Most commonly sleds are used on snow or ice, however in certain cases they may be used on any surfaces, especially on ones with relatively low friction, such as sand or wet grass. They may be used to transport passengers, cargo, or both, shades of meaning differentiating the three terms often reflect regional variations depending on historical uses and prevailing climate. In Britain sledge is the term, and more common than sled. Toboggan is sometimes used synonymously with sledge but more often to refer to a type of sledge without runners. Sleigh refers to a moderate to large-sized, usually open-topped vehicle to carry passengers or goods, in Scandinavia particularly a sleigh may be drawn by reindeer, as for Father Christmas. In American usage sled remains the term but often implies a smaller device. Sledge implies a heavier sled used for moving freight or massive objects, in Australia, where there is limited snow and sledge are given equal preference in local parlance. The people of Ancient Egypt are thought to have used sledges extensively in the construction of their public works and sledges were found in the Oseberg Viking ship excavation.
The sledge was prized, because – unlike wheeled vehicles – it was exempt from tolls. Until the late 19th century, a closed winter sled, or vozok and it was a means of transport preferred by royals and boyars of Muscovy. Several royal vozoks of historical importance have been preserved in the Kremlin Armoury, man-hauled sledges were the traditional means of transport on British exploring expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic regions in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Dog sleds were used by most others, such as Roald Amundsen, today some people use kites to tow exploration sleds in such climes. The word sled comes from Middle English sledde, which itself has the origins in Old Dutch word slee, the same word shares common ancestry with both sleigh and sledge. North Americas Horse Drawn Sleigh Rides
The Festungsbahn is a funicular railway providing public access to the Hohensalzburg Castle at Salzburg in Austria. It links the castle with Festungsgasse, under the side of the castle walls. The Festungsbahn opened in 1892, and should not be confused with the much older Reisszug funicular that provides access to the castle. The line is operated by Salzburg AG, who operate the citys buses. The Festungsbahn opened in 1892 as a water balance funicular operated by the Salzburger Eisenbahn- und Tramwaygesellschaft, previously used as barracks, the line made the castle available to a broader range of visitors. The line was rebuilt with new cars and a drive in 1960. In 1991 the line was modernised, with the provision of new cars with an increased passenger capacity. Between January and April 2011, the funicular was again modernized, two new vehicles were provided and the electrical equipment replaced. Panoramic windows offer a view of the city. The line operates every day from 09,00, the time of the last car varies from 17,00 to 22,00 depending on the time of year.
The line has the technical parameters, Reisszug Salzburg S-Bahn Page on the Festungsbahn from the Salzburg AGs web site Article on the Festungsbahn from Funimag
Closed-circuit television, known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may point to point, point to multipoint. Videotelephony is seldom called CCTV but the use of video in distance education, Surveillance of the public using CCTV is common in many areas around the world. In recent years, the use of body worn video cameras has been introduced as a new form of surveillance, video surveillance has generated significant debate about balancing its use with individuals right to privacy even when in public. In industrial plants, CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from a control room. CCTV systems may operate continuously or only as required to monitor a particular event, a more advanced form of CCTV, utilizing digital video recorders, provides recording for possibly many years, with a variety of quality and performance options and extra features.
More recently, decentralized IP cameras, some equipped with sensors, support recording directly to network-attached storage devices. There are about 350 million surveillance cameras worldwide as of 2016, about 65% of these cameras are installed in Asia. The growth of CCTV has been slowing in recent years, the first CCTV system was installed by Siemens AG at Test Stand VII in Peenemünde, Nazi Germany in 1942, for observing the launch of V-2 rockets. The noted German engineer Walter Bruch, Wayne Cox, and Tashara Arnold were responsible for the technological design, in the U. S. the first commercial closed-circuit television system became available in 1949, called Vericon. Very little is known about Vericon except it was advertised as not requiring a government permit, marie Van Brittan Brown invented the home security system. The patent was granted in 1969, browns system had a set of 4 peep-holes and a camera that could slide up and down to look through each one. The system included a device that enabled a homeowner to use a set to view the person at the door.
