click links in text for more info

René Goulaine de Laudonnière

Rene Goulaine de Laudonnière was a French Huguenot explorer and the founder of the French colony of Fort Caroline in what is now Jacksonville, Florida. Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, a Huguenot, sent Jean Ribault and Laudonnière to explore potential sites in Florida suitable for settlement by the French Protestants. Laudonnière was a Huguenot merchant mariner from Poitou, France, his birthdate and family origins are unknown. One school of historians attaches him to a branch of the Goulaine family seated at Laudonnière, near Nantes. A competing claim insists. No contemporary records have been published to substantiate either theory. In 1562, Laudonnière was appointed second in command of the Huguenot expedition to Florida under Jean Ribault. Leaving in February 1562, the expedition returned home in July after establishing the small settlement of Charlesfort in present-day South Carolina. After the French Wars of Religion broke out between French Catholics and Huguenots, Ribault fled France and sought refuge in England.

Meanwhile, the Huguenots planned another expedition to Florida and Laudonnière was placed in command in Ribault's absence. In 1564 Laudonniere received 50,000 crowns from Charles IX and returned to Florida with three ships and 300 Huguenot colonists. Laudonnière arrived at the mouth of the May River on 22 June 1564, he sailed up the river where he founded Fort Caroline, which they named for King Charles, in what is now Jacksonville. He made contact with the Saturiwa, a Timucua chiefdom who were friendly to the colonists and showed them a shrine they had built around a monument left behind by Ribault; when some of the men complained about the manual labor, Laudonnière sent them back to France. The colony had to get food from the Timucua. Colonists complained and a small group seized a ship and sailed to the Gulf of Mexico to become pirates. Deserters from the colony angered the Timucua. Colonists had to rely on acorns and roots and rebelled. On 3 August 1565 Laudonnière bought food and a ship from passing privateer John Hawkins so he could ship the colonists back to France.

While he was waiting for a favorable wind, Jean Ribault arrived with 600 more settlers and soldiers on September 10. Ribault informed Laudonnière that he had been relieved of his authority, but offered him an informal co-regency over the colony; this arrangement was unacceptable to Laudonnière. Events interrupted Laudonnière's departure when a Spanish fleet commanded by Adelantado Pedro Menéndez de Avilés appeared. Spain based her long-standing claim to Florida on the voyage of discovery of Juan Ponce de León in 1513, as well as four other expeditions of exploration. Menéndez, one of the foremost naval officers of his day, had been sent out by King Philip II of Spain with a fleet and 800 Spanish settlers with specific instructions to remove the French Protestants from Florida. Menéndez's fleet attempted to grapple and board Ribault's ships just off the mouth of the St. Johns River, but sea conditions denied success to both combatants; the Spanish admiral sailed 40 miles south to the next deep inlet on the Atlantic Florida coast.

Spanish troops disembarked on 28 August 1565 near the Timucua Indian village of Seloy and hastily threw up some field fortifications, anticipating a French attack. Ribault set sail southward on 10 September 1565, taking most of the soldiers with him to attack the newly established Spanish earthworks-and-palm-log camp at St Augustine, he left Laudonnière with 100 men but only 20 soldiers. During a hurricane, Ménendez had sent Spanish troops marching 40 miles north overland to attack Fort Caroline on 20 September, they overwhelmed the defended Huguenot garrison and killed most of the male colonists, about 140. Laudonnière and 40-50 others managed to escape, he made his way to the river's mouth. He set sail in the younger Ribault's company but headed home on a lone vessel, unexpectedly landing in Wales. Meanwhile, Jean Ribault's fleet ran into the same hurricane that had bedeviled the Spanish approach to Fort Caroline; the storm drove the French squadron many miles south toward present-day Daytona Beach, destroying all the warships.

