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Remembrance Day

Remembrance Day is a memorial day observed in Commonwealth member states since the end of the First World War to remember the members of their armed forces who have died in the line of duty. Following a tradition inaugurated by King George V in 1919, the day is marked by war remembrances in many non-Commonwealth countries. Remembrance Day is observed on 11 November in most countries to recall the end of hostilities of First World War on that date in 1918. Hostilities formally ended "at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month", in accordance with the armistice signed by representatives of Germany and the Entente between 5:12 and 5:20 that morning; the First World War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919. The tradition of Remembrance Day evolved out of Armistice Day; the initial Armistice Day was observed at Buckingham Palace, commencing with King George V hosting a "Banquet in Honour of the President of the French Republic" during the evening hours of 10 November 1919.

The first official Armistice Day was subsequently held on the grounds of Buckingham Palace the following morning. During the Second World War, many countries changed the name of the holiday. Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations adopted Remembrance Day, while the US chose Veterans Day; the common British, South African, ANZAC tradition includes a one- or two-minute silence at the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month, as that marks the time when the armistice became effective. The Service of Remembrance in many Commonwealth countries includes the sounding of the "Last Post", followed by the period of silence, followed by the sounding of "Reveille" or sometimes just "The Rouse", finished by a recitation of the "Ode of Remembrance"; the "Flowers of the Forest", "O Valiant Hearts", "I Vow to Thee, My Country" and "Jerusalem" are played during the service. Services include wreaths laid to honour the fallen, a blessing, national anthems; the central ritual at cenotaphs throughout the Commonwealth is a stylised night vigil.

The Last Post was the common bugle call at the close of the military day, The Rouse was the first call of the morning. For military purposes, the traditional night vigil over the slain was not just to ensure they were indeed dead and not unconscious or in a coma, but to guard them from being mutilated or despoiled by the enemy, or dragged off by scavengers; this makes the ritual more than just an act of remembrance but a pledge to guard the honour of war dead. The act is enhanced by the use of dedicated cenotaphs and the laying of wreaths—the traditional means of signalling high honours in ancient Greece and Rome. In Australia, Remembrance Day is always observed on 11 November, regardless of the day of the week, is not a public holiday; some institutions observe two-minutes' silence at 11 am through a programme named Read 2 Remember, children read the Pledge of Remembrance by Rupert McCall, teachers deliver specially developed resources to help children understand the significance of the day and the resilience of those who have fought for their country and call on children to be resilient when facing difficult times.

Services are held at 11 am at war memorials and schools in suburbs and cities across the country, at which the "Last Post" is sounded by a bugler and a one-minute silence is observed. When Remembrance Day falls on a normal working day in Melbourne and other major cities, buglers from the Australian Defence Force play the "Last Post" at major street corners in the CBD. While this occurs, the majority of passers-by stop and observe a moment of silence while waiting for the bugler to finish the recital. In interwar Australia, Remembrance Day was a popular public commemoration, but from 1946 to the 1970s, Australians observed Remembrance Sunday following the British pattern. It is only in the 1980s and 1990s that Remembrance Day was once again systematically observed on 11 November; the resurgence of Remembrance Day became official on 30 October 1997, when the Governor-General, under the Howard government, proclaimed that ‘ 11 November in each year shall be known and observed as Remembrance Day.

In recent decades, Remembrance Day has been eclipsed as the national day of war commemoration by ANZAC Day, a public holiday in all states. Attendance at Anzac Day services boomed, while that to Remembrance Day services continued to decline. Historian Romain Fathi explains: “In Australia, Anzac Day has addressed the question of the meaning of the war far better than Remembrance Day or Remembrance Sunday, it can acknowledge loss and suffering with a nod to the sacred, while representing imagined distinct national values such as mateship, laconic humour and stoicism. This capacity to connect the national community to the numinous explains Anzac Day’s primacy over Remembrance Day.” In Barbados, Remembrance Day is not a public holiday. It is recognised as 11 November, but the parade and ceremonial events are carried out on Remembrance Sunday; the day is celebrated to recognise the Barbadian soldiers who died fighting in the First and Second World Wars. The parade is held at National Heroes' Square.

