click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Remaster

Remaster refers to changing the quality of the sound or of the image, or both, of created recordings, either audiophonic, cinematic, or videographic. A pyramid of copies would be made from a single original "master" recording, which might itself be based on previous recordings. For example, sound effects might have been added from copies of sound effect tapes similar to modern sampling to make a radio play for broadcast. A master is the recording which experts state will be the definitive copy, duplicated for the end user into other formats i.e. LP records, CDs, DVDs etc. Problematically, several different levels of masters exist for any one audio release; as an example, examine the way a typical music album from the 1960s was created. Musicians and vocalists were recorded on multi-track tape; this tape was mixed to create a mono master. A further master tape would be created from this original master recording consisting of equalization and other adjustments and improvements to the audio to make it sound better on record players for example.

More master recordings would be duplicated from the equalized master for regional copying purposes. Pressing masters for vinyl recordings would be created; these interim recordings were referred to as Mother Tapes. All vinyl records would derive from one of the master recordings. Thus, mastering refers to the process of creating a master; this might be as simple as copying a tape for further duplication purposes, or might include the actual equalization and processing steps used to fine-tune material for release. The latter example requires the work of mastering engineers. With the advent of digital recording in the late 1970s, many mastering ideas changed. Creating new masters meant incurring an analogue generational loss; this means how much of the original intended "good" information is recorded against faults added to the recording as a result of the technical limitations of the equipment used. Although noise reduction techniques exist, they increase other audio distortions such as azimuth shift and flutter, print-through and stereo image shift.

With digital recording, masters could be created and duplicated without incurring the usual generational loss. As CDs were a digital format, digital masters created from original analog recordings became a necessity. Remastering is the process of making a new master for film, or any other creation, it tends to refer to the process of porting a recording from an analogue medium to a digital one, but this is not always the case. For example, a vinyl LP – pressed from a worn-out pressing master many tape generations removed from the "original" master recording – could be remastered and re-pressed from a better-condition tape. All CDs created from analogue sources are technically digitally remastered; the process of creating a digital transfer of an analogue tape remasters the material in the digital domain if no equalization, compression, or other processing is done to the material. Ideally, because of their higher resolution, a CD or DVD release should come from the best source possible, with the most care taken during its transfer.

Additionally, the earliest days of the CD era found digital technology in its infancy, which sometimes resulted in poor-sounding digital transfers. The early DVD era was not much different, with copies of films being produced from worn prints, with low bitrates and muffled audio; when the first CD remasters turned out to be bestsellers, companies soon realized that new editions of back-catalogue items could compete with new releases as a source of revenue. Back-catalogue values skyrocketed, today it is not unusual to see expanded and remastered editions of modern albums. Master tapes, or something close to them, can be used to make CD releases. Better processing choices can be used. Better prints can be utilized, with sound elements remixed to 5.1 surround sound and obvious print flaws digitally corrected. The modern era gives publishers unlimited ways to touch up, "improve" their media, as each release promises improved sound, video and others, producers hope these upgrades will entice people into making a purchase.

Remastering music for CD or digital distribution first starts from locating the original analog version. The next step tracks so it can be edited using a computer; the track order is chosen. This is something engineers worry about because if the track order is not right, it may seem sonically unbalanced; when the remastering starts, engineers use software tools such as a limiter, an equaliser, a compressor. The compressor and limiters are ways of controlling the loudness of a track. However, this is not to be confused with the volume of a track, controlled by the listener during playback; the dynamic range of an audio track is measured by calculating the variation between the loudest and the quietest part of a track. In recording studios the loudness is measured with negative decibels, zero designating the loudest record-able sound. A limiter works by having a certain cap on the loudest parts and if that cap is exceeded, it is automatically lowered by a ratio preset by the engineer. Remastered audio has been the subject of criticism.

Many remastered CDs from the late 1990s onwards have been affected by the "loudness war", where the average volume of the recording is inc

Per Anger

Per Johan Valentin Anger was a Swedish diplomat. Anger was Raoul Wallenberg's co-worker at the Swedish legation in Budapest during World War II when many Jews were saved because they were supplied with Swedish passports. After the war, he spent a lot of time trying to clarify Wallenberg's fate. Born in Gothenburg, Anger studied law at Stockholm University and at Uppsala University. After graduating in November 1939, he was drafted into the Army. Soon afterwards, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs offered him a trainee position at the Swedish legation in Berlin, which he began in January 1940. Anger was assigned to the trade department, but after the legation received information about an impending Nazi attack on Norway and Denmark, he became involved in relaying intelligence to Stockholm. In June 1941, he returned to Stockholm, where he worked on trade relations between Sweden and Hungary. In November 1942, he was sent to Budapest as Second Secretary at the Swedish legation. After Germany invaded Hungary on 19 March 1944, Anger became involved in efforts to aid Hungarian Jews.

