Reinsurance is insurance that an insurance company purchases from another insurance company to insulate itself from the risk of a major claims event. With reinsurance, the company passes on some part of its own insurance liabilities to the other insurance company; the company that purchases the reinsurance policy is called a "ceding company" or "cedent" or "cedant" under most arrangements. The company issuing the reinsurance policy is referred as the "reinsurer". In the classic case, reinsurance allows insurance companies to remain solvent after major claims events, such as major disasters like hurricanes and wildfires. In addition to its basic role in risk management, reinsurance is sometimes used to reduce the ceding company's capital requirements, or for tax mitigation or other purposes. A company that purchases reinsurance pays a premium to the reinsurance company, who in exchange would pay a share of the claims incurred by the purchasing company; the reinsurer may be either a specialist reinsurance company, which only undertakes reinsurance business, or another insurance company.
Insurance companies that accept reinsurance refer to the business as'assumed reinsurance'. There are two basic methods of reinsurance: Facultative Reinsurance, negotiated separately for each insurance policy, reinsured. Facultative reinsurance is purchased by ceding companies for individual risks not covered, or insufficiently covered, by their reinsurance treaties, for amounts in excess of the monetary limits of their reinsurance treaties and for unusual risks. Underwriting expenses, in particular personnel costs, are higher for such business because each risk is individually underwritten and administered. However, as they can separately evaluate each risk reinsured, the reinsurer's underwriter can price the contract more to reflect the risks involved. A facultative certificate is issued by the reinsurance company to the ceding company reinsuring that one policy. Treaty Reinsurance means that the ceding company and the reinsurer negotiate and execute a reinsurance contract under which the reinsurer covers the specified share of all the insurance policies issued by the ceding company which come within the scope of that contract.
The reinsurance contract may obligate the reinsurer to accept reinsurance of all contracts within the scope, or it may allow the insurer to choose which risks it wants to cede, with the reinsurer obligated to accept such risks. There are two main types of treaty reinsurance and non-proportional, which are detailed below. Under proportional reinsurance, the reinsurer's share of the risk is defined for each separate policy, while under non-proportional reinsurance the reinsurer's liability is based on the aggregate claims incurred by the ceding office. In the past 30 years there has been a major shift from proportional to non-proportional reinsurance in the property and casualty fields. All insurance companies have a reinsurance program; the ultimate goal of that program is to reduce their exposure to loss by passing part of the risk of loss to a reinsurer or a group of reinsurers. With reinsurance, the insurer can issue policies with higher limits than would otherwise be allowed, thus being able to take on more risk because some of that risk is now transferred to the re-insurer.
Reinsurance can make an insurance company's results more predictable by absorbing large losses. This is to reduce the amount of capital needed to provide coverage; the risks are spread, with the reinsurer or reinsurers bearing some of the loss incurred by the insurance company. The income smoothing arises; this fosters stability in claim caps indemnification costs. Proportional Treaties provide the cedent with "surplus relief"; the insurance company may be motivated by arbitrage in purchasing reinsurance coverage at a lower rate than they charge the insured for the underlying risk, whatever the class of insurance. In general, the reinsurer may be able to cover the risk at a lower premium than the insurer because: The reinsurer may have some intrinsic cost advantage due to economies of scale or some other efficiency. Reinsurers may operate under weaker regulation than their clients; this enables them to use less capital to cover any risk, to make less conservative assumptions when valuing the risk.
Reinsurers may operate under a more favourable tax regime than their clients. Reinsurers will have better access to underwriting expertise and to claims experience data, enabling them to assess the risk more and reduce the need for contingency margins in pricing the risk Even if the regulatory standards are the same, the reinsurer may be able to hold smaller actuarial reserves than the cedant if it thinks the premiums charged by the cedant are excessively conservative; the reinsurer may have a more diverse portfolio of assets and liabilities than the cedant. This may create opportunities for hedging. Depending on the regulations imposed on the reinsurer, this may mean they can hold fewer assets to cover the risk; the reinsurer may have a greater risk appetite than the insurer. The insurance company may want to avail itself of the expertise of a reinsurer, or the reinsurer's ability to set an appropriate premium, in regard to a specific risk; the reinsurer will wish to apply this expertise to the underwriting in order to protect their own interests.
This is the case in Facultative Reinsurance. By choosing a particular type of reinsurance metho
Sir William Dawes, 3rd Baronet, was an Anglican prelate. He served as Bishop of Chester from 1708 to 1714 and as Archbishop of York from 1714 to 1724. Politically he was a Hanoverian Tory. Dawes was born at Lyons, near Braintree in Essex and from the age of nine attended Merchant Taylors' School in London. Excelling in Hebrew by the age of 15, he was 18 when he wrote his work in verse: The Anatomy of Atheisme, his eminent The Duties of the Closet in prose. In 1687, William matriculated at St John's College, Oxford, of which college he became a fellow migrated to St Catharine's Hall, Cambridge in 1689, he graduated Master of Arts from St Catharine's on royal decree due to his young age. William Dawes became the permanent pastor of William III and was court pastor of Queen Anne. From 1698, at a young age, he was Canon of Worcester Cathedral, he was Master of St Catharine's Hall, Cambridge between 1697 and 1714 and Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge, 1698–9. In 1698 he was elected rector in the village of Bocking near to his estates in Essex.
