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Reinheitsgebot

The Reinheitsgebot, is a series of regulations limiting the ingredients in beer in Germany and the states of the former Holy Roman Empire. The best-known version of the law was adopted in Bavaria in 1516, but similar regulations predate the Bavarian order, modern regulations significantly differ from the 1516 Bavarian version; the most influential predecessor of the modern Reinheitsgebot was a law first adopted in the duchy of Munich in 1487. After Bavaria was reunited, the Munich law was adopted across the entirety of Bavaria on 23 April 1516; as Germany unified, Bavaria pushed for adoption of this law on a national basis. According to the 1516 Bavarian law, the only ingredients that could be used in the production of beer were water and hops; the text does not mention yeast as an ingredient. The 1516 Bavarian law set the price of beer, limited the profits made by innkeepers, made confiscation the penalty for making impure beer; the text of the 1516 Bavarian law is as follows:We hereby proclaim and decree, by Authority of our Province, that henceforth in the Duchy of Bavaria, in the country as well as in the cities and marketplaces, the following rules apply to the sale of beer: From Michaelmas to Georgi, the price for one Mass or one Kopf, is not to exceed one Pfennig Munich value, From Georgi to Michaelmas, the Mass shall not be sold for more than two Pfennig of the same value, the Kopf not more than three Heller.

If this not be adhered to, the punishment stated below shall be administered. Should any person brew, or otherwise have, other beer than March beer, it is not to be sold any higher than one Pfennig per Mass. Furthermore, we wish to emphasize that in future in all cities, market-towns and in the country, the only ingredients used for the brewing of beer must be Barley and Water. Whosoever knowingly disregards or transgresses upon this ordinance, shall be punished by the Court authorities' confiscating such barrels of beer, without fail. Should, however, an innkeeper in the country, city or market-towns buy two or three pails of beer and sell it again to the common peasantry, he alone shall be permitted to charge one Heller more for the Mass or the Kopf, than mentioned above. Furthermore, should there arise a scarcity and subsequent price increase of the barley, WE, the Bavarian Duchy, shall have the right to order curtailments for the good of all concerned; the Bavarian order of 1516 was introduced in part to prevent price competition with bakers for wheat and rye.

The restriction of grains to barley was meant to ensure the availability of affordable bread, as wheat and rye were reserved for use by bakers. The rule may have had a protectionist role, as beers from Northern Germany contained additives that were not present in Bavarian beer. Religious conservatism may have played a role in adoption of the rule in Bavaria, to suppress the use of plants that were used in pagan rituals, such as gruit, belladonna, or wormwood; the rule excluded problematic methods of preserving beer, such as soot, stinging nettle and henbane. While some sources refer to the Bavarian law of 1516 as the first law regulating food safety, this is inaccurate, as earlier food safety regulations can be traced back as far as ancient Rome; some sources claim that the law has been unchanged since its adoption, but as early as the mid-1500s Bavaria began to allow ingredients such as coriander, bay leaf, wheat. Yeast was added to modern versions of the law after the discovery of its role in fermentation.

The Reinheitsgebot remains the most famous law that regulates the brewing of beer, continues to influence brewing not only in Germany, but around the world. Modern versions of the law have contained significant exceptions for different types of beer, for export beers, for different regions; the basic law now declares that only malted grains, hops and yeast are permitted. In response to the growth of craft breweries globally, some commentators, German brewers, German politicians have argued that the Reinheitsgebot has slowed Germany's adoption of beer trends popular in the rest of the world, such as Belgian lambics and American craft styles. In late 2015, Bavarian brewers voted in favor of a revision to the beer laws to allow other natural ingredients; the earliest documented mention of beer by a German nobleman is the granting of a brewing licence by Emperor Otto II to the church at Liege, awarded in 974. A variety of other beer regulations existed in Germany during the late Middle Ages, including in Nuremberg in 1293, Erfurt in 1351, Weißensee in 1434.

