SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Reinosa

Reinosa is a municipality in Cantabria, Spain. As of 2009, it has 10,307 inhabitants; the municipality, one of the smallest by land area in Cantabria, is notable for being one of the nearest towns to the headwaters of the Ebro River. It is surrounded by the municipality of Campoo de Enmedio and was created a city by King Alfonso XIII in 1927, being one of only three urban centres in Cantabria with that honour, the others being Santander and Torrelavega; the first documents mentioning the town date back to the year 1000, when it was divided into four solars by Sancho García, the Count of Castile. By 1404, it was emerging as the main town of the region and was organised into seven Hermandades, military units aimed at retaining law and order; the procurators of these brotherhoods met once a month with the Corregidor to organise the town's affairs. In 1497, Prince John, son of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon met his affianced wife Margaret of Austria here, the meeting or marriage ceremony taking place in La Casa de las Princesas.

In 1517 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was passing through the town. He stayed for nine days at the Convento de San Francisco; the convent was being built at the time, a hundred years had thirty friars while the town had five hundred inhabitants. In the eighteenth century, under the Bourbons, a new highway and a bridge over the River Ebro were built; these works contributed to an economic boom in the region and the town becomes a bustling and prosperous place, on one of the main routes to the port of Santander. In 1927 it received its charter as a city from King Alfonso XII. Reinosa is the largest town in this area of Cantabria and is on the main railway line and located close to the A67 motorway; the town contains a number of hotels and restaurants, Montesclaros High School is located here. The source of the River Ebro is in the village of Fontibre where a stream emerges from the ground 3 kilometres from the town; this is one of the largest reservoirs in northern Spain and is filled in spring as a result of the melting of the winter snow in the mountains.

The lake is the uppermost of many reservoirs on the Ebro. Deltebre, located at the mouth of the Ebro River. Official website Reinosa - Cantabria 102 Municipios

Cartography of Switzerland

The Cartography of Switzerland is the history of surveying and creation of maps of Switzerland. Switzerland has had its current boundaries since 1815, but maps of the Old Swiss Confederacy were drawn since the 16th century; the first topographical survey on a federal level began in 1809, resulting in the Topographic Map of Switzerland or Dufour Map. From 1869 to 1901, this map was replaced by the Topographic Atlas of Siegfried Map. From 1901, the Topographical Survey of Switzerland is an independent division within the military, introducing the Swiss coordinate system in 1903; the office is renamed as the Swiss Federal Office of Topography in 1979, with the swisstopo.ch website online since 1997. The first systematic geographical description of Switzerland is the Superioris Germaniae Confoederationis descriptio by Albert von Bonstetten; the oldest map Old Swiss Confederacy is the one by Konrad Türst, physician in Zürich from 1489, made during 1495–1497. Trüst's map shows most of the territory of modern Switzerland.

On the margins is a coordinate grid in Arabic numerals, using Ptolemy's prime meridian of 20°W. The first printed map of Switzerland is Tabula Nova Heremi Helvetiorum, published in the 1513 Strasbourg edition of Ptolemy. Numerous maps followed in the 16th century, notably those by Aegidius Tschudi, Johannes Stumpf, Sebastian Münster and Abraham Ortelius. Most of these early maps were oriented towards either the east; the convention of orienting maps towards the north was introduced beginning in the mid 16th-century, but remained in use alongside the earlier conventions well into the 17th century. Tschudi gave his scale in corresponding eight Italian miles. In the 17th century, cartography progressed to the production of modern topographic maps. Hans Conrad Gyger by commission of the government of Zürich produced a detailed map of the canton of Zürich in an effort spanning four decades. Completed in 1667, the map showed the territory in shaded relief in hitherto unseen quality and detail, but because the map was classified as a military secret by the Zürich authorities, Gyger's work had limited influence on contemporary cartographers.

Gyger published a detailed map of Switzerland in 1657. In 1809, still under the Napoleonic Act of Mediation, the first topographical surveys of Switzerland took place on a confederate, military level, they were led by Hans Conrad Finsler. Measurements in the alpine region started in the period of Restauration, in 1825, with triangulations by Antoine-Joseph Buchwalder; this work would be finished in 1837 by Johannes Eschmann. Directly hereafter, at New Year 1838, the Topographical Bureau is founded in Carouge, Geneve by Guillaume Henri Dufour; this bureau publishes its first map the same year, the Carte topographique du Canton de Genève. Topographic surveys start in the alpine regions of Switzerland; this has its first results in 1845, a year than planned, when a map scaled 1:100.000 is published. This is the start of the so-called Dufour Map; the topographic surveys finish in 1862. To honour Dufour, the Swiss government decides to rename the highest peak on the Dufour Map from Höchste Spitze to Dufourspitze: it still carries that name today.

