Serbian Orthodox Church
The Serbian Orthodox Church is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches. It is the second-oldest Slavic Orthodox Church in the world; the Serbian Orthodox Church comprises the majority of the population in Serbia and the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is organized into metropolises and eparchies located in Serbia and Herzegovina, Croatia, but all over the world where Serb diaspora lives; the Serbian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous, or ecclesiastically independent, member of the Eastern Orthodox communion. Serbian Patriarch serves as first among equals in his church; the Church achieved autocephalous status in 1219 under the leadership of St. Sava, becoming independent Archbishopric of Žiča, its status was elevated to that of a patriarchate in 1346, was known afterwards as the Serbian Patriarchate of Peć. This patriarchate was abolished by the Ottoman Turks in 1766; the modern Serbian Orthodox Church was re-established in 1920 after the unification of the Patriarchate of Karlovci, the Metropolitanate of Belgrade and the Metropolitanate of Montenegro.
Christianity spread to the Balkans beginning in the 1st century. Florus and Laurus are venerated as Christian martyrs of the 2nd century. Constantine the Great, born in Niš, was the first Christian Roman Emperor. Several bishops seated in what is today Serbia participated in the First Council of Nicaea, such as Ursacius of Singidunum. In 380, Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius decreed that his subjects would be Christians according to the Council of Nicea formula. Greek was used in the Byzantine church. With the definite split in 395, the line in Europe ran south along the Drina river. Among old Christian heritage is the Archbishopric of Justiniana Prima, established in 535, which had jurisdiction over the whole of present-day Serbia. However, the Archbishopric did not last, as the Slavs and Avars destroyed the region sometime after 602, when the last mention is made of it. In 731 Leo III attached Illyricum and Southern Italy to Patriarch Anastasius of Constantinople, transferring the papal authority to the Eastern Church.
The history of the early medieval Serbian Principality is recorded in the work De Administrando Imperio, compiled by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. The DAI drew information on the Serbs among others, a Serbian source; the Serbs were said to have received the protection of Emperor Heraclius, Porphyrogenitus stressed that the Serbs had always been under Imperial rule. His account on the first Christianization of the Serbs can be dated to 632–638; the establishment of Christianity as state religion dates to the time of Prince Mutimir and Byzantine Emperor Basil I. The Christianization was due to Byzantine and subsequent Bulgarian influence. At least during the rule of Kocel in Pannonia, communications between Serbia and Great Moravia, where Methodius was active, must have been possible; this fact, the pope was aware of, when planning Methodius' diocese as well as that of the Dalmatian coast, in Byzantine hands as far north as Split. There is a possibility that some Cyrillomethodian pupils reached Serbia in the 870s even sent by Methodius himself.
Serbia was accounted Christian as of about 870. The first Serbian bishopric was founded at Ras, near modern Novi Pazar on the Ibar river. According to Vlasto, the initial affiliation is uncertain; the early Ras church can be dated to the 9th–10th century, with the rotunda plan characteristic of first court chapels. The bishopric was established shortly after 871, during the rule of Mutimir, was part of the general plan of establishing bishoprics in the Slav lands of the empire, confirmed by the Council of Constantinople in 879–880; the names of Serbian rulers through Mutimir are Slavic dithematic names, per the Old Slavic tradition. With Christianization in the 9th century, Christian names appear; the next generations of Serbian royalty had Christian names, evident of strong Byzantine missions in the 870s. Petar Gojniković was evidently a Christian prince, Christianity was spreading in his time; the Bulgarian annexation of Serbia in 924 was important for the future direction of the Serbian church, by at latest, Serbia must have received the Cyrillic alphabet and Slavic religious text familiar but not yet preferred to Greek.
In 1018–19, the Archbishopric of Ohrid was established after the Byzantines conquered Bulgaria. Greek replaced Bulgarian Slavic as the liturgical language. Serbia was ecclesiastically administered into several bishoprics: the bishopric of Ras, mentioned in the first charter of Basil II, became part of the Ohrid archbishopric and encompassed the areas of southern Serbia, by the rivers Raška, Ibar and Lim, evident in the second charter of Basil II. In the chrysobulls of Basil II d
Julia Domna was a Roman empress of Syrian origin, the second wife of Septimius Severus. She was born in Emesa in the Roman province of Syria, into a family of priests of the deity Elagabalus; as a powerful political figure and member of the imperial family, Julia received titles such as "mother of the army camps". She was famous for her philosophical influence. After Severus' death in 211, his two sons with Julia and Caracalla, ruled jointly over Rome. Caracalla had Geta assassinated that year. Julia continued to have a powerful role during the reign of Caracalla. Julia is thought to have committed suicide in 217 upon hearing of the assassination of Caracalla. After her death, her older sister Julia Maesa contended for political power. Julia Domna was born in Emesa in Syria around 160 AD to a family of Arab descent, her name, Domna, is an archaic Arabic word. She was the youngest daughter of the high-priest of Ba'al Gaius Julius Bassianus and sister to Julia Maesa. Through her sister and Maesa's husband Julius Avitus, Julia Domna had two nieces: Julia Soaemias and Julia Mamaea, the respective mothers of future Roman emperors Elagabalus and Severus Alexander.