The Bavarian order of 1516 formed the basis of rules that spread throughout Germany. Bavaria insisted on its application throughout Germany as a precondition of German unification in 1871; the move encountered strong resistance from brewers outside Bavaria, imperial law of 1873 taxed the use of other ingredients when used by Northern German brewers. It was not until 1906 that the law was applied across all of Germany, it was not formally referred to as Reinheitsgebot until the Weimar Republic. In 1952, the basic regulation of the Reinheitsgebot were incorporated into the West German Biersteuergesetz. Bavarian law remained stricter than that of the rest of the country, leading to legal conflict during the'50s and early'60s; the la

The Kindred of the Sunset

The Kindred of the Sunset is an EP by German gothic metal band The Vision Bleak, released on 25 March 2016 through Prophecy Productions. It served as a teaser for the band's sixth studio album, The Unknown, released on 3 June 2016; the EP was announced on the band's official Facebook page on 21 February 2016, four days on 25 February the track listing was unveiled. It contains four tracks. A lyric video for the EP's eponymous track was uploaded to Prophecy's official YouTube channel on 24 March."The Sleeping Beauty" is a cover of the song by Swedish band Tiamat present on their 1992 album Clouds. All tracks are written by The Vision Bleak. Ulf Theodor Schwadorf – guitars, bass Allen B. Konstanzvocals, drums Martin Koller – production Łukasz Jaszak – cover art The Vision Bleak's official website

Nickel–iron battery

The nickel–iron battery is a rechargeable battery having nickel oxide-hydroxide positive plates and iron negative plates, with an electrolyte of potassium hydroxide. The active materials are held in perforated pockets, it is a robust battery, tolerant of abuse, can have long life if so treated. It is used in backup situations where it can be continuously charged and can last for more than 20 years. Due to its low specific energy, poor charge retention, high cost of manufacture, other types of rechargeable batteries have displaced the nickel–iron battery in most applications. Many railway vehicles use Ni–Fe batteries; some examples are London underground electric locomotives and New York City Subway car – R62A. The technology has regained popularity for off-the-grid applications where daily charging makes it an appropriate technology. Nickel–iron batteries are being investigated for use as combined batteries and electrolysis for hydrogen production for fuel cell cars and storage; those "battolysers" could be charged and discharged like conventional batteries, would produce hydrogen when charged.

The ability of these batteries to survive frequent cycling is due to the low solubility of the reactants in the electrolyte. The formation of metallic iron during charge is slow because of the low solubility of the ferrous hydroxide. While the slow formation of iron crystals preserves the electrodes, it limits the high rate performance: these cells charge and are only able to discharge slowly. Nickel–iron cells should not be charged from a constant voltage supply since they can be damaged by thermal runaway; the half-cell reaction at the positive plate from Nickel oxide-hydroxide NiO to Nickel hydroxide Ni2: 2 NiO + 2 H2O + 2 e− ↔ 2 Ni2 + 2 OH−and at the negative plate: Fe + 2 OH− ↔ Fe2 + 2 e−The open-circuit voltage is 1.4 volts, dropping to 1.2 volts during discharge. The electrolyte mixture of potassium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide is not consumed in charging or discharging, so unlike a lead-acid battery the electrolyte specific gravity does not indicate state of charge; the voltage required to charge the Ni-Fe battery is equal to or greater than 1.6 volts per cell.

Lithium hydroxide improves the performance of the cell. The equalization charge voltage is 1.65 volts. Swedish inventor Waldemar Jungner invented the nickel–cadmium battery in 1899. Jungner experimented with substituting iron for the cadmium in varying proportions, including 100% iron. Jungner discovered that the main advantage over the nickel–cadmium chemistry was cost, but due to the lower efficiency of the charging reaction and more pronounced formation of hydrogen, the nickel–iron technology was found wanting and abandoned. Jungner had several patents for the iron version of his battery. Moreover, he had one patent for NiCd battery: Swed.pat No. 15.567/1899. In 1901 Thomas Edison patented and commercialized NiFe in the United States and offered it as the energy source for electric vehicles, such as the Detroit Electric and Baker Electric. Edison claimed the nickel–iron design to be, "far superior to batteries using lead plates and acid". Edison had several patents: U. S. Patent 678,722/1901, U.