Ribault and hundreds of other survivors washed ashore, began to walk north along the beach. At Matanzas Inlet, a Spanish patrol encountered the remnants of the French force, took them prisoner. Following the king of Spain's express edict, all heretics were taken behind a sand dune and put to the sword; the few confessing Catholics and the young musicians were spared their lives. Ribault was executed, along with about 350 of his men. By mid-October 1565, the military power of France on the Florida coast had been obliterated, in accord with the wishes of Philip II of Spain. Traveling overland via Bristol and London, Laudonnière reached Paris in December 1565. After reporting to the royal Court at Moulins, Laudonnière faded from the historical picture. Several years he emerged as a merchant mariner in 1572 at La Rochelle, he evaded the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of Huguenots, died at St. Germain-en-Laye in 1574, his memoirs, L'histoire notable de la Floride, contenant les trois voyages faits en icelles par des capitaines et pilotes français, were published in 1586.

"Laudonnière, René de". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1892

1957 Polish legislative election

Parliamentary elections were held in Poland on 20 January 1957. They were the second election to the Sejm – the unicameral parliament of the People's Republic of Poland, the third in the history of Communist Poland, it took place following Władysław Gomułka's ascension to power. Although conducted in a more liberal atmosphere than previous elections, they were far from free. Voters had the option of voting against some official candidates. However, as in all Communist countries, there was no opportunity to elect any true opposition members to the Sejm; the elections resulted in a predictable victory for the Front of National Unity, dominated by the PZPR. While the elections were a clear victory for Gomułka, they did not guarantee lasting changes in the Polish society. Gomułka's rule was somewhat more humane than that of his predecessor, hardline Stalinist Bolesław Bierut, enjoyed moderate support during the first few years after the election in the "little stabilization" period of 1957–1963. However, by the mid-1960s it faced opposition from the competing factions in the PZPR itself.

Coupled with growing popular opposition to Communist rule, Gomułka would be removed from power in the aftermath of the 1968 political crisis and the Polish 1970 protests. The previous elections in Poland were held in 1952; these were followed by the 1961 elections. The elections were planned for December 1956 but due to significant political changes in the government, resulting from Gomułka's ascension to power, they were delayed until early 1957. Among the various promises made by First Secretary Gomułka, during the Polish October peaceful revolution, to the restless Polish population was that of free elections, he knew. In the January 1957 elections the new'democratic' aspect was the reintroduction of the secret ballot, more there were more candidates than available seats in the parliament. Another liberalizing factor was that unlike in previous elections, intimidation by the secret police and the government against the opposition was limited; the candidates were divided into two groups - one supported by the party and the'independents'.

The latter would be only considered if over half of the registered voters in the district voted against the official candidates. Over 60,000 candidates were registered for the 459 seats in the Sejm; the government was not prepared to release its hold on power, so the candidates were screened and only 720 or 723 out of 60,000 were allowed to participate and be published on the official list by the Front of National Unity, the only organization allowed to put forth candidates in Polish elections. Factors such as the number of signatures in support of a candidate were deemed to be irrelevant. According to an official government press agency dispatch, about half of the candidates were PZPR members. A majority of the remainder belonged to PZPR allies. There was no opposition party in Poland since all political groupings had to support the program of the PZPR; as a result, no real opposition candidates were permitted to run in the elections, but in theory the Polish voters could have stripped the communists from their claimed legitimacy by abstaining from voting.

Another means of preventing the PZPR from obtaining a political victory would have occurred if all of the PZPR candidates were struck out, leaving only 100 to be elected. Despite the lack of genuine opposition, the liberalized election format allowed for various power struggles to be played out between the communist party candidates. A notable case was the rivalry between certain candidates from the main communist party and one of the lesser communist parties. A day before the elections, Gomułka appealed to Polish citizens not to vote against the Party's candidates, asserting that'crossing them out would equal crossing Poland off the map of Europe' and would bring upon Poland the fate of Hungary; the fear of a possible Soviet intervention, in case of Gomułka's loss, was repeated by Radio Free Europe, which noted that Gomułka's argument while "cruel", is "entirely correct." Gomułka persuaded the Catholic Church to urge voters to go to the polls and declare a vote of confidence in the government.