The earliest video surveillance systems involved constant monitoring because there was no way to record, the development of reel-to-reel media enabled the recording of surveillance footage. Due to these shortcomings, video surveillance was not widespread, VCR technology became available in the 1970s, making it easier to record and erase information, and use of video surveillance became more common. During the 1990s, digital multiplexing was developed, allowing cameras to record at once, as well as time lapse. This increased savings of time and money and the led to an increase in the use of CCTV, recently CCTV technology has been enhanced with a shift toward Internet-based products and systems, and other technological developments. In September 1968, New York was the first city in the United States to install video cameras along its main street in an effort to fight crime
A rope is a group of yarns, plies, or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form. Ropes have tensile strength and so can be used for dragging and lifting, as a result, they cannot be used for pushing or similar compressive applications. Rope is thicker and stronger than similarly constructed cord, string, fiber rope is made from fiber, whereas wire rope is made from wire. Rope may be constructed of any long, fibrous material, synthetic fibre ropes are significantly stronger than their natural fibre counterparts, but possess certain disadvantages, including slipperiness. Common natural fibres for rope are manila hemp, feathers, cotton, jute, synthetic fibres in use for rope-making include polypropylene, polyesters, polyethylene and acrylics. Some ropes are constructed of mixtures of several fibres or use co-polymer fibres, wire rope is made of steel or other metal alloys. Ropes have been constructed of fibrous materials such as silk and hair. Rayon is a fibre used to make decorative rope.
The twist of the strands in a twisted or braided rope serves not only to keep a rope together, without any twist in the rope, the shortest strand would always be supporting a much higher proportion of the total load. Rope is of paramount importance in fields as diverse as construction, exploration, sports and communications, to fasten rope, many types of knots have been invented for countless uses. Pulleys redirect the force to another direction, and can create mechanical advantage so that multiple strands of rope share a load. Winches and capstans are machines designed to pull ropes, such ropes normally use a kernmantle construction, as described below. Static ropes, used for example in caving and rescue applications, are designed for minimal stretch, the UIAA, in concert with the CEN, sets climbing-rope standards and oversees testing. Any rope bearing a GUIANA or CE certification tag is suitable for climbing, climbing ropes, however, do cut easily when under load. Keeping them away from sharp rock edges is imperative, rock climbing ropes come with either a designation for single, double or twin use. A single rope is the most common and it is intended to be used by itself, single ropes range in thickness from roughly 9mm to 11mm.
Smaller ropes are lighter, but wear out faster, double ropes are thinner ropes, usually 9mm and under, and are intended for use as a pair. These ropes offer a margin or security against cutting, since it is unlikely that both ropes will be cut, but they complicate belaying and leading
Nonnberg Abbey is a Benedictine monastery in Salzburg, Austria. It was founded ca.714 by Saint Rupert of Salzburg and is the oldest womens religious house in the German-speaking world and its first abbess was Saint Erentrudis of Salzburg, who was either a niece or a sister of Saint Rupert. The abbeys endowment was provided by Theodbert, Duke of Bavaria, and augmented by Emperor Henry II, the abbey was independent of the founding house from 987 and was re-built in about 1000. This building was destroyed in a fire of 1423. Reconstruction took place between 1464 and 1509, in 1624 the church was enlarged by the addition of three side chapels. A refurbishment in the Baroque style took place in the 1880s, the Mother Abbess during Marias time at Nonnberg was Sister Virgilia Lütz. The Abbey was recently selected as main motif for the Austrian Nonnberg Abbey commemorative coin minted on April 5,2006 and this was the first coin of the series Great Abbeys of Austria. It shows the Benedictine convent of Nonnberg Abbey, on the hilltop in the background, the castle of Hohensalzburg and the Kajetaner church can be seen.