S. Patent 692,507/1902, German patent No 157.290/1901. Edison was disappointed that his battery was not adopted for starting internal combustion engines, that electric vehicles went out of production only a few years after his battery was introduced, he developed the battery to be the battery of choice for electric vehicles which were the preferred transportation mode in the early 1900s. Edison's batteries had a higher energy density than the lead–acid batteries in use at the time, could be charged in half the time, however they performed poorly at low temperatures and were more expensive. Jungner's work was unknown in the US until the 1940s, when nickel–cadmium batteries went into production there. A 50 volt nickel–iron battery was the main D. C. power supply in the World War II German V-2 rocket, together with two 16 volt batteries which powered the four gyroscopes. A smaller version was used in the V-1 flying bomb. Edison's batteries were profitably made from about 1903 to 1972 by the Edison Storage Battery Company in East Orange, NJ.

In 1972 the battery company was sold to the Exide Battery Corporation, which discontinued the product in 1975. The battery was used for railroad signalling, fork lift, standby power applications. Nickel–iron cells were made with capacities from 5 to 1250 Ah. Many of the original manufacturers no longer make nickel iron cells, but production by new companies has started in several countries; the active material of the battery plates is contained in a number of filled tubes or pockets, securely mounted in a supporting and conducting frame or grid. The support is in good electrical contact with the tubes; the grid is a light skeleton frame, stamped from thin sheet steel, with reinforcing width at the top. The grids, as well as all other internal metal surfaces, are nickel-plated to prevent corrosion; the elements must remain covered with electrolyte. The active material of the positive pl

Boxing at the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics

Boxing at the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics was held from 23 to 27 August 2018 at the Nanjing International Expo Center in Nanjing, China. For the first time three female boxing events took place at the Youth Olympics; each National Olympic Committee can enter a maximum of 5 competitors, 3 males and 2 females with a maximum of 1 competitor in each weight category. 62 places were decided at the 2014 AIBA Youth World Championships held in Sofia, Bulgaria from 14–24 April 2014. The top 5 male and top 4 female boxers of each weight category qualified to the Youth Olympics; as hosts, China was given 1 per each gender to compete. 14 quotas, 9 males and 5 females were given to the Tripartite Commission, however the spots were not allocated due to lack of technical abilities and safety concerns thus the quotas were reallocated based on the results from the 2014 AIBA Youth World Championships. To be eligible to participate at the Youth Olympics athletes must have been born between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 1997.

Furthermore, all athletes must have participated at the 2014 AIBA Youth World Championships. The schedule was released by the Nanjing Youth Olympic Games Organizing Committee. Three sessions will be held per day during the preliminary and ranking rounds. All times are CST Official Results Book – Boxing

E-government Development Center

E-government Development Center is a public legal entity that provides governmental e-services to citizens and non-citizens. The Center is subordinated to State Agency for Social Innovations; the service utilizes digital technologies and establishes e-government to make state services operate more efficiently, ensure service availability, improve citizen's living standards. The service was set up by presidential Decree No.1885 named “About e-government development and measures related to the transition to digital government” dated March 14, 2018. Information exchange among governmental entities and e-Services is implemented by the E-Government Development Center via the “e-Gov” portal. Electronic government services, services related to online visa issuance and digital payment systems are its major activities; the center helps digitize relations between citizens and government agencies. It operates based on a single-window system. In accordance with presidential Decree No.263 signed on September 12, 2018, the service implements projects on three primary projects.