In 1863, the SAC published a 1:50.000 map of the region Tödi, based on unpublished survey material. A year the last page of the Dufour Map is published, one year still, Dufour retires and Hermann Siegfried becomes the Chief op the Topographical Bureau. In 1865, Herman Siegfried became the Chief of the Topographical Bureau, the bureau moved from Geneva to Bern. Over the following few years, a composite map was published of Ticino, soundings had started to measure the depth of the major Swiss lakes, a first map was published, scaled 1:250.000. In 1868, a Federal Act was passed to enforce the continuation of the initial topographic surveys, as well as the publication of the results; this resulted in new topographical surveys in 1869 and the publication of the first 13 pages of the Siegfried Map in 1870. In 1878, a 1:1.000.000 map was published, the next year, the height of the Pierre du Niton was measured to be 376.86 metres. In 1880, Herman Siegfried was succeeded by Jules Dumur. In 1895, the Topographical surveys for the Siegfried Map were finished.

By 1901, 581 sheets of the Siegfried Map had been published, with only a few individual more maps to come. On old maps of the modern series, a reference to those maps can still be found: until the 1970s, the Siegfried Map page was the best scale available for some areas of Switzerland, therefore used by climbers and other alpinists; the printing of the Siegfried Map continued until 1952. In 1887, the first maps with relief shading are published. In 1889, a photographic studio is appended to the bureau. In the years after 1894, a wall-map for schools is published, in response to a request from the parliament to do so. In 1898, the soundings of the major Swiss lakes are finished. In 1901, the bureau is moved into an independent division within the military, the name Eidgenössische Landestopographie becomes customary, a name still used by some people until today, a name which can be found on some older maps. Hermann Kümmerly publishes a relief wall-map for schools in the same year. In 1908, map trials are started to serve as a replacement for the Dufourk

Dominic Keating

Dominic Keating is an English television and theatre actor, known for his portrayal of Tony in the Channel 4 sitcom Desmond's and Lieutenant Malcolm Reed on Star Trek: Enterprise. Keating was born to an Irish father, his first stage performance was in primary school. He attended Uppingham School. After graduating from the University College London with First Class Honours in History, he tried various jobs before deciding to be a professional actor. To obtain his Equity card, Keating worked in a drag act called Feeling Mutual. Keating had success on the UK stage before working as a film actor, he originated the role of "Cosmo" in Philip Ridley's The Pitchfork Disney, as well as that of "Bryan" in Michael Wall's Amongst Barbarians, for which he won a Mobil Award. He has done additional stage work in both the UK and in Los Angeles, including the one man play The Christian Brothers at King's Cross, in The Best Years of Your Life at the Man in the Moon Theatre, Screamers at the Edinburgh Playhouse Festival, Alfie at the Tiffany Theater.

Keating first came to major public attention in the UK when he had a semi-regular role as Tony in the Channel 4 sitcom Desmond's. He went on from this to a role in Inspector Morse, as well as other guest-starring roles. Having moved to the United States, he gained the role of the demonic warrior Mallos on the short-lived 2000 series The Immortal, he starred in the Zalman King series chromiumblue.com. He made guest appearances on Buffy The Vampire Slayer, G vs E and Special Unit 2 as well as on several other series prior to a major role on the series Star Trek: Enterprise, where he played Lieutenant Malcolm Reed. Since he has had guest roles on the series Las Vegas, Holby City and the CSI: NY episode Uncertainty Rules. Keating joined the cast of hit show Heroes for its second season and played an Irish mobster in a four episode arc, he held a guest-starring role for three episodes on the Fox TV series Prison Break. In 2010 Keating guest starred in the FX original series Sons of Anarchy, he has appeared in films, including The Hollywood Sign, The Auteur Theory and the upcoming films Certifiably Jonathan, Hollywood Kills and Robert Zemeckis' animated version of Beowulf.

At a Star Trek convention in Sacramento, California on 9 September 2006, he announced that he had been cast as an Australian scientist in the Species sequel Species IV. He has recently done work in several short films, including the latest by Tim Russ, called Plugged, a satire on modern advertising. Dominic Keating appears as Sherlock Holmes's brother in the 2010 film Sherlock Holmes by the Asylum. Dominic Keating was responsible for the voice-over in the Ricky Gervais film "The Invention of Lying" – 2009 release by WB. Keating does commercial and voiceover work most famously on an early 1990s Vidal Sassoon commercial, where his British pronunciation of "salon" brought him some notice as well as a spoof on Saturday Night Live, he has done voice work for various audiobooks, voiced the minor character'Mouse' in BioWare's Dragon Age: Origins. He has recently appeared in commercials for Sprint/Nextel as fictitious British rock star Ian Westbury. Keating has been confirmed as the voice of "Kormac the Templar" in the PC game Diablo 3 by Blizzard Entertainment.

He was the voice of Gremlin Prescott in Epic Mickey 2: The Power of Two. Dominic Keating on IMDb Dominic Keating's Official Website Dominic Keating's Official Fan Blog BBC StarTrek.com Women Talk Sci Fi Podcast interview with Dominic Keating at Australia's First Contact Conventions Trek Who Con 2011