click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Remonstrants

The Remonstrants is a movement that had split off of the Dutch Reformed Church in the early 17th century. The community is composed of Dutch Protestants who supported Jacobus Arminius, after his death, continue to maintain his original views, called Arminianism. In 2016 a 5,000-strong Remonstrant community still remains in the Netherlands. In formulating Arminianism, Jacobus Arminius disagrees with Calvin on predestination, he defends free examination as superior to the doctrines of established churches. In 1610, Arminius followers presented to the States of Holland and Friesland a remonstrance in five articles formulating their points of disagreement with Calvinism as adopted by the Dutch Reformed Church; as historic supporters of his theological cause, Remonstrants declined to be called "Arminians" and adopted a designation of their own choice. Their adversaries, inspired by Franciscus Gomarus, became known as Gomarists or Counter-Remonstrants. Although the States-General issued an edict tolerating both parties and forbidding further dispute, the conflict continued and became linked to political conflicts in the Dutch Republic.

The Remonstrants were assailed both by personal enemies and by the political weapons of Maurice of Orange. Their foremost ally, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, was executed, other leaders were imprisoned. In 1618–19 the Synod of Dordrecht, after expelling the thirteen Arminian pastors headed by Simon Episcopius, established the victory of the Calvinist school, it drew up ninety-three canonical rules, confirmed the authority of the Belgic Confession and the Heidelberg Catechism. The judgement of the synod was enforced through the deposition and in some cases banishment of Remonstrant ministers. In this context, owing to the lack of preachers, there originated in Warmond a movement in favor of the lay sermon, the adherents of which founded the Society of Collegiants. An exile community of Remonstrants was founded in Antwerp in 1619. In 1621 they were allowed to settle in Schleswig; the doctrine of the Remonstrants was embodied in 1621 in a Confession written by Episcopius, their major theologian. This Confession serves as a base for the Remonstrant church since his return to the Netherlands in 1626.

It confirms the opinion of the remonstrants expressed in 1618. Jan Uytenbogaert regulated their church order, their seminary in Amsterdam had distinguished pupils, including Curcellaeus, Wetstein, Le Clerc. Their school of theology, which grew more liberal and rationalistic, forcefully debated the official Dutch Reformed state church and other Christian denominations. After the death of Maurice of Orange in 1625 some exiles returned; the government became convinced that they posed no danger to the state, in 1630 they were formally allowed to reside again in all parts of the Republic. They were not, however allowed to build churches until the establishment of the Batavian Republic in 1795; until they held their services in so-called Schuilkerken. In the mid-19th century, the Remonstrant Brotherhood was influenced by liberalism, which in Holland was embodied by Petrus Hofstede de Groot, his theology had a wide audience in Europe, characteristic of the romantic phase of Christian humanism. De Groot sums up the purpose of this movement of which he is the leader by writing that "the most important thing in Christianity is the revelation and the education as given by God in Jesus Christ, so as to make us more and more like God".

The "Groningers" reject the dogma of the Trinity and expiatory justice of God. They recognize the dual divine and human nature and the ability of man to fulfill God's will with His help. For them, the crucifixion of Jesus was a revelation of the love of God, the perfection of Jesus and the guilt of men, to make them admire Jesus. Contrary to Anselm of Canterbury stand on reconciliation, the "Groningers" think that God did not send his son into the world to die in order to atone for the sin of men, but to make them to be born to God, it is the wickedness of men. Despite following the pure version of Arminianism, they are not the only Protestants who can be considered Arminian or be called "Arminians," as the Arminian movement is a cross-denominational development which made inroads into the Church of England, General Baptists, the Adventist Church, the Holiness movement, the Charismatic movement, a number of other Protestant denominations; the Remonstrant Brotherhood continues as a church in the Netherlands.