The Governor-General and Barbad

Canne de combat

Canne de combat is a French martial art. As weapon, it uses a cane designed for fighting. Canne de combat was standardized in the 1970s for sporting competition by Maurice Sarry; the canne is light, made of chestnut wood and tapered. A padded suit and a fencing mask are worn for protection; the canne de combat or canne d'arme is a product of French culture. It developed in the early 19th century as a self-defence discipline and was used by upper class bourgeois gentlemen in big, unsafe cities such as Paris; some speak of French martial art although its codification as a sport does not allow this name officially. The history of the discipline is linked to the development of the savate boxing techniques which at the beginning was using kicks and under the influence of the British incorporated punches. Gentlemen trained into the savate techniques mastered cane as a way of fighting from a certain distance as well as close combat kickboxing; the cane was in the hands of the city men. In fact and staff were associated in many countries and cultures.

In the olden days, the techniques of savate and canne d'arme increased in popularity up to the point that they were used by military and police forces until World War I. The millions of French lives lost during the war caused the discipline nearly to disappear; the techniques continued, however, to be taught in a few savate boxing clubs that reopened in between the two wars and managed to survive World War II. There is reputed to be a group who operated during the Nazi occupation who used cane techniques to carry out assassinations. Cane fighting techniques of the late 1950s and 1960s were influenced by a few skilled individuals who revived it. During the late 1970s, the techniques of the canne d'arme were codified by Maurice Sarry with a view to rehabilitating it as a sport; this led to the discipline, still today associated with the Federation de Savate Boxe Française. Aside from the sport approach, self-defense techniques are still alive. Today, the sport canne de combat is practiced by a thousand cannistes, the French staff by some hundreds of bâtonniers or bâtonnistes.

In the USA it is said that Jean-Noel Eynard brought canne de combat to the east coast in combination with Savate. The first real FFBFSDA/ FIS club of Canne de combat/ Savate was open in 1983 on the east coast in Philadelphia, under Dr. Jean-Noel Eynard, FFBFSDA/ FIS Professeur with the assistance of former FFBFSDA/ FIS DTN Bob Alix. Canne de combat was taught in 1994 in Memphis, Tennessee; the use of the cane as a weapon, as taught in weapons schools, was codified by the masters of savate so that the cane was taught as a weapon of self-defence. The French tradition includes techniques of medieval stick-fighting, excepting those techniques considered too dangerous to be used in sport; the medieval stick is too heavy a weapon to be used in competition. Its use today canne de combat itself is disappearing. There is, however, a martial tradition passed down to the Swiss master, Pierre Vigny, used for codification of techniques using the Indian cane at the beginning of the 20th century, forming a separate tradition from the more common sporting cane seen in France today.

The cane, first used for support and as a gentleman's accessory provided a useful weapon. A normal walking stick is within the boundaries of legal self-defence, but the loaded cane may be considered a weapon in some jurisdictions. In the modern sporting canne de combat system found in France, bouts are held inside a ring; the cane is held with one hand but the player can change it from hand to hand during the bout. Strokes are made either horizontally or downward, stabbing blows being prohibited; the scoring zones are the torso and the head. To count, all strokes must be with the cane, low blows must have a lunging movement; the bout is won on points, the lightness of the cane and the protective clothing making a knockout impossible. Points are scored according to the correctness of body positions during fighting. Contact with prohibited areas such as the arms are penalized, it is thus possible to win a match without landing a blow on one's adversary, if he or she accumulates penalties. The canne is a chestnut stick.

