Charles Thomas Floquet was a French statesman. He was born at Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port, he studied law in Paris, was called to the bar in 1851. The coup d'état of that year aroused the strenuous opposition of Floquet, who had, while yet a student, given proof of his republican sympathies by taking part in the fighting of 1848, he made his name by his brilliant and fearless attacks on the government in a series of political trials, at the same time contributed to the Temps and other influential journals. When the tsar Alexander II visited the Palais de Justice in 1867, Floquet was said to have confronted him with the cry "Vive la Pologne, monsieur!" He delivered a scathing indictment of the Empire at the trial of Pierre Bonaparte for killing Victor Noir in 1870, took a part in the revolution of 4 September as well as in the subsequent defence of Paris. In 1871 he was elected to the National Assembly by the département of the Seine. During the Commune he formed the Ligue d’union républicaine des droits de Paris to attempt a reconciliation with the government of Versailles.
When his efforts failed, he left Paris, was imprisoned by order of Thiers, but soon released. He became editor of the Republique Française, was chosen president of the municipal council, in 1876 was elected deputy for the eleventh arrondissement, he took a prominent place among the extreme radicals, became president of the group of the "Union républicaine." In 1882 he held for a short time the post of prefect of the Seine. In 1885 he succeeded Henri Brisson as president of the chamber; this difficult position he filled with such tact and impartiality that he was re-elected the two following years. Having approached the Russian ambassador in such a way as to remove the prejudice existing against him in Russia since the incident of 1867, he rendered himself eligible for office. Heated debates in the chamber culminated on 13 July in a duel between Floquet and Boulanger in which the latter was wounded. In the following February the government fell on the question of revision, in the new chamber of November Floquet was re-elected to the presidential chair.
The Panama scandals, in which he was compelled to admit his implication, destroyed his career: he lost the presidency of the chamber in 1892, his seat in the house in 1893, but in 1894 was elected to the senate. He died in Paris. See Discours et opinions de M. Charles Floquet, edited by Albert Faivre. Charles Floquet – President of the Council and Minister of the Interior René Goblet – Minister of Foreign Affairs Charles de Freycinet – Minister of War Paul Peytral – Minister of Finance Jean-Baptiste Ferrouillat – Minister of Justice and Worship Jules François Émile Krantz – Minister of Marine and Colonies Édouard Locroy – Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts Jules Viette – Minister of Agriculture Pierre Deluns-Montaud – Minister of Public Works Pierre Legrand – Minister of Commerce and IndustryChanges 5 February 1889 – Edmond Guyot-Dessaigne succeeds Ferrouillat as Minister of Justice and Worship; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Floquet, Charles Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Media related to Charles Floquet at Wikimedia Commons
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Guillaume Schnaebelé or Wilhelm Schnäbele was a French official from Alsace, best known for being arrested by Germans in the April 1887 Schnaebele incident which nearly led to war between France and Germany. Who caused the incident and why remains speculative, but it has been suggested German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck was its instigator, for a number of possible motivations — baiting France into starting a war. Others see it as a series of unintended consequences, notable for the role played by France's General Georges Ernest Boulanger; this and a number of other incidents involving General Boulanger are elements of what is known as the Boulanger Affair, a series of embarrassments for the newly formed government of the French Third Republic that some consider to have nearly led to a coup d'état. Guillaume Schnaebelé or Wilhelm Schnäbele was an Alsatian born in 1831 in Eckbolsheim, near Strasbourg. After the Franco-Prussian War and Germany's subsequent annexation of Alsace in 1871, he emigrated to France altering the spelling of his name accordingly.
He was awarded a Knight of the Legion of Honor. After the incident of 1887 he was moved to a post at Laon, he died on 5 December 1900 in France. In 2005, as part of the arrival of the TGV to Pagny-sur-Moselle, a bridge was named for Schnaebelé. On 21 April 1887 the French Havas news agency published a dispatch to the effect that Schnaebelé, a mid-level and obscure French police inspector, had been arrested by two agents of the German secret police on the Franco-German frontier near Pagny-sur-Moselle, as he was on his way to Ars an der Mosel for a meeting with the German police inspector there, at the latter's request. A dispute followed as to whether the arrest had taken place on German territory; the reason given by the German authorities for the arrest was that in a previous inquiry into charges of treasonable practices against a number of Alsatians, evidence had been produced that Schnaebelé was involved in transmitting to Paris information as to German fortresses, furnished by Alsatians in the pay of the French Government, that an order had been given to arrest him if he should be found on German soil.
In other words, the Germans believed Schnaebelé to be a spy. Within a week of his arrest, on 28 April, Schnaebelé was released by order of the German Emperor William I. In a dispatch of the same date to the French ambassador at Berlin, Bismarck explained that, although the German Government considered, in view of the proofs of guilt, the arrest to be justified, it was deemed expedient to release Schnaebelé on the ground that business meetings between frontier officials "must always be regarded as protected by a mutually-assured safe conduct." Thus ended the Schnaebelé incident. The week-long incident, between 21 and 28 April, had such threatening and provocative language from both sides, as to cause serious concern of war. A large section of the German press demanded. In France, the Cabinet voted 6 to 5 against an ultimatum demanding the release of Schnaebelé with an apology, which would certainly have meant war, as had happened with the Ems Dispatch in 1870; the proposed ultimatum had been put forward by French war hawk and Minister of War Georges Ernest Boulanger, who brought in a bill to mobilise an army corps.
