Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They differ from literary texts by being a compilation or discussion of beliefs, ritual practices, commandments or laws, ethical conduct, spiritual aspirations, for creating or fostering a religious community; the relative authority of religious texts develops over time and is derived from the ratification and its use across generations. Some religious texts are accepted or categorized as canonical, some non-canonical, others extracanonical, semi-canonical, deutero-canonical, pre-canonical or post-canonical. A scripture is a subset of religious texts considered to be "especially authoritative", revered and "holy writ", "sacred, canonical", or of "supreme authority, special status" to a religious community; the terms'sacred text' and'religious text' are not interchangeable in that some religious texts are believed to be sacred because of the belief in some theistic religions such as the Abrahamic religions that the text is divinely or supernaturally revealed or divinely inspired, or in non-theistic religions such as some Indian religions they are considered to be the central tenets of their eternal Dharma.
Many religious texts, in contrast, are narratives or discussions pertaining to the general themes, practices, or important figures of the specific religion. In some religions, the scripture of supreme authority is well established. In others, the canonical texts include a particular text but is "an unsettled question", according to Eugene Nida. In yet others, there "has never been a definitive canon". While the term Scripture is derived from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing", most sacred scriptures of the world's major religions were a part of their oral tradition, were "passed down through memorization from generation to generation until they were committed to writing", according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Religious texts serve a ceremonial and liturgical role in relation to sacred time, the liturgical year, the divine efficacy and subsequent holy service. According to Peter Beal, the term scripture – derived from "scriptura" – meant "writings in general" prior to the medieval era became "reserved to denote the texts of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible".
Beyond Christianity, according to the Oxford World Encyclopedia, the term "scripture" has referred to a text accepted to contain the "sacred writings of a religion", while The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions states it refers to a text "having authority and collected into an accepted canon". In modern times, this equation of the written word with religious texts is particular to the English language, is not retained in most other languages, which add an adjective like "sacred" to denote religious texts; some religious texts are categorized as canonical, some non-canonical, others extracanonical, semi-canonical, deutero-canonical, pre-canonical or post-canonical. The term "canon" is derived from the Greek word "kανών", "a cane used as a measuring instrument", it connotes the sense of "measure, norm, rule". In the modern usage, a religious canon refers to a "catalogue of sacred scriptures", broadly accepted to "contain and agree with the rule or canon of a particular faith", states Juan Widow.
The related terms such as "non-canonical", "extracanonical", "deuterocanonical" and others presume and are derived from "canon". These derived terms differentiate a corpus of religious texts from the "canonical" literature. At its root, this differentiation reflects the sects and conflicts that developed and branched off over time, the competitive "acceptance" of a common minimum over time and the "rejection" of interpretations, rules or practices by one group of another related socio-religious group; the earliest reference to the term "canon" in the context of "a collection of sacred Scripture" is traceable to the 4th-century CE. The early references, such as the Synod of Laodicea mention both the terms "canonical" and "non-canonical" in the context of religious texts. One of the oldest known religious texts is the Kesh Temple Hymn of Ancient Sumer, a set of inscribed clay tablets which scholars date around 2600 BCE; the Epic of Gilgamesh from Sumer, although only considered by some scholars as a religious text, has origins as early as 2150 BCE, stands as one of the earliest literary works that includes various mythological figures and themes of interaction with the divine.
The ‘’Rig Veda’’ – a scripture of Hinduism – is dated to between 1500–1200 BCE. It is one of the oldest known complete religious texts. There are many possible dates given to the first writings which can be connected to Talmudic and Biblical traditions, the earliest of, found in scribal documentation of the 8th century BCE, followed by administrative documentation from temples of the 5th and 6th centuries BCE, with another common date being the 2nd century BCE. Although a significant text in the history of religious text because of its widespread use among religious denominations and its continued use throughout history, the texts of the Abrahamic traditions are a good example of the lack of certainty surrounding dates and definitions of religious texts. High rates of mass production and distribution of religious texts did not begin until the invention of the printing press in 1440, before which all religious texts were hand written copies, of which there were limited quantities in circulation.