The first, marked with a green line, is heavier and used for training of basic techniques. A canne used in competitions and advanced training, marked with a black line, is lighter. Lighter sticks are safer to use; the length of a canne is 95 cm. The bâton is a two handed stick of 140 cm and 400 g. Canne de combat has several variations: Canne: the basic form, using one stick Double canne: using two sticks Bâton: quarterstaff Double bâton: two quarterstaves Canne défense: self-defense with the stick Canne chausson: savate kicks combined with canne techniques Canne fouet: a variant of canne chausson and canne défense Canne is the biggest part of canne de combat; when playing canne, the cannistes have a stick in their hand, wear a protective suit and a fencing helmet, try to score more points than their opponent during the match. Scoring zones: Head: the top, the sides, front Torso: only for males CalvesDuri

O moj Shqypni

O Moj Shqypni is a poem written by Pashko Vasa, a political figure, poet and patriot known for his role during the Rilindja. It was written between 1878, an important year for the League of Prizren and 1880; the poet, a critique of religious and political factionalism as a barrier to national unity of Albanians called for them overcoming religious divisions through a united Albanianism. In 1910, the music director of the orchestra of Vlorë melodized the poem. Written in Vasa's native dialect of Shkodër, the poem is one of the few works written by him in Albanian. Others were penned in French, it has 72 verses. Vasa, a Catholic himself describes Albania, a nation whose people were divided between different religions and its fate. Vasa used the last line of poem Feja e shqyptarit asht shqyptarija to remind his people that the identity of Albanians was not a product of religion as in the case of other peoples in the Balkans, he describes the nation as a mother and a grand lady, raped and defiled by foreigners.

By using this feminine image of Albania and by appealing to the manly virtues of Albanians, Vasa in poetic verse demands from them to act against this dishonour. The poem was first published by the Czech linguist Jan Urban Jarník in his work Zur Albanesische Sprachenkunde published in 1881. Throughout the Ottoman Empire, it was disseminated in the form of flyers. Two other versions have been found in Thimi Mitko's archives in Alexandria and those of Jeronim de Rada in Cosenza. Found in 1975, the latter version, unlike the other two, has a different first verse, Mori Shqypni instead of Moj Shqypni, it was considered to have been transcribed by Vasa, but it was proven that it's a transcription of Sami Frashëri, another important Albanian writer of the era. Frustrated by Albanian societal divisions, the poem was a stirring appeal by Vasa for an national awakening and unity transcending religious and other identities among Albanians. O Moj Shqypni is considered to be one of the most influential works of 19th-century Albanian literature and has been described as one of the most influential and most important poems written in Albanian.

The last stanza Feja e shqyptarit asht shqyptarija was a motto of the League of Prizren and became during the Rilindja and thereafter a catchword for Albanian nationalists. The communist leader of Albania Enver Hoxha, who used nationalism as a tool during his struggle to break Albania out of the Soviet bloc exploited the stanza and implemented it as state policy; the communist regime proclaimed. In 1967 the communist regime declared Albania the only atheist and non-religious country in the world and banned all forms of religious practice in public. "O Moj Shqypni" at YouTube

A. Roberto Frisancho

A. Roberto Frisancho is a biological anthropologist and the Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, he is the 2008 recipient of the Franz Boas Distinguished Achievement Award in Anthropology bestowed by the American Human Biology Association. He is best known for his work on developmental human adaptation to extreme environments such as high altitudes, growth and evaluation of nutritional status, he advanced the hypothesis and demonstrated that the origin of adult variability of biological phenotypic traits are function of the effects and adaptations to environmental conditions that the organism makes during the developmental stage. Within this conceptual framework, he has contributed numerous papers on bioenergetics, the nutrition and developmental determinants of pre-natal and post-natal growth including teenage pregnancy. In 2013, he received the Charles Darwin Lifetime Achievement Award bestowed by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Frisancho was born on February 1939, in Cusco Perú, speaking both Spanish and Quechua as a child.