The Remonstrants first received official recognition in 1795. Their chief congregation has been in Rotterdam. In 2016, the Remonstrant Brotherhood has about 5,000 members and "friends", in more than 40 congregations in the Netherlands, one congregation in Friedrichstadt, in northern Germany; the Remonstrant Brotherhood of Holland keeps fellowship with the European Liberal Protestant Network. Besides it is a charter member of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches. Remonstrants are Unitarians. In line with the progressive views on religion, Remonstrants have been blessing same-sex partnerships on an equal footing as different sex weddings from 1986 onwards. In this the Remonstrants were the first Christian church in the world to

Chik (social group)

The Chik are a Muslim community, found in the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in India. They are known as Bakar Qasab, Buz Qassab and Chikwa; the Chik have been granted Other Backward Class status in both Uttar Pradesh. The Chik are traditionally involved in the selling of goat meat, they claim descent from Qureshi Arabs, who are said to have arrived in India in the early Middle Ages. The Chik are a sub-group within the larger Qassab community of South Asia, they specialize in the slaughtering of goats, while the Qassab are involved in the slaughtering of buffaloes. In Uttar Pradesh, the Chik are referred to as Bakar Qassab or Buz Kassab; the word bakar comes from the Urdu word bakra, which means a goat, bakar qassab means a mutton butcher, Their residences are adjacent to them including their business like Meat and leather. The Uttar Pradesh Chik are endogamous; the Uttar Pradesh Chik are involved in the business and trade of meat and hides. While the urban Bakar Qasab purchase goats and sheep from the Gadariya community, those in the rural areas rear their own sheep and goats.

A significant number of Chik are involved in tanning of hides, with a small number now owning tanneries. A section of the Chik in Uttar Pradesh have now entered the transportation business, running trucks throughout the state; each settlement of the Chik contains an informal caste council, known as a panchayat. The panchayat is headed by a chaudhary, his duties include keeping a record of community members in the settlement. Traditionally, the panchayat deals with all intra community disputes, as well as traditionally punishing those who transgress community norms; the Chik are now involved with the Anjuman Quraish, an India wide caste association of both the Chik and Qassab. The Chik of Uttar Pradesh are endogamous, have a marked preference of marrying close kin, they speak Urdu, as well as local dialects such as Khari Awadhi. The Chik are Sunni Muslims and are one of the more orthodox communities, incorporating fewer folk practices. In terms of distribution, the Chik are found in Rohilkhand and Awadh, with particular concentrations in the districts of Bareilly, Bijnor and Shahjahanpur in Rohilkhand, Lucknow, Kheri and Hardoi in Awadh.

The Chik of Bihar speak the Sadri dialect of Hindi. They are found throughout Bihar, are one of the most widespread Muslim groups in that state, their occupation remains the selling of meat, this occupation is exclusive to this community. But many have now taken to other occupations, such as petty trade; the Anjuman Chik is one of the oldest caste association in Bihar, have lobbied for the Chik

Beatrice Gray

Beatrice Gray was an American actress and dancer best known for her appearances in a series of western films during the 1940s and 1950s. Gray was born Bertrice Alice Kimbrough on a farm near Illinois, she began working in the entertainment industry in Broadway productions, as well as a performer in nightclubs. She earned her first acting role in the musical, New Faces of 1935. After moving to California in 1937, she appeared in the New Faces of 1937 by RKO Pictures, she worked as a dancer for Busby Berkeley. Gray appeared in a number of westerns throughout the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, many of which were produced by Monogram Pictures, her other films were including the 1958 movie, Wild Heritage. She appeared in three films starring Hoot Gibson and Bob Steele - The Utah Kid, Marked Trails and Trigger Law, she and husband William H. Gray were parents of actor Billy Gray, best known for his role as Bud Anderson in the television series, Father Knows Best. Beatrice Gray died of natural causes in Canoga Park, California, on November 25, 2009, at the age of 98.

The Kansan The Utah Kid Trigger Law Marked Trails Trail of Vengeance Stranger from Santa Fe Abbott and Costello Meet the Killer, Boris Karloff The Yellow Cab Man The Gene Autry Show Callaway Went Thataway Untamed Frontier I've Lived Before Wild Heritage Beatrice Gray on IMDb Interview with Beatrice Gray Beatrice Gray biography

Lilian Hicks

Lilian Hicks was a British campaigner for the vote for agricultural labourers and Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom. Hicks took an active role in several organisations and was arrested on Black Friday in 1910. Hicks was born in Colchester in 1853, she and her husband, Charles Hicks, lived at Great Holland Hall. She campaigned to support agricultural labourers; the campaign had success when the Representation of the People Act 1884 became law giving the vote to male agricultural labourers. Irrespective of gender because they had no property. Hicks went on to campaign for women's suffrage via a number of organisations as the women's cause was splintered by different allegiances. Many would not get involved in criminal acts or they disagreed with the dictatorial approach of Women's Social and Political Union's leadership. Hicks had been associated with the suffrage cause. By 1902 she and her daughter were members by of the Central Society for Women's Suffrage and they were joining celebrations of women's civil disobedience in pursuit of the suffrage cause.