The following is an in-exhaustive list of links to specific religious texts which may be used for further, more in-depth study. An
British Army Dirigible No 1, christened Nulli Secundus was a Semi-rigid airship. First flown on 10 September 1907, it was Britain's first powered military aircraft. Built at the Army's Balloon Factory at Farnborough, the early design work was carried out by Colonel James Templer, it was completed by Colonel John Capper of the Royal Engineers and Samuel Cody, responsible for developing the steering gear and power installation, it had a cylindrical envelope constructed from goldbeater's skin without internal ballonets, from which a long triangular-section framework of steel tubing was suspended by four silk bands. The control surfaces, consisting of a rudder and elevators at the rear, a pair of large elevators amidships and a further pair at the front, were attached to this framework, a small gondola containing the crew and power installation suspended beneath it, it was powered by a 50 hp Antoinette engine driving a pair of two-bladed aluminium propellers via leather belts. The pitch of the propellers could be adjusted.
Nulli Secundus was first flown on 10 September 1907 at Farnborough, with Capper at the controls assisted by Cody and Captain King. Two flights were made: during the first the airship was flown for around three miles at a height of about 200 ft, the flight being terminated by an engine fault. A second flight was made in the day, the propeller blades having been reduced in area in order to increase their speed of revolution. A more public appearance was made on 5 October. Taking off at 11:00 pm and crewed by Capper and Lieutenant Waterlow, they made a tour over the city taking in Whitehall and Buckingham Palace, after circling St Paul's Cathedral they attempted to return to Farnborough, but 18 mph headwinds forced them to land at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham; the flight had covered 50 miles overland. On 10 October, still moored at Crystal Palace to avoid damage in high winds, she was buffeted so that some of the guy ropes tore free. Hydrogen was released through escape valves and a slit was made in the envelope to speed up the process.
Deflated and dismantled, the remains were taken back to Farnborough where it was rebuilt with alterations to become Nulli Secundus II. Following proposals for a new airship it was decided to re-use the envelope of the first airship, enlarged to a capacity of 84,768 ft. New features included a silk outer skin over the whole structure, a new and revised understructure, a small additional "reserve" gasbag in the space in between, modified control surfaces including a forward elevator, modified drive train from the old engine, a ground spike. Nulli Secundus II was flown on 24 July 1908 in front of a crowd of several thousand people including General Horace Smith-Dorrien, Charles Rolls, Frank Hedges Butler; the airship made only one subsequent flight, for the purpose of training Navy personnel. It was scrapped, its engine being used to power Cody's British Army Aeroplane No. 1. Data from Lewis, Peter. British Aircraft 1808–1914. London: Putnam. P. 548. General characteristics Length: 122 ft 0 in Diameter: 26 ft 0 in Volume: 55,000 ft3 Powerplant: 1 × Antoinette water cooled V-8 piston engine, 50 hp Performance Maximum speed: 16 mph List of British airships
Ready Steady No is a 2019 Pakistani romantic comedy film. The film features Amna Ilyas, Salman Shahid, Faisal Saif, Zain Afzal, Marhoom Ahmed Bilal, Nargis Rasheed and Ismail Tara, it is written and produced by Hisham Bin Munawwar. It released on 19 July 2019 under the banners of Eveready Films. Faisal Saif as Faisal Amna Ilyas as Razia Salman Shahid as Chaudhry Sahab. Omair Alavi wrote that the film "makes your belief stronger in clean comedy" because it "delivers a clean comedy" on "situations, more than dialogues." Shafiq Ul Hasan rated 2 out of 5 stars and wrote in The Express Tribune that it "is an earnest attempt" and "offers a fresh script" to "those who like stage plays and prefer loud comedy." Sonia Ashraf of Dawn Images said that the "plot for this romantic comedy sounds simple enough" "it fizzled out" due to "a poor script". Asjad Khan of OY! wrote that it "is an entertaining film, with a social message" and "a worthy effort for "an independent film maker", however, "it could have been better if" focused a "bit more in building the relationship between" the lead pair.
Yousuf Mehmood rated 3 out of 5 stars and wrote on PakistaniCinema.net "the film drags a little, its cinematic appeal is lacking" but it is "a purely comedic film where the audience was howling laughing, along with their families." Usman Ghafoor of Gulf News commented, "The humour here is situational and verbal", but "throughout the narrative, the film keeps returning to slapstick", "cinematography is its other weak point." Hassan Hassan of Galaxy Lollywood said that it is a "socially relevant" film whose "cast offer moments of fun with their acting" but rated only 1.5 star out of 5 and added that "the cast alone, isn't able to save the film from being a disastrously boring affair" as it is not entertaining. List of Pakistani films of 2019 Ready Steady No on IMDb Ready Steady No on Facebook Soundtrack at Patari.pk