He attended the Tourist Guide School of Cusco, Perú and worked as a tour guide in Cusco and Machu Picchu. That job allowed Frisancho to develop an interest in anthropology and expand his linguistic skills and become fluent in multiple languages. In 1962 he graduated with a Bachelor in Humanities from the National University of San Antonio Abad of Cusco, Perú. Upon graduating, he had two sons, Roberto Javier and Juan Frisancho. In 1963 he won a Fulbright fellowship and went to Pennsylvania State University to study biological anthropology. During that time, he cultivated his interest in physiological and developmental adaptations to extreme environments such as high altitude, heath, under-nutrition and over-nutrition. In 1969, he received his Ph. D. in Anthropology from Pennsylvania State University and subsequently became a Research Scientist at the University of Michigan Center for Human Growth and Development and Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the Department of Anthropology. In 1972 he was named Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

He was the recipient of the LS&A Excellence in Education Award in 1996, 1997, 1998, the Amoco Distinguished Faculty Achievement Award in 1997. In 1999 he was named the Arthur A. Thurnau Professor of Anthropology. In June 2006, he was awarded the title of Honorary Professor of Anthropology of the National University of San Antonio Abad of Cusco, Perú and in April 2008 received the Franz Boas Distinguished Achievement Award from the American Human Biology Association. In 2013, he received the Charles Darwin Lifetime Achievement Award bestowed by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, his research interest focuses on the connection between biology and culture in determining the expression of biological traits. His approach seeks to evaluate contemporary biological traits as byproducts of past biological adaptations both in contemporary and evolutionary perspective, he is interested in anthropometric standards for the evaluation of child and adult growth and nutritional status. Publications Roberto Frisancho Biography at the University of Michigan

Wolfgang Zimmermann

Wolfgang Zimmermann is a German politician and trade unionist. He was the state spokesperson for the Left Party in North Rhine-Westphalia from 2007 until 2010, he represented the Left in the Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia from 2010 until 2012, he is a member of the party managing board. From 1972 until 1975, Zimmerman studied at the Fachhochschule Düsseldorf, where he graduated with a Diplom in social work. Zimmermann has been a trade-unionist since 1973; until November 2010, he was the chairperson of the Vereinte Dienstleistungsgewerkschaft district of Rhine-Wupper, until March 2011, he was a member of the Vereinte Dienstleistungsgewerkschaft managing board in the state. Until May 2010, he represented full-time the employees of a hospital in Langenfeld where he was employed. Before joining the Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative, he gained political experience with the Party of Democratic Socialism, he is a member of the socialist group International Socialist Left, a Trotskyist organization in Germany.

He replaced Hüseyin Kenan Aydın as the state spokesperson for the Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative in June 2005, in November of that year, he was re-elected as spokesperson, together with his colleague Katherina Schwabedissen. During the inaugural convention of the Left in North Rhine-Westphalia in Gladbeck on 20 October 2007, Zimmermann became the state spokesperson with 256 of 287 votes cast, he shared this office with Ulrike Detjen until 18 October 2008. During the state party convention on 18 October 2008, held in Essen, he was again elected to be spokesperson with 156 of 226 votes cast. Following the departure of Ulrike Detjen, he served in this position with Katharina Schwabedissen until July 2010. In the 2010 state election, Wolfgang Zimmermann won a seat in the Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia as the second person on the state party lists. In the inaugural meeting of the parliamentary group, he was elected to be the group's spokesperson. In the 2012 state election, the party again selected him to be listed second on the party lists.

During a medical examination in the course of his campaign, he was discovered to have lung cancer, but despite this, he did not end his bid for election. When the Left failed to garner enough votes to surpass the 5% threshold required to remain in parliament, Zimmerman lost his seat. Zimmermann writes articles for the Socialist Newspaper and is associated with the "Anti-Capitalist Left", an anti-capitalist, anti-militarist caucus within the Left Party. Wolfgang Zimmermann in the Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia Interview with TAZ WDR 5 - Audio Interview with Zimmermann Profile on the Left NRW website

Mount Druitt

Mount Druitt is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located 38 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Blacktown, is part of the Greater Western Sydney region. There are numerous encompassing, smaller suburbs nearby including Bidwill, Dharruk, Hebersham, Lethbridge Park, Shalvey and Willmot. Major George Druitt was granted 2,000 acres in the area by Governor Macquarie, he named his grant, where he died in Mount Druitt. Rail services to Mount Druitt commenced on 19 August 1881; the railway station operated as the post office between 1885 and 1918. The station had two platforms and a level crossing at the western end and included small goods yard, servicing a small mill. A railway gatekeeper's lodge was built circa 1867, was converted to the station master's cottage, it was sold and converted to commercial use. Electric train services to Mount Druitt commenced in 1955, at a service presided by Premier of New South Wales, Joseph Cahill.