She and her daughter joined the Women's Social and Political Union in 1906, but by 1907 they were both in the Women's Freedom League which had split from the suffragettes and Amy was serving as a secretary for the league. Amy was imprisoned for three weeks in 1907 for obstruction that year. In about 1909 the Women's Freedom League published a postcard featuring a photo of Hicks taken by Lena Connell, she and her mother were arrested on Black Friday on 18 November 1910. Black Friday was a suffragette demonstration in London on 18 November 1910, in which 300 women marched to the Houses of Parliament as part of their campaign to secure voting rights for women. Demonstrators clashed with police in Parliament Square and many were arrested and she and her daughter were among them, she and her daughter rejoined the more militant WSPU afterwards. In 1913 she was the secretary of the Hampstead United Suffragists

Royal L. Bolling

Royal Lee Bolling was a Massachusetts politician and head of a prominent African-American political family. While serving in the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1965, he sponsored the state's Racial Imbalance Act, which led to the desegregation of Boston's public schools. Bolling was a decorated World War II veteran, earning a Silver Star as a member of the segregated "Buffalo Soldiers" 92nd infantry division, he was the founder of a successful real estate business, which he ran for 50 years. Bolling was born in Virginia, to Granville and Irene Bolling. At the age of eight, he moved with his family to Massachusetts, he grew up in a small yellow house on Walnut Street near Bowditch Field. He first showed a talent for politics when he ran for president of his predominantly white Framingham High School class and obtained endorsements from Massachusetts governor Leverett Saltonstall and Boston Mayor James Michael Curley, he became the school's first African-American class president and was re-elected twice before graduating in 1940.

He attended Howard University for a time, performing as a tap dancer in D. C.-area nightclubs to earn money before leaving school to join the military. After the war he moved to Roxbury and continued his studies at Harvard University and Boston University Law School. While still a student he founded a real estate agency, from which he retired circa 1992. In 1943, Bolling joined the segregated 92nd infantry division of the U. S. Army rising to the rank of first lieutenant, he fought in German-occupied Italy, earning the Silver Star, Purple Heart, four Battle Stars, the Combat Infantry Badge for "extraordinary leadership and valor under fire." In 1961 he was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives, where he served six two-year terms. He represented the 11th Suffolk District from 1961 to 1964 and the 7th Suffolk District from 1965 to 1968 and 1971 to 1974. In 1982 he was elected to the Massachusetts Senate, where he represented the Second Suffolk District from 1983 to 1988. Bolling authored over 200 legislative initiatives in the course of his career.

In 1963, he proposed the original Racial Imbalance Act, a version of, signed into law by Governor John Volpe in 1965 and which led to the desegregation of Boston's public schools. He was instrumental in establishing Boston's METCO program, secured the initial funding for Roxbury Community College, he advocated for the creation of the Second Suffolk Senate District, which led to the election of Boston's first black state senator, Bill Owens, in 1974. In 1985 he sponsored the bill to redevelop the grounds of Boston State Hospital. Bolling was an early advocate for gay rights, chaired the Hispanic Commission, the state's first commission on issues affecting Latinos, he chaired the senate's Public Service Committee. Recognized for his diplomatic skills, Bolling was chairman of the Special Legislative Committee on Foreign Trade and was hosted by heads of state around the world, he was a member of the NAACP, the Urban League, the Black United Front, Veterans of Foreign Wars, Disabled American Veterans.

He had 12 children. His first son, Royal L. Bolling Jr. served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives. Bolling's wife died of pancreatic cancer in 2002. A month Bolling died at his vacation home in Oak Bluffs, Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts of pancreatic cancer. Senator Bolling Circle in Dorchester was named for Bolling in June 2006, at a dedication ceremony attended by former governor Michael Dukakis, former state senate president William M. Bulger, many other Massachusetts politicians. Hargrove, Hondon B.. Buffalo Soldiers in Italy: Black Americans in World War II. McFarland. P. 53. ISBN 9781476621517. King, Mel. Chain of Change: Struggles for Black Community Development. South End Press. Pp. 42, 79, 81–82, 164, 216. ISBN 9780896081055. Royal Bolling. "Royal L. Bolling Sr. 1920-2002". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education: 59. 2002. JSTOR 3134205. "Royal Bolling". Boston TV News Digital Library