Julia's ancestors were priest kings of the famous temple of Elagabalus. The family was promoted to Roman senatorial aristocracy. Before her marriage, Julia inherited the estate of her paternal great-uncle Julius Agrippa, a former leading centurion. In the late 180s, Julia married the Libyan Roman general Septimius Severus; the marriage proved happy, Severus cherished Julia and her political opinions, since she was well-read and a student of philosophy. They had two sons, Caracalla in 188 and Geta in 189. After the Roman emperor Commodus was murdered without an heir in 192, many contenders rushed for the throne, including Julia's husband, Septimius Severus. An elder senator, was appointed by the praetorian guard as the new emperor of Rome, but when Pertinax would not meet the guard's demands, he too was murdered. Another politician, Didius Julianus, was called to appointed emperor. Severus, coming from the north into Rome, had him executed. Severus claimed the title of emperor in 193. By offering Clodius Albinus, a powerful governor of Britannia, the rank of Caesar, Severus could focus on his other rival to the throne, Pescennius Niger, whom he defeated at the Battle of Issus in 194.
When afterwards Severus declared his son Caracalla as successor, Clodius Albinus was hailed emperor by his troops. At the Battle of Lugdunum in 197, Severus defeated and killed Albinus, establishing himself as Emperor, thus Julia Domna became Empress consort. Unlike most imperial wives, Julia remarkably accompanied her husband on his military campaigns and stayed in camp with the army. During this time, honorary titles were granted to Julia similar to those given to Faustina the Younger, including mater castrorum, mother of the camp, mater Augustus, mother of Augustus, mater patriae, mother of the fatherland; the empress was involved in building projects, most notably the aedes Vestae after the fire of Commodus in 192 destroyed areas of the temple and the home, or Atrium, of the Vestal Virgins. Julia was respected and viewed positively for most of her tenure, as indicators and evidence include the coins minted with her portrait, mentioning her with several honorary titles and simply as "Julia Augusta".
Julia is said to have exceeded all other Roman empresses in honours. The hairstyle that she used would be worn by Roman empress Cornelia Salonina and Palmyran queen Zenobia; when Severus died in 211 in Eboracum, Julia became the mediator between their two sons and Geta, who were supposed to rule as joint emperors, according to their father's wishes expressed in his will. The two young men were never quarrelled frequently. Geta was murdered by Caracalla's soldiers in the same year. Geta's name was removed from inscriptions and his image was erased. During his campaign against the Parthian empire in 217, Caracalla was assassinated by a Roman soldier. Julia chose to commit suicide after hearing about the rebellion a decision hastened by the fact that she was suffering from breast cancer, as well as a reluctance to return to private life, her sister Julia Maesa restored the Severan dynasty about a year after Julia Domna's death. Julia Domna's body was placed in the Sepulcrum C. et L. Caesaris. However, both her bones and those of Geta were transferred by Julia Maesa to the Mausoleum of Hadrian.