Here he introduced the innovative custom of taking Holy Communion not only on the three great feasts, but once every month. On 8 February 1708 he was consecrated Bishop of Chester: this was at the personal wish of Queen Anne, who overruled the advice of her ministers in appointing him, he was Archbishop of York from 1714 until his death in a Privy Counsellor. He owed his advancement to the good will of the Queen and of his predecessor, John Sharp, who had a great regard for him, had great influence with the Queen: it was Sharp's dying request that Dawes succeed him at York, which the Queen granted, he restored the Archbishop's palace in the Bishopthorpe. He died on 30 April 1724 from inflammation of the bowels, he was buried in the chapel of St Catharine's together with his wife. He was the most outstanding preacher of his period, a representative of the ideal of aristocratic prelate, of a high and authoritative personality. William Dawes was 1st Baronet of Putney and Christian Hawkins of Bocking.
According to Samuel Pepys, his parents' marriage gave rise to a good deal of gossip. His orphaned mother was an heiress, aged only sixteen, it was claimed that her husband married her without her guardian's consent. After his father's death his mother remarried the noted shipbuilder Sir Anthony Deane, by whom she had eight more children. William married Frances Cole d'Arcy on 1 December 1692, at St Edmund King and Martyr, Lombard St, City of London, their daughter Elizabeth married William Milner, 1st Baronet of Nun Appleton Hall, MP for York in the early 18th century. 1690–1695: Sir William Dawes 1695–1696: The Reverend Sir William Dawes 1696–1698: The Reverend Doctor Sir William Dawes 1698: The Reverend Canon Doctor Sir William Dawes 1698–1708: The Very Reverend Doctor Sir William Dawes 1708–1714: The Right Reverend Doctor Sir William Dawes 1714–1724: The Most Reverend and Right Honourable Doctor Sir William Dawes Stuart Handley, Sir William, third baronet, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 Leigh Rayment's list of baronets The whole works of...
Sir William Dawes, with a preface, giving some account of the life... of the author. London, 1732, 1733. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Overton, John Henry. "Dawes, William". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 14. London: Smith, Elder & Co
Hit By Lightning is a 2014 Canadian-American black comedy film written and directed by Ricky Blitt and produced by Chantal Chamandy, as his directorial debut and her film producer debut. Filmed on locations in Ottawa and Los Angeles, the film stars Jon Cryer, Will Sasso, Stéphanie Szostak, Jed Rees. Ricky, a lonely, 40-something restaurant manager meets his ideal woman, Danita through a dating website. However, one significant problem arises: she's married and wants him to kill her abusive husband so that she and Ricky can be together. Ricky is so smitten he agrees to do it with the help of Seth. Jon Cryer as Ricky Miller Will Sasso as Seth Stéphanie Szostak as Danita Jacobs Jed Rees as Rabbi Ben Jacobs Chantal Chamandy as Tracey Alexis Maitland as Ashlee Richard Roy Sutton as Dylan When interviewed by CJAD radio of Montreal, Chantal Chamandy spoke toward the production of this film. One year after creation of her production company Chantal Chamandy Entertainment, Chamandy began production on the film Hit By Lightning.
The film was shot over a 17-day period during summer 2013 in a studio in metro Ottawa, locations through the city, as well as locations in Los Angeles. The film was budgeted at C$1 million provided by private funding and through Telefilm Canada, had no cost overruns. Ricky Blitt had written the script and was invited to Montreal by Chamandy to direct the film as his directorial debut. Jon Cryer was production's first choice for the lead role, he accepted the role after discussing the script with Blitt; the film is described by Cryer. What I loved about the script was that it was a romantic comedy with a new twist. It's a sweet story but it has a real darkness to it. I haven't done a romantic comedy in a long, long time and it took a lovely script to make me do this kind of thing again Will Sasso was production's first choice for the supporting role of Seth. After he and Cryer had met and discussed it, they clicked and he came aboard. Casting was completed within six months. To take advantage of Canadian tax credits, most of the project was filmed in Ottawa, post-production and music scoring was done in Montreal.