Supporting him, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński declared his support for the'no crossing' policy. The Polish United Workers' Party won 237 seats out of 459 while the remainder went its satellite parties and a few independents. PZPR 237 seats gave it 51.7% of total, ZSL with 120 had 26.1%, the independents with 63 had 14% and SD with 39 had 8.5%. The FJN alliance was victorious, with 80.8% of the seats. Overall, the FJN alliance gained 8 seats compared to its 1952 results, but the independents nearly doubled their presence, from 37 to 63. PZPR was the biggest loser, with 34 seats less than in 1952, ZSL gained 28, SD, 14. However, as the other parties and "independents" were i

Easy Come, Easy Go (Elvis Presley song)

"Easy Come, Easy Go" is a song first recorded by Elvis Presley as part of the soundtrack for his 1967 motion picture Easy Come, Easy Go. Its first release was on the soundtrack EP "Easy Come, Easy Go" in spring 1967; the Australian Kent Music Report lists the song / the EP "Easy Come, Easy Go" on the singles chart for 5 weeks, with the peak of 78 on the week of May 13, 1967. The song was written by Sid Wayne. Presley recorded it on September 28, 1966 at the September 28–29 soundtrack sessions for the Paramount movie Easy Come, Easy Go at the Paramount Studio Recording Stage in Hollywood, California. 7" single A. "Easy Come, Easy Go" B. "The Love Machine" 7" EP 7" EP "Easy Come, Easy Go "The Love Machine "Yoga Is As Yoga Does "You Gotta Stop "Sing You Children "I'll Take Love 7" EP "Easy Come, Easy Go "Yoga Is As Yoga Does "Sing You Children "I'll Take Love Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics Elvis Presley – Easy Come, Easy Go / The Love Machine at Discogs

European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2019

The European Union Act 2019 referred to as the Cooper–Letwin Act, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that made provisions for extensions to the period defined under Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union related to the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union. It was introduced to the House of Commons by Labour MP Yvette Cooper and Conservative MP Sir Oliver Letwin on 3 April 2019, in an unusual process where the Government of the United Kingdom did not have control over Commons business that day; the Act was repealed on 23 January 2020 by the European Union Act 2020. Section 1 of the Act required the Government to allow Parliament to debate a motion to require the prime minister to seek an extension to the period in which the United Kingdom is to negotiate the terms of its withdrawal from the European Union under Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union; the motion must have been moved on the day the Act received royal assent or on the next day, so 8 or 9 April 2019.

If Parliament passed the motion the prime minister was obliged to comply with it and seek an extension to a date chosen by Parliament. Section 2 streamlined the procedure for amending UK law to reflect the new date for "exit day", the date on which the UK is to leave the EU; the Act was introduced to the House of Commons as the European Union Bill on 3 April 2019, on a day where some of the normal standing orders of the House were suspended to prevent Government business taking precedence over business that may want to be undertaken by other Members of Parliament. As such, Sir Oliver Letwin tabled a motion which would allow MPs to undertake proceedings on the second and third reading of the Bill in one day; the motion was passed by one vote. The UK Government opposed the bill at all stages throughout its passing in the House of Commons and the House of Lords; the second reading passed by 5 votes, after closing remarks given by Stephen Barclay, Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union making clear the Government's opposition to the Bill.

During the committee stage, a number of amendments were tabled for the Bill, of which four went to a Division: As there was no report stage, the House of Commons debated and voted on the third reading of the Bill after the committee stage. The bill was accepted on its third reading by a difference of a single vote once again; the approved Cooper-Letwin bill having passed through the House of Commons subsequently passed the following day to the House of Lords. Having passed the House of Commons, the Bill was introduced into the House of Lords by Baroness Hayter of Kentish Town the following day, 4 April 2019; the debate on the Bill was preceded by Lady Hayter introducing a motion to compress the process for having the legislation passed into a single day's sitting through the suspension of two of the House's Standing Orders: Standing Order 46 be dispensed with to allow the European Union Bill to be taken through all its stages this day. Standing Order 39 be dispensed with to enable that Bill to be considered after the motions on Economic Affairs Committee reports in the name of Lord Forsyth of Drumlean.