After Schnaebelé's release and Bismarck's letter, many in the French public thought Bismarck backed down, because he was afraid of Boulanger which increased Boulanger's rising star as a national hero and bolstered his image as a "Revenger" for France against Germany. However, it was, in truth, an embarrassment to the Republican government, who knew the French army was no better off than in 1870, when Germany defeated it in the Franco Prussian War — Boulanger's antagonism against Germany during the week long crisis was indeed a danger to the Republic. For this and other reasons, on 7 July 1887 Boulanger was released as Minister of War and dispatched by the government to a provincial post to be forgotten, but not before admiring throngs tried to stop his train from leaving Paris: loyal to his military orders, he was smuggled out in a switched engine; the reasons for the arrest and release of Schnaebelé have never been explained, but there are theories, both contemporary and modern. Contemporary theorists include Elie de Cyon, who asserted that Bismarck brought about the incident intentionally.
Several French politicians at the time suspected the incident of being a calculated experiment by Bismarck to gauge the depth of the anti-German feeling in France, a means of testing, by an incident, which could be closed at any time by a mere apology, without any shock to German national dignity, whether Boulanger had a sufficient following in public opinion to make Boulangism a real danger to peace. In Germany, the incident occurred during a time when Bismarck was trying to force a new and expensive military law through the Reichstag, it has been speculated that it was necessary to inflame the menace of war to justify t
Clément Armand Fallières was a French statesman, President of France from 1906 to 1913. He was born at Mézin in the département of Lot-et-Garonne, where his father was clerk of the peace, he studied law and became an advocate at Nérac, beginning his public career there as municipal councillor, afterwards mayor, as councillor-general of the département of Lot-et-Garonne. Being an ardent Republican, he lost this position in May 1873 upon the fall of Thiers, but in February 1876 was elected deputy for Nérac. In the chamber he sat with the Opportunist Republican parliamentary group, Gauche républicaine, signed the protestation of 18 May 1877, was re-elected five months later. In 1880 he became under-secretary of state in the department of the interior in Jules Ferry's ministry. From 7 August 1882 to 20 February 1883 he was minister of the interior, for a month was prime minister, his ministry had to face the question of the expulsion of the pretenders to the throne of France, owing to the proclamation by Prince Napoléon.
Fallières, ill at the time, was not able to face the storm of opposition, resigned when the senate rejected his project. The following November, however, he was chosen as minister of public instruction by Jules Ferry, carried out various reforms in the school system, he resigned in March 1885, becoming minister of the interior in Maurice Rouvier's cabinet two years later. He exchanged his portfolio in December for that of the department of justice, he returned again to the ministry of the interior in February 1889, retook the department of justice from March 1890 to February 1892. In June 1890 his département elected him to the senate by 417 votes to 23. There Fallières remained independent of party struggles, although maintaining his influence among the Republicans. In March 1899 he was elected president of the senate, retained that position until January 1906, when he was chosen by a union of the groups of the Left in both chambers as candidate for the presidency of the republic, he was elected on the first ballot by 449 votes against 371 for Paul Doumer.
Fallières was an outspoken opponent of the death penalty and commuted the sentences of many prisoners sentenced to death. Armand Fallières – President of the Council, interim Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of the Interior, Minister of Worship Jean Thibaudin – Minister of War Pierre Tirard – Minister of Finance Paul Devès – Minister of Justice François de Mahy – Minister of Agriculture and interim Minister of Marine and Colonies Jules Duvaux – Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts Anne Charles Hérisson – Minister of Public Works Adolphe Cochery – Minister of Posts and Telegraphs Pierre Legrand – Minister of Commerce This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Fallières, Clément Armand". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Works by or about Armand Fallières at Internet Archive
Jean Marie Ferdinand Sarrien (French:. He was died in Paris, he headed a cabinet supported by the Bloc des gauches parliamentary majority. Ferdinand Sarrien was born on 15 October 1840 in Bourbon-Lancy. After studying law, he became a lawyer. During the Franco-Prussian War he was decorated; as a member of the Republican party, he became mayor of his hometown. However, in 1873, he was discharged by the monarchist cabinet of Albert de Broglie. Ferdinand Sarrien – President of the Council and Minister of Justice Léon Bourgeois – Minister of Foreign Affairs Eugène Étienne – Minister of War Georges Clemenceau – Minister of the Interior Raymond Poincaré – Minister of Finance Gaston Doumergue – Minister of Labour and Industry Gaston Thomson – Minister of Marine Aristide Briand – Minister of Public Instruction, Fine Arts, Worship Joseph Ruau – Minister of Agriculture Georges Leygues – Minister of Colonies Louis Barthou – Minister of Public Works and Telegraphs
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent