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Reinhard Heydrich

Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich was a high-ranking German SS and police official during the Nazi era and a main architect of the Holocaust. He was chief of the Reich Main Security Office, he was Stellvertretender Reichsprotektor of Bohemia and Moravia. He served as president of the International Criminal Police Commission and chaired the January 1942 Wannsee Conference which formalised plans for the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question"—the deportation and genocide of all Jews in German-occupied Europe. Many historians regard Heydrich as the darkest figure within the Nazi regime, he was the founding head of the Sicherheitsdienst, an intelligence organisation charged with seeking out and neutralising resistance to the Nazi Party via arrests and murders. He helped organise Kristallnacht, a series of coordinated attacks against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and parts of Austria on 9–10 November 1938; the attacks were presaged the Holocaust. Upon his arrival in Prague, Heydrich sought to eliminate opposition to the Nazi occupation by suppressing Czech culture and deporting and executing members of the Czech resistance.

He was directly responsible for the Einsatzgruppen, the special task forces that travelled in the wake of the German armies and murdered more than two million people by mass shooting and gassing, including 1.3 million Jews. Heydrich was critically wounded in Prague on 27 May 1942 as a result of Operation Anthropoid, he was ambushed by a team of Czech and Slovak soldiers, sent by the Czechoslovak government-in-exile to kill the Reich-Protector. Heydrich died from his injuries a week later. Nazi intelligence falsely linked the Czech/Slovak soldiers and resistance partisans to the villages of Lidice and Ležáky. Both villages were razed. Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich was born in 1904 in Halle an der Saale to composer and opera singer Richard Bruno Heydrich and his wife, Elisabeth Anna Maria Amalia Heydrich, his father was Protestant and his mother was Roman Catholic. His two forenames were patriotic musical tributes: "Reinhard" referred to the tragic hero from his father's opera Amen, "Tristan" stems from Richard Wagner's Tristan und Isolde.

Heydrich's third name, "Eugen", was his late maternal grandfather's forename. Heydrich's family held substantial financial means. Music was a part of Heydrich's everyday life. Heydrich carried that interest into adulthood, his father was a German nationalist who instilled patriotic ideas in his three children, but was not affiliated with any political party until after World War I. The Heydrich household was strict; as a youth, he engaged Heinz, in mock fencing duels. He excelled in his schoolwork—especially in science—at the "Reformgymnasium". A talented athlete, he became fencer, he was shy and was bullied for his high-pitched voice and rumoured Jewish ancestry. The latter claim earned him the nickname "Moses Handel."In 1918, World War I ended with Germany's defeat. In late February 1919, civil unrest—including strikes and clashes between communist and anti-communist groups—took place in Heydrich's home town of Halle. Under Defense Minister Gustav Noske's directives, a right-wing paramilitary unit was formed and ordered to "recapture" Halle.

Heydrich 15 years old, joined Maercker's Volunteer Rifles. When the skirmishes ended, Heydrich was part of the force assigned to protect private property. Little is known about his role, he joined an anti-Semitic organisation. As a result of the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles, hyperinflation spread across Germany and many lost their life savings. Halle was not spared. By 1921, few townspeople there could afford a musical education at Bruno Heydrich's conservatory; this led to a financial crisis for the Heydrich family. In 1922, Heydrich joined the German Navy, taking advantage of the security and pension it offered, he became a naval cadet at Germany's primary naval base. On 1 April 1924 he was promoted to senior midshipman and sent to officer training at the Naval Academy Mürwik. In 1926 he advanced to the rank of ensign and was assigned as a signals officer on the battleship SMS Schleswig-Holstein, the flagship of Germany's North Sea Fleet. With the promotion came greater recognition, he had few problems with other crewmen.

He was promoted on 1 July 1928 to the rank of sub-lieutenant. The increased rank fuelled his arrogance. Heydrich became notorious for his countless affairs. In December 1930 he met Lina von Osten, they soon announced their engagement. Lina was a Nazi Party follower. In

Shurahbil ibn Hasana

Abū ʿAbd Allāh Shuraḥbīl ibn Ḥasana was an early Muslim convert, sahaba and a key commander in the Rashidun army during the Muslim conquest of the Levant. Shurahbil's father was a member of the Arab tribe of Kindah. Shurahbil was named after his mother Hasana. Through his mother's marriages, he was connected to the Qurayshi clans of Zuhra and Jumah of Mecca. Shurahbil was an early convert to Islam and is counted among the sahabah of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, he was part of the second Muslim migration to Abyssinia from Mecca to escape the persecution of the pagan Quraysh. Shurahbil took part in the raids against the pagan Arabs during the lifetime of Muhammad. After Muhammad died in 632, many of the Arab tribes that had embraced Islam left the faith and defected from the embryonic Muslim state; the Ridda wars were subsequently launched throughout Arabia by Caliph Abu Bakr to subdue those tribes. During those wars, Shurahbil fought on the Muslim side as a deputy commander of Khalid ibn al-Walid in the campaign in Aqraba or Yamamah in the central Najd.

After the Muslim victory in the Ridda wars, Shurahbil was appointed a commander of one of the four Muslim armies dispatched to conquer the Levant from the Byzantine Empire and its Arab Christian allies. Shurahbil's army was 7,000-strong and its zone of operations corresponded to the territory of Palaestina Secunda. There are scant details about Shurahbil's campaigns, his initial assignment was to the region that corresponds with modern-day southern Jordanl to keep in check the Quda'a tribes which had embraced and reconciled with the nascent Muslim state based in Medina in the previous years. According to the histories of Ibn Ishaq and al-Waqidi, Shurahbil was present during the siege of Bosra, led by Khalid ibn al-Walid in May 634, it was the first major Syrian city. In July, Shurahbil served as a deputy of Amr ibn al-As in the decisive victory against the Byzantines at the Battle of Ajnadayn, which saw significant Muslim losses, between Ramla and Bayt Jibrin; the Muslims pursued the Byzantines northward and defeated them at the Battle of Fahl in December 634/January 635 where Shurahbil was a deputy commander.

According to 8th-century historian Sayf ibn Umar, Abu Ubayda left Shurahbil and ibn al-‘As in charge of Fahl and they proceeded to besiege Baysan which surrendered after minor clashes over the course of several days. Shurahbil played a commanding role in the Muslim capture of Gerasa and the Golan region between late 634 and early 635 as well. After the Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius was routed at the Battle of Yarmouk, Shurahbil was put in charge of the conquest of northern Palestine, he achieved this with the exception of Caesarea, captured by other Muslim generals after a siege of several years. Shurahbil died in 639 in the Plague of Amwas in central Palestine along with another of the four main Muslim commanders, Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan. According to 9th-century historian al-Baladhuri, he was aged 69 while 13th-century historian Ibn al-Athir wrote he died at age 67. Bosworth, C. E.. "Shuraḥbīl b. Ḥaṣana". In Bosworth, C. E.. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume IX: San–Sze. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

ISBN 90-04-10422-4. Donner, Fred M.. The Early Islamic Conquests. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-4787-7

Sodus Point, New York

Sodus Point is a village in Wayne County, New York, United States. The population was 900 at the 2010 census; the name is derived from a nearby body of Sodus Bay. It is considered within the larger Rochester metropolitan area; the Village of Sodus Point is in the northeastern part of the Town of Sodus. This is a lakeside community surrounded on three sides by water. In 1794, the village was the site of the first European-American settlement in Sodus town. Before the American Revolution, the area for centuries was the territory of the Onondaga Nation. During the War of 1812, the village was burned by a British raiding party, leaving all but one building demolished; the village was rebuilt. The area became an important port on Lake Ontario in the 19th Century; as the Erie Canal shifted state transportation patterns, the village's function as a port declined. In the 19th century, it became a popular vacation resort for people from Chicago and other cities during the summers. Sodus Point was incorporated in 1957.

The schooner Lotus, Customs House, Sodus Point Light are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Writer Elizabeth F. Ellet was a native of the town. Sodus Point is located at 43°16′10″N 76°59′15″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.5 square miles, of which, 1.5 square miles of it is land and 0.67% is water. The village is on the shore of Lake Ontario on a point of land on the northwest edge of Sodus Bay, an arm of Lake Ontario; the name "Sodus" is derived from a native word meaning "gleam on the water." Another possible origin is the Iroquois "Land of Silver Waters." County Road 101 leads into the village from the west. New York State Route 14 has its northern terminus at the village; as of the census of 2010, there were 900 people, 425 households, 258 families living in the village. The population density was 600 people per square mile; the racial makeup of the village was 93% White, 3% Black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.3% of the population. There were 425 households out of which 19.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.7% were married couples living together, 8% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.3% were non-families. 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.59. In the village, the population was spread out with 15.2% under the age of 18, 65.2% from 18 to 64, 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 52 years; the median income for a household in the village was $59,583, the median income for a family was $61,000. Males had a median income of $40,605 versus $31,435 for females; the per capita income for the village was $30,199. About 6.8% of families and 8.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22% of those under age 18 and 1.6% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,160 people, 491 households, 327 families living in the village.

The population density was 778.5 people per square mile. There were 886 housing units at an average density of 594.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 95.95% White, 1.55% Black or African American, 0.17% Asian, 0.17% from other races, 2.16% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.55% of the population. There were 491 households out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.1% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.4% were non-families. 27.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.83. In the village, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 30.8% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 108.3 males.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.4 males. The median income for a household in the village was $39,914, the median income for a family was $44,600. Males had a median income of $38,667 versus $25,521 for females; the per capita income for the village was $22,642. About 8.2% of families and 13.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.5% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. There were 754 housing units at an average density of 502.6 per square mile. 43.6% of housing units were vacant. There were 425 occupied housing units in the village. 325 were owner-occupied units. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.5% of total units. The rental unit vacancy rate was 34.0%. NOTE: It is common for resort communities to have higher than normal vacant house counts. Many are vacation homes which are seasonal and not occupied. Official website Sodus Bay Lighthouse Museum Historic Sodus Point Sodus Point travel guide from Wikivoyage "Great Sodus"; the New Student's Reference Work.

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