In 1975, the railway station was relocated 500 metres east to service a new shopping centre, locally known as "The Great Western" and is now owned by Westfield. The old railway station was demolished immediately, although the level crossing remained until a road bridge carrying Carlisle Avenue over the railway line was completed. A footbridge was built for pedestrians. Mount Druitt Hospital was opened in 1982 by Queen Elizabeth II; the 200-bed hospital was opened following significant fundraising and political agitation from the local community due to perception that the community was unable to access medical services at either Blacktown or Nepean Hospitals. In April 2006, the Attorney General's Department of New South Wales opened a new court house at a cost of A$12 million; this was to become the first metropolitan area courthouse to utilise "circle sentencing", with aims to reduce over representation of Indigenous Australians in custody. A local landmark is the Georgian cottage known as The Manse, situated in The Avenue.

It was built by John Harris in the mid-1880s. It was sold to Robert Kennedy. Kennedy left it to the Presbyterian Church when he died, it was used for some time as a manse, it was restored. It is open to the public, it has both a local state government heritage listing. Mount Druitt has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Great Western Highway: Neoblie 23 The Avenue: The Manse The Mount Druitt township was serviced by a small shopping area known as Mount Druitt Village. In 1975, a new shopping centre, known locally as "The Great Western", was opened 500 metres to the east when the railway station was relocated and a large bus/rail interchange was built; the Westfield corporation took over the shopping centre, now known as Westfield Mount Druitt, located on the corner of Carlisle Avenue and Luxford Road, both major roads in the area. The complex has over 200 stores, ranging from discount department stores to specialty shops. Shopsmart is another shopping centre located in the suburb. Other services such as a hospital, coffee shops, small bars, council-operated swimming pool and library are all located within walking distance of the railway station.

The area is under a Blacktown council redevelopment Plan. Much of the Housing commission has been sold off to Developers and the area is being revitalized - with Mixed use developments taking place; the area is becoming popular with the Chinese and Filipino community. Due to the affordability, excellent schools and transport links. Mount Druitt railway station is located on the North Shore, Northern & Western Line of the Sydney Trains network. There is an express service which runs all day taking 30 minutes to get to Parramatta and 55 minutes to Sydney, it features a newly upgraded interchange with bus routes operated by Busways with routes to all suburbs in the Mount Druitt area and Glendenning. The government has announced a North south Line across Western Sydney, which will link Mount Druitt to the new Western Sydney Airport and create a link to the South West; the Council is embarking on a feasibility to install a new light rail which will link Mount Druitt to the other Blacktown Shire suburbs.

Mount Druitt High school was established in the 1960s. The school is located within the suburb of Dharruk, adjacent to the local Emerton Shopping Village, it rebranded as Chifley College Mount Druitt Campus, educating years 7–10. Chifley College Senior Campus educates the senior classes, is within walking distance from Mount Druitt Station. A number of private schools such as the Church of England Grammar school have acquired parklands in the area. There are plans to build a 2000 student private school in the area adjacent to Wilmot; this is in partnership with the State Government who are selling off the failed public housing estate in the area. According to the 2016 census of Population, were 16,726 people in Mount Druitt; the most common ancestries were Australian 11.9%, Filipino 11.9%, English 10.2%, Indian 6.9% and Pakistani 5.5%. 40.8% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were Philippines 11.3%, Pakistan 5.9%, Iraq 4.9%, India 4.2% and Fiji 2.6%. 34.4% of people spoke only English at home.

Other languages spoken at home included Urdu 8.5%, Arabic 7.6%, Tagalog 7.2%, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic 4.0% and Filipino 3.5%. The most common responses for religion were Catholic 31.0%, Islam 22.2% and No Religion 9.3%