time of 200ns. L1839VT2 – SRAM controller Supports 8/16/32 bit data words and 24 bit addresses. Frequency 10 MHz. 200-400ns memory access time, parity or Hamming error correction. L1839VV1 – 32-bit/Q-bus host adaptor and interrupt controller. Q-bus 8/16 bit accesses, 18 bit addresses 32-bus 8/16/32 bit accesses, 24 bit addresses 18 vector interrupts, 4 interrupt priority levels. Frequency 10 MHz. N1839RE1A/B – Microprogram ROM 16kW 32-bit word mask ROM. Frequency 10 MHz. Access time 180ns. N1839VZh2 – 8-bit majority gate The majority bi-directional inputs with bit-wise control and diagnostics 20ns cycle time. Soviet integrated circuit designation List of Soviet microprocessors The chips of the kit on the site "Museum of Electronic Rarities" Technical specification on the manufacturer's website

Lindy Lumsden

Lindy Lumsden is a principal research scientist with the Department of Environment, Land and Planning, at the Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, in Melbourne, Australia. Born in Foster, Victoria, in 1955, Lindy completed a Bachelor of Science, with a major in Zoology, at the University of Melbourne in 1975, she received her PhD from Deakin University in 2004, with her thesis on'The ecology and conservation of insectivorous bats in rural landscapes'. Lumsden began her career in 1979, working as a technical officer surveying the vertebrate fauna of the Western Port catchment, with the Museum of Victoria, she has worked at the Arthur Rylah Institute since 1982. Her first roles were with the Wildlife Survey Team, conducting mammal surveys throughout Victoria to inform land-use planning decisions by the Land Conservation Council, including the Melbourne-2 area. From 1991-1994 Lindy undertook a major project on the conservation of insectivorous bats in remnant vegetation in rural environments in northern Victoria.

From 1995 to 2000 she was part of an extensive collaborative project in the Box-Ironbark region of Victoria investigating extinction processes affecting vertebrate fauna. At this time Lindy undertook consultancies on bats within Victoria and throughout Australia, including on Christmas Island; as part of this, Lindy prepared the Christmas Island Pipistrelle Recovery Plan. From 2004 to 2008, Lumsden was program leader of the Threatened Fauna Species Program at ARI, managing several staff and targeted research projects, working on many collaborative projects. Since November 2008, Lumsden has been the principal research scientist and Section Leader of the Wildlife Ecology Section at ARI, managing a team of scientists and technical staff, responsible for many projects, she led the key government priority project'A New Strategic Approach to Biodiversity Management', developing an effective landscape approach to the management of threatened species that provides opportunities for sustainable timber production while managing biodiversity at a landscape scale.

This work resulted in innovative developments in survey methods for cryptic forest fauna. Lumsden's research projects have included investigating the conservation requirements of bats in agricultural landscapes in Victoria. Overall, Lindy has published 39 book sections. Lumsden is passionate about changing people's attitudes to bats, which are a poorly understood group of native fauna, she delivers large numbers of presentations to community groups and university students, runs courses and field days on the conservation of bats. She has undertaken many radio interviews on ABC radio throughout Australia and internationally and her work has been reported in Melbourne and rural newspapers. 2014 The Northern free-tailed bat—Ozimops lumsdenae—was named after Lumsden. The naming recognises Lindy's contribution to the study of Australian bat ecology, for her mentoring of students and her advocacy for conservation of bats through public engagement; the description of this species follows recognition that the Australian populations of this bat are distinct from those in south-east Asia.2012 Honorary Life Member of the Australasian Bat Society.

2005 David Ashton Biodiversity and Ecosystems Award, Department of Sustainability and Environment. 2003 Loch Postgraduate Research Award, School of Ecology and Environment, Deakin University. 2001-2004 Bill Emison PhD Scholarship. Lindy has contributed to 16 scientific expeditions overseas or in remote areas of Australia, to investigate the ecology and conservation of the bat fauna in these region; this has included helping to train bat ecologists in other countries in new research techniques and approaches. 1988 Survey of bats and small mammals in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. 1990 Australian Museum expedition to Vanuatu to survey vertebrate fauna bats. 1993 Royal Geographic Society of Queensland expedition to Cape York Peninsula – study of the bats during the wet season with Dr Roger Coles. 1991 and 1995 Assisted Dr Ken Geluso with research on the bat and small mammal fauna of Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico, USA. 1994 Investigation of the status and habitat requirements of the Christmas Island Pipistrelle on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean.

1996 Study of short-tailed bat on Codfish Island, New Zealand, with the Department of Conservation, investigating the feasibility, impact, of taking large numbers of bats into captivity on the island while rat poison baiting occurred. 1996 La Trobe University Expedition to Krakatau, investigating the recolonisation of the volcanic islands by bats. 1998 Study of the ecology and conservation status of the Christmas Island Pipistrelle on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. 1998 Research on the effects of fragmentation on bats and birds in Brazil. 1999 Survey of bats in the Kununurra region of the Kimberley, WA. 2000 Study of foraging behaviour of Greater Horseshoe Bats in England. 2004 Survey of bats in Taiwan. 2004 Survey of bats in the Kununurra region of the Kimberley, WA/NT for WA Dept. Industry and Resources. 2005 Research on bats in Swaziland. 2005 Investigations of threats to survival of the pipistrelle on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean for Department of Environment and Heritage and Parks Australia North.

2009 Rescue attempt to avert the extinction of Pipistrellus murrayi on Christmas Island Member of the IUCN Chiroptera Specialist Group Editorial Board of the international journal Acta Chiropterologica Australasian Bat Society