However, a number of Conservative Party peers laid down motions to amend the original business motion, regarded as a filibuster attempt, with the tacit approval of the Government, to prevent the Bill passing through the House. Despite a total of seven motions put forward to amend Baroness Hayter's original business motion, which had to be debated and voted on, the original motion passed allowing the Bill to be introduced at First Reading and passed to Second Reading the same day. However, the Second Reading debate did not begin until after 7.00pm that night, which led it not being able to pass through all stages on the same day, with instead the Bill passing Second Reading to the Committee Stage to be taken up the following Monday. Committee Stage began on the afternoon of 8 April 2019 with a total of 8 proposed amendments, but only a single division on whether Clause 2 of the Bill should remain: Following the Committee Stage, there was an official Report Stage, noting that the report on the Bill had been received.

With the Committee and Report Stages completed, the Bill moved to Third Reading, when it was passed without a vote and returned to the House of Commons. Having passed through the House of Lords, the Bill returned to the House of Commons for a vote on the five amendments passed by the Upper House late on 8 April. Amendments 1 and 4 were agreed to, while Amendments 2, 3 and 5 were voted on in a division, as was a new amendment placed by Sir William Cash. Having been passed by both Houses of Parliament, the bill achieved Royal Assent that evening. On 9 April 2019, the House of Commons debated a motion under the terms of the Act put forward by the Prime Minister, requesting approval for the UK to seek an extension to the Article 50 process to 30 June 2019; this vote passed with a large majority of 310 votes

Paul Greveillac

Paul Greveillac, sometimes spelled Gréveillac, is a French novelist and short stories writer. Paul Greveillac was awarded the prix Roger Nimier as well as the "Bourse de la Découverte de la Fondation Prince Pierre de Monaco" for his first novel, Les Âmes rouges, whose story takes place at the time of the Soviet Union; the main character is lover of cinema and literature. Les Âmes rouges was noticed by the Académie Goncourt, which placed it on its list of reading for the 2016 summer. In April 2017, Cadence secrète. La vie invisible d'Alfred, it is a fictionalized biography of late 20th century composer Alfred Schnittke. 2014: Les Fronts clandestins. Quinze histoires de Justes, Éditions Nicolas Eybalin, collection of short stories inspired by true stories of Righteous Among the Nations. 2016: Les Âmes rouges, Éditions Gallimard, novel. 2017: Cadence secrète. La vie invisible d'Alfred Schnittke, Éditions Gallimard, fictionalized biography. 2018: Maîtres et Esclaves. 2016: Prix Roger-Nimier for Les Âmes rouges.

2016: Bourse de la Découverte de la Fondation Prince Pierre de Monaco for Les Âmes rouges

Murlough Bay

Murlough Bay in County Antrim, Northern Ireland is a bay on the north coast of Northern Ireland between Fair Head and Torr Head. It is known for its outstanding beauty and remote location, with close views of Rathlin Island and views across the ocean to the Mull of Kintyre, Islay and various other Scottish islands; the local geology is typical of the Antrim topography with basalt overlaying sandstone and limestone. The area has many kilns used in the production of lime. Although he is now buried in Dublin, Murlough Bay was the burial place of choice of Roger Casement, a former British Government Diplomat, knighted by King George V in 1911 and Irish Nationalist revolutionary leader, executed by the Government of the United Kingdom for treason in August 1916 during World War One. While waiting execution in Pentonville prison he sent a letter to his cousin Gertrude Bannister in which he wrote "Take my body back with you and let it lie in the old churchyard in Murlough Bay." Roger Casement was a frequent visitor to Ballycastle, he stayed with relatives there and found a close affinity to the beauty and wildness of the location.

The plinth is what remains of a more recent cross, erected on the site to commemorate Sir Roger Casement. Each August there is a small memorial held in his honour at Murlough by Republican Sinn Féin. Fair Head Media related to Murlough Bay at Wikimedia Commons