SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Religious intolerance

Religious intolerance is intolerance of another's religious beliefs or practices or lack thereof. The mere statements contrary to one's beliefs do not constitute intolerance. Religious intolerance, rather, is when a group refuses to tolerate practices, persons or beliefs on religious grounds; the intolerance, the active persecution of religious minorities, has a long history. No region of the Earth has been spared from having a past, filled with religious intolerance. In the Horn of Africa, during the 4th century CE, the Kingdom of Aksum converted to Christianity where Judaism had been the dominant faith; the modern concept of religious tolerance developed out of the European wars of religion, more out of the Peace of Westphalia which ended the 30 Years War, during the Protestant Reformation and the ensuing conflicts between Protestants and Catholics in the 17th and 18th centuries. The doctrine of'religious toleration' was established as a result of the 30 Years War between the Catholic Hapsburgs and newly Protestant nations like Sweden under Gustavus Adolphus.

At this time, rulers sought to eradicate religious sentiments and dogmas from their political demesnes. The 1648 Treaty gave nations the right of sovereignty and it allowed minority Christian denominations to exist within the Holy Roman Empire. According to the early 20th century British historian Arnold Toynbee, for a religious establishment to persecute another religion for being "wrong" puts the persecuting religion in the wrong, undermining its own legitimacy; the constitutions of some countries contain provisions which expressly forbid the state from engaging in certain acts of religious intolerance and these same provisions forbid the state from showing a preference for a particular religion within its own borders, examples of such provisions include the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, the Article 4 of the Basic Law of Germany, Article 44.2.1 of the Constitution of The Republic of Ireland, Article 40 of the Estonian Constitution, Article 24 of the Constitution of Turkey, Article 36 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Article 3 Section 5 of the Constitution of the Philippines.

Other states, whilst not containing constitutional provisions which are directly related to religion, nonetheless contain provisions which forbid discrimination on religious grounds. These constitutional provisions do not guarantee that all elements of the state remain free from religious intolerance at all times, practice can vary from country to country. Other countries, may allow for religious preference, for instance through the establishment of one or more state religions, but not for religious intolerance. Finland, for example, has the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland and Finnish Orthodox Church as its official state religions, yet upholds the right of free expression of religion in article 11 of its constitution; some countries retain laws. Some constitutions retain laws; this is seen by some as official endorsement of religious intolerance, amounting to the criminalization of religious views. The connection between intolerance and blasphemy laws is closest when the laws apply to only one religion.

In Pakistan blasphemy directed against either the tenets of the Qur'an or the Prophet Mohammed is punishable by either life imprisonment or death. Apostasy, the rejection of one's old religion, is criminalized in a number of countries, notably Afghanistan with Abdul Rahman being the first to face the death penalty for converting to Christianity; the United Nations upholds the right to express one’s religious beliefs, as listed in the UN’s charter, additionally in articles 2 and 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 2 forbids discrimination based on religious grounds. Article 18 protects the freedom to change one’s religion; as a treaty, not a declaration, is binding, the signing of the human rights declaration is a public pledge of commitment. Out of a desire to avoid subservience to an international court, the United States chose in 1998 to pass the International Religious Freedom Act, creating the Commission on International Religious Freedom, mandating that the United States government take action against any country found to violate the religious freedoms outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Human Rights Council in 2011 adopted Resolution 16/18 on "Combating intolerance, negative stereotyping and stigmatization of, discrimination, incitement to violence and violence against, persons based on religion or belief", hailed by stakeholders from all regions and faiths as a turning point in international efforts to confront religious intolerance. The European Convention on Human Rights, binding on all European Union states, makes restricting the rights of an individual to practice or change their religion illegal in article 9, discrimination on the basis of religion illegal in article 14. In its 2000 annual report on international religious freedom, the U. S. State Department cited China, Iran and Sudan for persecuting people for their religious faith and practices; the report, which covers July 1999 through June 2000, deta

1964 Baltimore Colts season

The 1964 Baltimore Colts season was the 12th season for the team in the National Football League. The Colts finished the regular season with a record of 12 wins and 2 losses and finished first in the Western Conference, it clinched on November 22 with three games remaining. After an opening loss at Minnesota, the Colts won eleven straight, dropped a home game in December to Detroit easily won the finale with Washington. Baltimore met the Cleveland Browns of the Eastern Conference in the NFL Championship Game in Cleveland, won by the underdog Browns, 27–0. Source: ^ The game with the Cardinals in week 5 was scheduled to be played at St. Louis, but was shifted to Baltimore when the baseball Cardinals reached the World Series, preempting football use of Busch Stadium during the Series. Note: Tie games were not counted in the standings until 1972. After Baltimore's 12–2 regular season, they traveled to Cleveland to take on the Browns for the NFL title on December 27; the host team was alternated between the conferences, Eastern in even-numbered seasons and Western in the odd-numbered.

This was the third championship game appearance for the Colts since joining the NFL in 1953, they entered the game as seven-point favorites. Both teams had two weeks to prepare: the first half was uneventful and scoreless, but the home underdog Browns scored seventeen points in the third quarter in their 27–0 rout of the Colts. Johnny Unitas, Bert Bell Award History of the Indianapolis Colts Indianapolis Colts seasons Colts-Patriots rivalry

Eva Steiness

Eva Steiness née Uhl is a Danish physician, former university professor and businessperson, active in Scandinavia's pharmaceutical industry since the late 1990s. She is CEO of Serodus ASA, a biomedical company based in Oslo which develops drugs for the treatment of diabetes. In 1982, Steiness became the first women to be appointed dean of Copenhagen University's faculty of medicine and in 1985, she became the first women in Denmark to become a full professor in the medical field with her appointment at Aarhus University. Eva Uhl was born in Glostrup on 4 October 1941, she is the daughter of the physician Erik Axelssøn Grethe Holmer. She was raised in a well-to-do household in Copenhagen. After matriculating from Østersøgades Gymnasium in 1960, she began to study medicine at Copenhagen University. After marrying the medical doctor Ib Steiness in 1966, she moved with him to Aarhus where she continued her studies at Aarhus University while raising her two daughters, she graduated in 1968. After which she moved back to Copenhagen.

Following assignments in various hospitals, Steiness returned to her academic interests, teaching at Copenhagen University's pharmacological institute. In 1978, she earned a doctor’s degree in medicine with a doctoral thesis titled Digoxin-klinisk farmakologi. After her husband's death in 1980, she raised her children alone, working as a physician in parallel with her academic agenda. In 1982, she was appointed dean of the Faculty of the first woman to hold the post. With her appointment as professor of clinical pharmacology at Aarhus University in 1985, she became Denmark's first woman to hold a professorship in the medical field, she built up the institute. In 1989, she was appointed research director of the pharmaceutical company H. Lundbeck in Copenhagen, she remained there for the next nine years, becoming Executive Vice President. Under her leadership, the company grew from 75 to 450 employees. In particular, the company prospered with sales of the antidepressant drug Cipramil. In 1998, after raising capital, she founded Zealand Pharma, with a focus on hormone preparations, serving as principal and board member.

She founded and owns the Danish company New Pharma. In April 2009, she joined Oslo, as Chief Executive Officer. Steiness serves on the boards of several other companies in the medical field. 1989, Tagea Brandt Rejselegat