Citations Bibliography Nonnberg Abbey at Sacred Destinations Stift Nonnberg at Visit-Salzburg Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg at UNESCO
In rail transport, track gauge is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a network must have running gear that is compatible with the track gauge, as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still frequently used as a descriptor of a route or network. There is a distinction between the gauge and actual gauge at some locality, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, the nominal track gauge is the distance between the inner faces of the rails. In current practice, it is specified at a distance below the rail head as the inner faces of the rail head are not necessarily vertical. In some cases in the earliest days of railways, the company saw itself as an infrastructure provider only. Colloquially the wagons might be referred to as four-foot gauge wagons and this nominal value does not equate to the flange spacing, as some freedom is allowed for.
An infrastructure manager might specify new or replacement track components at a variation from the nominal gauge for pragmatic reasons. Track is defined in old Imperial units or in universally accepted metric units or SI units, Imperial units were established in United Kingdom by The Weights and Measures Act of 1824. In addition, there are constraints, such as the load-carrying capacity of axles. Narrow gauge railways usually cost less to build because they are lighter in construction, using smaller cars and locomotives, as well as smaller bridges, smaller tunnels. Narrow gauge is often used in mountainous terrain, where the savings in civil engineering work can be substantial. Broader gauge railways are generally expensive to build and require wider curves. There is no single perfect gauge, because different environments and economic considerations come into play, a narrow gauge is superior if ones main considerations are economy and tight curvature. For direct, unimpeded routes with high traffic, a broad gauge may be preferable, the Standard, and 46 gauges are designed to strike a reasonable balance between these factors.
In addition to the general trade-off, another important factor is standardization, once a standard has been chosen, and equipment and training calibrated to that standard, conversion becomes difficult and expensive. This makes it easier to adopt an existing standard than to invent a new one and this is true of many technologies, including railroad gauges. The reduced cost, greater efficiency, and greater economic opportunity offered by the use of a common standard explains why a number of gauges predominate worldwide
Hemp or industrial hemp, typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products. It is one of the fastest growing plants and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 10,000 years ago. It can be refined into a variety of items including paper, clothing, biodegradable plastics, insulation, food. Hemp has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of cannabidiol, the legality of industrial hemp varies widely between countries. Some governments regulate the concentration of THC and permit only hemp that is bred with an especially low THC content, it appears to have been borrowed into Latin, and separately into Slavic and from there into Baltic and Germanic languages. Following Grimms law, the k would have changed to h with the first Germanic sound shift, after which it may have been adapted into the Old English form, hænep. Another possible source of origin is Assyrian qunnabu, which was the name for a source of oil, cognates of hemp in other Germanic languages, include Dutch hennep and Norwegian, German and Swedish, hampa.
Hemp is used to make a variety of commercial and industrial products including rope, food, textiles, insulation, the inner two fibers of the plant are more woody and typically have industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding and litter. When oxidized, hemp oil from the seeds becomes solid and can be used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in creams as an agent, for cooking. Hemp seeds have been used in bird feed mix as well, a survey in 2003 showed that more than 95% of hemp seed sold in the European Union was used in animal and bird feed. Hemp seeds can be raw, ground into a meal, sprouted. The leaves of the plant can be consumed raw in salads. Hemp can be made into a liquid and used for baking or for such as hemp milk, hemp juice. Hempseed oil is cold-pressed from the seed and is high in unsaturated fatty acids. In 2011, the U. S. imported $11.5 million worth of products, mostly driven by growth in demand for hemp seed. In the U. S. imported hemp can be used legally in food products,100 grams of hulled hemp seeds supply 586 calories.
They are 5% water, 5% carbohydrates, 49% total fat, Hemp seeds are notable in providing 64% of the Daily Value of protein per 100 gram serving. Hempseed amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of such as meat, eggs
Wire rope is rope made from wire. It consists of several strands of metal wire laid into a helix, initially wrought iron wires were used, but today steel is the main material used for wire ropes. Historically wire rope evolved from wrought iron chains, which had a record of mechanical failure. While flaws in chain links or solid steel bars can lead to catastrophic failure, friction between the individual wires and strands, as a consequence of their twist, further compensates for any flaws. Wire ropes were developed starting with mining hoist applications in the 1830s, Wire ropes are used dynamically for lifting and hoisting in cranes and elevators, and for transmission of mechanical power. Wire rope is used to transmit force in mechanisms, such as a Bowden cable or the control surfaces of an airplane connected to levers. Also, aircraft cables are available in smaller diameters than wire rope, for example, aircraft cables are available in 3/64 in. Diameter while most wire ropes begin at a 1/4 in, static wire ropes are used to support structures such as suspension bridges or as guy wires to support towers.