Julia Domna is remembered for encouraging Philostratus to write the Life of Apollonius of Tyana. Julia is thought to have died. Minaud, Gérard. Les vies de 12 femmes d'empereur romain: intrigues & voluptés. Harmattan. Pp. 211–242. ISBN 978-2-3360-0291-0. Fejfer, Jane. Roman Portraits in Context. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-1101-8664-2
Diocese of the French Armed Forces
The Diocese of the French Armed Forces is a military ordinariate of the Roman Catholic Church. Subject to the Holy See, it provides pastoral care to Roman Catholics serving in the French Armed Forces and their families; the post of military bishop was created in 1949, a military vicariate was established on 26 July 1952. It was elevated to a military ordinariate on 21 July 1986; the Episcopal seat is located at the Church of Saint-Louis-des-Invalides in France. Maurice Feltin Maurice Feltin Jean-Marie-Clément Badré Gabriel Vanel Jacques Louis Marie Joseph Fihey Jacques Louis Marie Joseph Fihey Michel Marie Jacques Dubost, C. I. M. Patrick Le Gal Luc Marie Daniel Ravel, C. R. S. V. Antoine de Romanet Centre national des Archives de l'Église de France, L’Épiscopat francais depuis 1919, retrieved: 2016-12-24. Diocèse aux Armées Françaises Military Ordinariate of France Diocèse aux Armées Françaises
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles
The Archdiocese of Los Angeles is an archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the U. S. state of California. Based in Los Angeles, the archdiocese comprises the California counties of Los Angeles, Santa Barbara and Ventura; the cathedral is the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles, its present archbishop is José Horacio Gómez. With five million professing members, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles is numerically the single largest diocese in the United States; the Archbishop of Los Angeles serves as metropolitan bishop of the suffragan dioceses within the Ecclesiastical Province of Los Angeles, which includes the Dioceses of Fresno, Orange, San Bernardino, San Diego. Following the establishment of the Spanish missions in California, the diocese of the Two Californias was established on 1840, when Los Angeles region was still part of Mexico. In 1848, the Mexican California was ceded to the United States, the U. S. portion of the diocese was renamed the Diocese of Monterey. The diocese was renamed the Diocese of Monterey-Los Angeles in 1859, the episcopal see was moved to Los Angeles upon the completion of the Cathedral of Saint Vibiana in 1876.
Los Angeles split from Monterey to become the Diocese of Los Angeles-San Diego in 1922. The diocese was split again in 1936 to create the Diocese of San Diego, the Los Angeles see was elevated to an archdiocese; the archdiocese's present territory was established in 1976, when Orange County was split off to establish the Diocese of Orange. Christianity in southern California dates back to the Spanish establishment of missions in what was known as the Las Californias province of New Spain. From 1769 to 1823, the Franciscan order led by Junípero Serra and by Fermín de Francisco Lasuén established twenty-one missions between present-day San Diego and Sonoma, six of which were located in the present-day territory of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles. In response to the 1781 establishment of the Pueblo de Los Angeles, in 1784 priests from Mission San Gabriel Arcángel set out for the pueblo and established the Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles Asistencia as a sub-mission; the asistencia fell into disrepair after being abandoned several years and La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles was built on the site in 1814.
Las Californias was split into two provinces in 1804, the area comprising present-day California became part of Alta California. In 1840, the diocese of the Two Californias was erected to recognize the growth of the provinces of Alta California and Baja California; the diocese was a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Mexico with its episcopal see located in Monterey, included all Mexican territory west of the Colorado River and the Gulf of California. In 1848, Alta California was ceded to the United States after the Mexican–American War, the Mexican government objected to an American bishop having jurisdiction over parishes in Mexican Baja California; the diocese was split into American and Mexican sections, the American section was renamed the Diocese of Monterey. Another large split occurred in 1853, when much of present-day northern California, as well as present-day Nevada and Utah, formed the Archdiocese of San Francisco. In 1859 the diocese became known as the Diocese of Monterey-Los Angeles to recognize the growth of the city of Los Angeles.
On June 1, 1922, the diocese split again, this time into the Dioceses of Monterey-Fresno and Los Angeles-San Diego. On July 11, 1936 the diocese was elevated to become the Archdiocese of Los Angeles with John Joseph Cantwell as its first archbishop. On March 24, 1976, Orange County was split to form the Diocese of Orange, establishing the archdiocese's present-day territory consisting of Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, Ventura Counties. In addition to the dioceses of Monterey and San Diego, the archdiocese's present-day suffragan dioceses are Fresno and San Bernardino. In 1986, Archbishop Roger Mahony subdivided the Archdiocese of Los Angeles into five administrative pastoral regions; each region is geographical, is headed by an auxiliary bishop who functions as the region's episcopal vicar. The five regions are: Our Lady of the Angels, covering downtown and central Los Angeles west to Malibu, south to Los Angeles International Airport; the region has 78 parishes, 11 Catholic high schools, 5 Catholic hospitals, 5 missions.