It monitors and prepares budgets. Centralized electronic services are provided in these areas; the service monitors the performance of the ASAN Payment, ASAN Visa, ASAN Wi-Fi, ASAN Finance and other relevant projects. The Portal started to operate under State Agency for Public Service and Social Innovations under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan according to Decree No.1885. E-Governmental Portal is responsible for applying single window system principles to give citizens access to government agencies. G2C, B2C, G2B services are implemented by the service and available any time for both entrepreneurs, the state agencies. ASAN payment started to function by Decree signed on February 11, 2015 No.463. The system allows citizens to pay fines, fees and other obligations. ASAN Visa was established on the basis of Decree No. 923, signed on June 1, 2016. ASAN Visa simplifies the visa issuance procedure for non-citizens; the system operates in two directions: Provision of electronic visas through the electronic visa portal: www.evisa.gov.az Provision of visas at International Airports located within Azerbaijan The service cooperates with Türksat, the Government Digital Service, the Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency, the Ministry of the Interior and Safety.

E-government Development Center

George Hampton

George Essex Hampton was an unpopular public official in colonial Western Australia. The son of Governor of Western Australia Dr John Hampton, George Hampton arrived in the colony with his father in February 1862 on board the Stathallen. In 1866 he was holding the offices of private secretary to his father, clerk of council and member of the Finance Board, when he was in addition appointed acting Comptroller General of Convicts; as Hampton had no particular qualifications for the position, this "unusually blatant act of nepotism"1 was unpopular within the colony. It was further rumoured that George Hampton received a lodging allowance for the position, an allowance to which he was entitled by regulations but did not need since he lived with his father at Government House; the Perth Gazette sarcastically commented that Hampton could not apply the money to the purpose for which it was granted "unless His Excellency intends to charge him rent for the rooms he occupies in his residence, in which case, of course, the amount will be placed to the credit of the colonial revenue."2 Both Hamptons became figures of public hostility and ridicule thereafter George.

Under George Hampton, convict discipline became harsh. He was hated by most convicts, in October 1866 a convict named Connor attacked him with a pickaxe at the Fremantle Quarries, only the swift action of a guard saved him; as a result of Hampton's harsh convict discipline, escape attempts increased markedly. When Moondyne Joe effected his famous escape of 7 March 1867, the public in general felt that a good joke had been played on the Governor and his son, much pleasure was taken in ridiculing them. A song caught on: The Governor's son has got the pip, The Governor's got the measles. For Moondyne Joe has give'em the slip, Pop goes the weasel. Governor Hampton was unsuccessful. At the conclusion of Governor Hampton's term, George Hampton indicated his willingness to remain in the colony provided he was official appointed Comptroller General. A week the appointment of Henry Wakefield was announced, in November 1868 he accompanied his father in departing the colony on the Emily Smith. Little is known of Hampton's personal life.

In 1865, Bishop Hale had been critical of his "romantic affair with a Mrs Young" 3. On 13 June 1868, he married Fanny Stone, she accompanied him back to England, he died in 1876. de Garis, page 302 Battye Boyce, page 50. Battye, James Sykes. Western Australia: A History from its Discovery to the Inauguration of the Commonwealth. London: Oxford University Press. Boyce, P. J.. "J. S. Hampton, the governor". In Hunt, Lyall. Westralian Portraits. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press. ISBN 0-85564-157-6. de Garis, B. K.. "Political tutelage 1829–1890". In Stannage, C. T.. A New History of Western Australia. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press. ISBN 0-85564-170-3. Elliot, Ian. Moondyne Joe: The Man and the Myth. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press. ISBN 0-85564-130-4. Republished in 1998 by Hesperian Press. ISBN 0-85905-244-3. Erickson, Rica, ed.. Dictionary of Western Australians 1829–1914. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press.

ISBN 0-85564-163-0. Hasluck, Alexandra. Unwilling Emigrants. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-207-95218-3. Republished in 1991 by Fremantle Arts Centre Press. ISBN 0-949206-94-6. Sharp, Patsy. "Honey Eaters: Children of Some Western Australian Governors and Their Society". Early Days: 291–302