An aerial tramway relies on wire rope to support and move cargo overhead, modern wire rope was invented by the German mining engineer Wilhelm Albert in the years between 1831 and 1834 for use in mining in the Harz Mountains in Clausthal, Lower Saxony, Germany. It was quickly accepted because it proved superior to ropes made of hemp or to metal chains, Wilhelm Alberts first ropes consisted of three strands consisting of four wires each. In 1840, Scotsman Robert Stirling Newall improved the process further, the decades were witness to a burgeoning increase in deep shaft mining in both Europe and North America as surface mineral deposits were exhausted and miner had to chase layers along inclined layers. To drive their first shafts into lower slopes beginning Lansford and its Schuylkill County twin-town Coaldale, the German engineering firm of Adolf Bleichert & Co. was founded in 1874 and began to build bicable aerial tramways for mining in the Ruhr Valley. Adolf Bleichert & Co. went on to hundreds of aerial tramways around the world, from Alaska to Argentina, Australia.
The Bleichert company built hundreds of aerial tramways for both the Imperial German Army and the Wehrmacht, in the last half of the 19th century, wire rope systems were used as a means of transmitting mechanical power including for the new cable cars. Wire rope systems cost one-tenth as much and had lower friction losses than line shafts, because of these advantages, wire rope systems were used to transmit power for a distance of a few miles or kilometers. In America wire rope was manufactured by John A. Roebling, forming the basis for his success in suspension bridge building, Roebling introduced a number of innovations in the design and manufacture of wire rope. Steel wires for wire ropes are made of non-alloy carbon steel with a carbon content of 0.4 to 0. 95%. The very high strength of the wires enables wire ropes to support large tensile forces
The Dorfbahn Serfaus is an unusual underground air cushion funicular transit system in the Tyrolian village of Serfaus in Austria. The name literally translates as Serfaus Village Railway, Serfaus is a busy ski resort, and during the season has to cater for large numbers of skiers. The slopes are accessed by a car and a gondola lift. A large car park is located at the end of this street. Besides the two stations at Seilbahn and Parkplatz, there are two intermediate stations in the village centre. The line was built in 1985 by the Freissler-Otis company and it consists of a single,1, 280-metre one-track line, with a single train operating on a shuttle basis. The train comprises two cars, is suspended on an air cushion, and is moved by a funicular haulage system, the tunnel is 10 feet wide and 11 feet high. The train can carry 270 people, and travels at a speed of 25 mph, during the winter season the line operates between 8,00 am and 6,00 pm, and between 9,00 am and 5,30 pm in the summer. A single journey takes 7 minutes, with the stations served only in the respective main load direction.
The service is free of charge, Serfaus Underground Information Dorfbahn Serfaus at funimag. com
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, known as tracks. It is referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a flat surface. Tracks usually consist of rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a transport system generally encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger. The operation is carried out by a company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway system or produce their own power. Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system, Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms of transport. The oldest, man-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC, with Periander, one of the Seven Sages of Greece, Rail transport blossomed after the British development of the steam locomotive as a viable source of power in the 19th centuries.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution, railways reduced the costs of shipping, and allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships. The change from canals to railways allowed for markets in which prices varied very little from city to city. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, and the first tramways, starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being almost complete by 2000. During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan, other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. The history of the growth and restoration to use of transport can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used.
The earliest evidence of a railway was a 6-kilometre Diolkos wagonway, trucks pushed by slaves ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element. The Diolkos operated for over 600 years, Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages. The earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau in Germany