Tree shaping

Tree shaping uses living trees and other woody plants as the medium to create structures and art. There are a few different methods used by the various artists to shape their trees, which share a common heritage with other artistic horticultural and agricultural practices, such as pleaching, bonsai and topiary, employing some similar techniques. Most artists use grafting to deliberately induce the inosculation of living trunks and roots, into artistic designs or functional structures. Tree shaping has been practiced for at least several hundred years, as demonstrated by the living root bridges built and maintained by the Khasi people of India. Early 20th century practitioners and artisans included banker John Krubsack, Axel Erlandson with his famous circus trees, landscape engineer Arthur Wiechula. Contemporary designers include "Pooktre" artists Peter Cook and Becky Northey, "arborsculpture" artist Richard Reames, furniture designer Dr Chris Cattle, who grows "grownup furniture"; some species of trees exhibit a botanical phenomenon known as inosculation.

Trees exhibiting this behavior are called inosculate trees. The living root bridges of Cherrapunji and Nongriat, in the present-day Meghalaya state of northeast India are examples of tree shaping; these suspension bridges are handmade from the aerial roots of living banyan fig trees, such as the rubber tree. The pliable tree roots are shaped to grow across a gap, weaving in sticks and other inclusions, until they take root on the other side; this process can take up to fifteen years to complete. There are specimens spanning over 100 feet, some can hold up to the weight of 50 people; the useful lifespan of the bridges, once complete, is thought to be 500–600 years. They are self-renewing and self-strengthening as the component roots grow thicker. Living trees were used to create garden houses in the Middle East, a practice which spread to Europe. In Cobham, Kent there are accounts of a three-story house. Pleaching is a technique used in the old horticultural practice of hedge laying. Pleaching consists of first plashing living branches and twigs and weaving them together to promote their inosculation.

It is most used to train trees into raised hedges, though other shapes are developed. Useful implementations include fences, lattices and walls; some of the outcomes of pleaching can be considered an early form of what is known today as tree shaping. In an early, labor-intensive, practical use of pleaching in medieval Europe, trees were installed in the ground in parallel hedgerow lines or quincunx patterns shaped by trimming to form a flat-plane grid above ground level; when the trees' branches in this grid met those of neighboring trees, they were grafted together. Once the network of joints were of substantial size, builders laid planks across the grid, upon which they built huts to live in, thus keeping the human settlement safe in times of annual flooding. Wooden dancing platforms were built and the living tree branch grid bore the weight of the platform and dancers. In late medieval European gardens through the 18th century, pleached allées, interwoven canopies of tree-lined garden avenues, were common.

There are various methods of shaping a tree. Some of these processes are still experimental; these methods use a variety of horticultural and arboricultural techniques to achieve an intended design. Chairs, living spaces and art may be shaped from growing trees; some techniques used are unique to a particular practice, whereas other techniques are common to all, though the implementation may be for different reasons. These methods start with an idea of the intended outcome; some practitioners start with detailed designs. Other artists start with what the tree has; each process has a different level of involvement from the tree shaper. The trees might either remain growing, as with the living Pooktre garden chair, or be harvested as a finished work, like John Krubsack's chair; the oldest known living examples of woody plant shaping are the aeroponically cultured living root bridges built by the ancient War-Khasi people of the Cherrapunjee region in India. These are being further developed today by the people of that region.

Aeroponic growing was first formally studied by W. Carter in 1942. Carter researched air culture growing and described "a method of growing plants in water vapor to facilitate examination of roots". Researchers, including L. J Klotz and G. G. Trowel, expanded on his work. In 1957, F. W. Went described "the process of growing plants with air-suspended roots and applying a nutrient mist to the root section", in it he coined the word'aeroponics' to describe that process. In 2008, root researcher and craftsman Ezekiel Golan described and secured a patent for a process which allows the roots of some aeroponically grown woody plants to lengthen and thicken while still remaining flexible. At lengths of 6 metres or more, the soft roots can be formed into pre-determined shapes which will continue thickening after the shapes are formed and as they continue to grow. Newer techniques and applications, such as eco-architecture, may allow architects to design and form large permanent structures, such as homes, by shaping aeroponically grown plants and their roots.

Instant tree shaping starts with mature trees 6–12 ft. long and 3-4in in trunk diameter, which are bent and woven into the desired design a