The film had its world premiere at the Just For Laughs Festival on July 23, 2014 in Montreal, is slated for VOD release in both Canada and the United States on October 31, 2014. Rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator, reports that 10% of ten surveyed critics gave the film a positive review. Metacritic rated it 31/100 based on eight reviews. Sheri Linden of The Hollywood Reporter called it "a flat, awkward mashup" of romantic comedy and thriller. Ben Kenigsberg of The New York Times described it as "a laugh-deprived Seinfeld episode". Martin Tsai of the Los Angeles Times wrote that it "manages to make dark comedy fresh by combining two formulas." Hit by Lightning on IMDb
The Reform and Development Misruna Party is a liberal political party in Egypt. The Reform and Development Misruna Party was founded in 2009; the founders of the party are Mohamed Anwar Esmat Sadat, the ex-president Anwar Sadat's nephew, the Egyptian billionaire Raymond Lakah. The initial license application of the party was rejected in July 2010, it was legalized in May 2011, just after the Egypt’s 25 January Revolution in 2011. The party participated in the Egyptian parliamentary election, 2011–2012 and won 9 seats in the lower house; the party merged with the Misruna party in June 2011. Although the Reform and Development Misruna Party participated in the 2015 parliamentary elections, Sadat criticized the election process, delayed for 7 months, as well as the Supreme Constitutional Court being allowed to rule on complaints against election laws; the party has distanced itself from president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, Sadat ran in the 2018 Egyptian presidential election, though he withdrew. Sadat criticized the pro-Sisi "Alashan Tbneeha" campaign on constitutional grounds for allowing government employees to publicly support the campaign.
Supporters of his own campaign, "Benhab al-Sadat", have been harassed by the government. Official website
Roxadustat is a drug which acts as a HIF prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor and thereby increases endogenous production of erythropoietin, which stimulates production of hemoglobin and red blood cells. It was investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of anemia secondary to chronic kidney disease. Due to its potential applications in athletic doping, it has been incorporated into screens for performance-enhancing drugs, as it has been detected being used illicitly by athletes despite not having yet been approved for medical use. Roxadustat received its first global approval in China on 17 December 2018 for the treatment of anaemia caused by CKD in patients who are dialysis-dependent. Roxadustat is reported to increase VEGF, a signal protein that can activate tumor growth and is considered to cause pulmonary hypertension. In phase 3 trial conducted at 29 sites in China, roxadustat treatment was found to cause hyperkalemia, i.e. increase in serum potassium, metabolic acidosis in patients. Desidustat Daprodustat Molidustat Vadadustat
Olga V. Gerasimyuk is a Ukrainian journalist and TV presenter, she graduated with honors from the Institute of Journalism at Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. She received a Masters of Foreign Policy from the Diplomatic Academy. Seventeen years worked in the print press. Trained in USA: USNews & WorldReport. In July 1995, she began working on television in the program "The Aftermath". Since 1996 - the author and host of the TV channel "1+1", where she implemented "Against the Night" projects, "Special View", "Versions of Olga Herasymyuk", "I Want and Will," "Going to You," numerous special projects and one of the most popular talk shows in Ukraine "Without a taboo", kept on the screen for 10 years. Father - Prikhodko Volodymyr Mikhailovich, a mechanic. Mother - Nina Dmitrievna, teacher. Son - Ruslan, b. 1982 year. Divorced She was married to the Ukrainian poet Vasil Gerasimyuk. 1976 - on the recommendation of the newspaper Komsomolsk banner, as the winner of the competition entered the faculty of journalism Kiev State University.
Shevchenko, who graduated with a red diploma 1981 p. 17 years worked in print press. June 1981 – August 1983 - correspondent of the newspaper Komsomolets Poltava Region. August 1983 – September 1990 - correspondent for the newspaper Komsomolskoye banner. September 1990 – December 1991 - editor of the department, the magazine Man and the World. January 1991 – May 1992 - Department Head, Komsomolskoye Znamia. May 1992 – June 1994 - Deputy Editor-in-Chief, co-editor of the Republican weekly. June 1994 – June 1995 - editor of the department, information agency UNIAN. Trained as a journalist in United States, was a freelance correspondent for Air Forces. July 1995 - debut on television - journalist in the informational and analytical television program "Post-mortem" Oleksandr Tkachenko. Held a post of Head of the Department of Social Problems in the TV company "New Language". From 1997 р. - the lead author of the 1+1 channel, where she made "Against the Night" projects author of documentary special projects "Special View", "Versions of Olga Gerasimyuk", talk show "Without a taboo", "I want and I will", "I go to you".
From July 2005 to April 2006 - general producer TRK Studio 1+1. Member of National Union of Journalists of Ukraine. July 4, 2014 year elected Radio Broadcasting Council; the Lokhvitsky zemstvos school project was created by public activists in order to save hundreds of unique schools in Poltava region which were built in Lokhvytskyi zemstvo in the early 20th century. The curator of the project is Olga Gerasimyuk. She, together with other activists and architects, searches for the school of O. Slastion in the Poltava region and makes representations about assigning her architectural monuments. Official website of the National Council on Television and Radio Broadcasting Olga Gersimyuk's Official Website in Facebook Who is who in Ukraine. - K. I. S. Olga Gerasimyuk. Happiness is. - 2010. - No. 43. - P. 32. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, 5th convocation, deputy page Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, 6th convocation, deputy page