Anger originated the idea of issuing Swedish provisional passports and special certificates to protect Jews from internment and deportation. Seven hundred of these documents were issued initially. Although the legality of the documents was doubtful, the Hungarian government agreed to recognize their bearers as Swedish citizens. On 9 July, Raoul Wallenberg arrived in Budapest, he extended Anger's initiative, introducing colorful protective passes and creating "safe houses" throughout the city. Anger and Wallenberg worked together literally snatching people from transports and death marches. After the Soviets invaded in January 1945, both Anger and Wallenberg were taken into custody. Anger was released three months but Wallenberg never emerged again, becoming one of the 20th century's most famous missing persons. After the war, Anger served in numerous diplomatic posts in Egypt, France and the United States, he became head of Sweden's international aid program and served as ambassador to Australia and the Bahamas.

Throughout his post-war career, Anger led efforts to learn what happened to Wallenberg meeting with Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev in the 1980s. In 2000, the Russian government acknowledged that Wallenberg and his driver died in Soviet custody in 1947, although the exact circumstances of their deaths remain unclear. Anger died in Stockholm after suffering a stroke. In 1982, Anger was recognized by Yad Vashem as one of the Righteous Among the Nations and in 1995 he was honored with the Hungarian Republic's Order of Merit. In 1995, Anger was awarded the Wallenberg Medal by the University of Michigan in recognition of his extraordinary courage and humanitarian commitment. In 2000, he was awarded honorary Israeli citizenship. In 2001, the American Swedish Historical Museum presented him with the Spirit of Raoul Wallenberg Humanitarian Award. In April, 2002 Swedish Prime Minister Göran Persson awarded Anger the Illis Quorum Meruere Labores for his actions during and after the war; this is the highest award that can be conferred upon an individual Swedish citizen by the Government of Sweden.

The Per Anger Prize was instituted by the Swedish Government to honor the memory of ambassador Per Anger and is awarded for humanitarian work and initiatives in the name of democracy. The prize is awarded to individuals or groups who have distinguished themselves either in the past or in more recent times. Raoul Wallenberg Skoglund, Elisabeth R. A Quiet Courage -- Per Anger, Wallenberg's Co-Liberator of Hungarian Jews. Jewish Virtual Library Per Anger award Per Anger - Holocaust Heroes Budapest

Bindstone

A Bindstone is a special type of carbonate rock in the Dunham classification. The term Bindstone did not appear in the original Dunham classification from 1962 and was introduced by Embry and Klovan 1971 in the modified Dunham classification. Embry and Klovan define Bindstones as rocks that " contain in situ, tabular or lamellar fossils which encrusted and bound sediment during deposition; the matrix, not the in situ fossils, forms the supporting framework of the rock, the fossils may form as little as 15 percent of the constituents of the rock."Wright uses Bindstone as a synonym for Boundstone, defined as a rock " where the structure reflects the encrusting and binding action of plants or animals"Lokier and Al Nunaibi define Bindstones as "autochthonous carbonate-dominated rock in which the original components of the supporting matrix were organically bound through stabilization of the sediment at the time of deposition." One problem in the classification is that the term Bindstone is easy to confuse with the term Boundstone.

Additionally the exact relation of the two terms changes depending on the classification used. For Embry and Klovan, a Boundstone is used for autochthonous carbonates if there is a lack of evidence for the more precise classifications as Bafflestone, Bindstone or Framestone. In contrast to that, Wright uses Boundstone and Bindstone synonymously, not consistent with other authors

Jasmin Mešanović

Jasmin Mešanović is a Bosnian-Herzegovinian professional footballer who plays as a forward for Maribor. Mešanović came through Sloboda Tuzla youth ranks, debuting at the age of 18, in April 2010. Mešanović signed with Čelik in 2012, he signed a one-year deal with Osijek in July 2014. Mešanović came to Zrinjski Mostar in June 2015. In June 2017, after he left Zrinjski on a free transfer, Mešanović signed a three-year deal with 1. SNL side Maribor. Mešanović has represented Herzegovina at under-21 level, he got his first senior call-up in December 2011, made his debut in a friendly against Poland on 16 December 2011, playing 23 minutes as a substitute in a 1–0 defeat. As of match played 16 March 2019 As of match played 16 December 2011. Zrinjski MostarPremier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina: 2015–16, 2016–17 Jasmin Mešanović – UEFA competition record