The Episcopal Vicar is Bishop Edward William Clark. San Fernando, covering the San Fernando, Santa Clarita and Antelope Valleys and northeast Los Angeles; the region has 12 Catholic high schools, 2 Catholic hospitals and 5 missions. Archbishop Gomez appointed Bishop Joseph V. Brennan Episcopal Vicar for the San Fernando Pastoral Region in 2015. San Gabriel, covering East Los Angeles through the San Gabriel Valley and th
Carl Ludwig Patsch Karl Ludwig Patsch, Bulgarian: Карл Пач was an Austrian Slavist, Albanologist and historian. Carl Patsch was born in north-east Bohemia, as a son of Ludwig Patsch, a steward of an upper prince, but grew up in Maratschowka and Sławuta, Volhynia, he spoke Czech and Russian as mother languages
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving
Paulinus of Nola
Paulinus of Nola, born Pontius Meropius Anicius Paulinus, was a Roman poet and senator who attained the ranks of suffect consul and governor of Campania but—following the assassination of the emperor Gratian and under the influence of his Spanish wife Therasia—abandoned his career, was baptized as a Christian, became bishop of Nola in Campania. While there, he wrote poems in honor of his predecessor St Felix and corresponded with other Christian leaders throughout the empire, he is traditionally credited with the introduction of bells to Christian worship and helped resolve the disputed election of Pope Boniface I. His renunciation of his wealth and station in favor of an ascetic and philanthropic life was held up as an example by many of his contemporaries—including SS Augustine, Jerome and Ambrose—and he was subsequently venerated as a saint, his relics became a focus of pilgrimage, but were removed from Nola between the 11th and 20th centuries. His feast day is observed on June 22 in both the Roman Eastern Orthodox Churches.
In Nola, the entire week around his feast day is celebrated as the Festival of the Lilies. Pontius Meropius Paulinus was born c. 352 in southwestern France. He was from a notable senatorial family with estates in the Aquitaine province of France, northern Spain, southern Italy. Paulinus was a kinsman of Melania the Elder, he was educated in Bordeaux, where his teacher, the poet Ausonius became his friend. At some time during his boyhood he made a visit to the shrine of St Felix at Nola near Naples, his normal career as a young member of the senatorial class did not last long. In 375, the Emperor Gratian succeeded his father Valentinian. Gratian made Paulinus suffect consul at Rome c. 377, appointed him governor of the southern Italian province of Campania c. 380. Paulinus noted the Campanians' devotion to Saint Felix of Nola and built a road for pilgrims, as well as a hospice for the poor near the local shrine. In 383 Gratian was assassinated at Lyon and Paulinus went to Milan to attend the school of Ambrose.
Around 384 he returned to Bordeaux. There he married a Christian noblewoman from Barcelona. Paulinus was threatened with the charge of having murdered his brother, it is possible. He was baptized by Bishop Delphinus of Bordeaux, he and his wife traveled to Spain about 390. When they lost their only child eight days after birth they decided to withdraw from the world, live a secluded religious life. In 393 or 394, after some resistance from Paulinus, he was ordained a presbyter on Christmas Day by Lampius, Bishop of Barcelona. However, there is some debate as to whether the ordination was canonical, since Paulinus received ordination "at a leap", without receiving minor orders first. Paulinus refused to remain in Barcelona, in late spring of 395 he and his wife moved from Spain to Nola in Campania where he remained until his death. Paulinus credited his conversion to St. Felix, buried in Nola, each year would write a poem in honor of the saint, he and Therasia rebuilt a church commemorating St. Felix.
During these years Paulinus engaged in considerable epistolary dialogue with St. Jerome among others about monastic topics. Therasia died some time between 408 and 410, shortly afterwards Paulinus received episcopal ordination. Around 410, Paulinus was chosen Bishop of Nola. Like a growing number of aristocrats in the late 4th and early 5th centuries who were entering the clergy rather than taking up the more usual administrative careers in the imperial service, Paulinus spent a great deal of his money on his chosen church and ritual. Paulinus died at Nola on 22 June 431; the following year the presbyter Uranus wrote his "On the Death of Paulinus", an account of the death and character of the saint. As bishop of Nola, Paulinus is traditionally credited with the introduction of the use of bells in church services. One form of medieval handbell was known as the nola and medieval steeple bells were known as campanas from this supposed origin. However, Dr. Adolf Buse, professor at the Seminary of Cologne, showed that the use of bells in churches, an invention credited to Paulinus by tradition, is not due to him, nor to the town of Nola.
During his governorship Paulinus had developed a fondness for the 3rd-century martyr, St. Felix of Nola. Felix was a minor saint of local importance and patronage whose tomb had been built within the local necropolis at Cimitile, just outside the town of Nola; as governor, Paulinus had built a residence for travelers. Nearby were a number of at least one old basilica. Paulinus rebuilt the complex, constructing a brand new basilica to Felix and gathering to him a small monastic community. Paulinus wrote an annual hymn in honor of St. Felix for the feast day when processions of pilgrims were at their peak. In these hymns we can understand the personal relationship Paulinus felt between himself and Felix, his advocate in heaven, his poetry shares with much of the work of the early 5th century an ornateness of style that classicists of the 18th and 19th centuries found cloying and dismissed as decadent, though Paulinus' poems were regarded a