Clara Louise Hagins

Clara Louise Hagins was an American photographer and clubwoman based in Chicago, Illinois. Clara Louise Hagins was born in Chicago, the daughter of John L. Hagins and Mary Ann McCormick Hagins, she had Alice Mary Hagins. Hagins was a photographer at the William McKenzie Morrison portrait studio in Chicago, she was active in the Women's Federation of the Photographers' Association of America. She served as first vice president in the federation's executive board in 1914 and 1915, working with Maybelle Goodlander and the Gerhard Sisters, she managed "the Circle", the federation's traveling collection of members' work. In 1921 she was vice-president of the Photographers' Association of America, at their meeting in Buffalo, New York, she was active in the Association of Women's Clubs in Chicago, in the Dickens Fellowship of Chicago. Hagins moved to Tampa, Florida by the 1940s, died there in 1957, aged 85 years

Afsluitdijk

The Afsluitdijk is a major dam and causeway in the Netherlands. It was constructed between 1927 and 1932 and runs from Den Oever in North Holland province to the village of Zurich in Friesland province, over a length of 32 kilometres and a width of 90 metres, at an initial height of 7.25 metres above sea level. The Afsluitdijk is a fundamental part of the larger Zuiderzee Works, damming off the Zuiderzee, a salt water inlet of the North Sea, turning it into the fresh water lake of the IJsselmeer; the dam serves. The motorway on the Afsluitdijk was the initial demonstration site for a 130 km/h speed limit in the Netherlands; the Afsluitdijk was completed in 1932. Until the Zuiderzee had been a large bay south of the North Sea which gave maritime access to five provinces of The Netherlands, during the Dutch Golden Age provided a protected entrance and exit for the harbour of Amsterdam and several other important Dutch sea harbours. Furthermore, the Zuiderzee provided shallow and calm fishing grounds for the many towns bordering the bay.

However, the opening of the Noordzeekanaal in 1876 gave a much shorter direct entrance to the Amsterdam harbour, overfishing had depleted the shallow bay. In the second half of the 19th century, the Dutch population was exploding, there was an increasing need for land for agriculture and animal husbandry; the Dutch had centuries of experience of building dikes around lakes, emptying them and converting them to fertile polderland. The next large project was to convert the Zuiderzee into polder. In 1886, a few notables established the Zuiderzee Society to investigate whether reclamation was feasible. One of the most prominent members of the society was Cornelis Lely, a prominent member and chairman of the society. In 1891 he designed the first plan for the reclamation of the Zuiderzee. In 1913, Lely was Minister of Water Management, land reclamation was included in the government program, his plan was opposed for its huge costs and by the fishing industry. But after the flood of 1916 and the famine of 1918, opinions were ready for this mega project and the parliament agreed, but it took another 9 years, until 1927, before the works began.

Wieringen was connected to the mainland with the short Amsteldiepdijk in 1925. The inland side is heavy stone. Previous experience had showed that boulder clay was superior to just sand or clay for a structure like the Afsluitdijk, with the added benefit that till was in plentiful supply in the area. Work started at four points: on both sides of the mainland and on two specially made construction-islands along the line of the future dike. From these points, the dike grew by ships depositing till into the open sea until it breached the surface; the nascent dike was strengthened from land by basalt rocks and mats of willow switch at its base. The dike could be finished off by raising it further with sand and clay for the surface of the dike, on which grass was planted; as the dike grew, physicist Hendrik Antoon Lorentz calculated the force of the tide as the smaller gap made it stronger. Ten thousand workers, 27 large dredges, 13 floating cranes, 132 barges, 88 tugs worked on the project at the end, timed to close the dike at low tide.

Construction progressed better than expected. These had been considered to be major obstacles to completing the dike, but all of them proved to be straightforward. Two years earlier than thought, the Zuiderzee ceased to be, as the last tidal trench, the Vlieter, was closed by a final bucket of till; the IJsselmeer was born though it was still salty at the time. The dike itself however was not finished yet as it still needed to be brought up to its required height and a road linking Friesland and North Holland remained to be built. On 25 September 1933, the Afsluitdijk was opened, with a monument designed by architect Dudok marking the spot where the dike had been closed; the amount of material used is estimated at 23 million cubic metres of sand and 13.5 million cubic metres of till and over the years an average of around four to five thousand workers were involved with the construction every day, relieving some of the unemployment following the Great Depression. Beside the dike itself, there was the necessary construction of two complexes of shipping locks and discharge sluices at both ends of the dike.

The complex at Den Oever includes the Stevin lock and three series of five sluices for discharging the IJsselmeer into the Wadden Sea. It is necessary to discharge water from the lake since it is continually fed by rivers and streams and polders draining their water into the IJsselmeer. On S