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René Pijnen

Marinus "René" Augustinus Josephus Pijnen is a Dutch former racing cyclist. He became Olympic champion in the 100 km team time-trial in the 1968 Summer Olympics with Joop Zoetemelk, Fedor den Hertog and Jan Krekels. A professional from 1969 to 1987, Pijnen was a capable track cyclist, winning the European madison championship six times, a record he shares with Patrick Sercu), he won 72 six-day races out of 233 starts, with numerous partners. He was a time trial expert, winning several, he won four stages of the Vuelta a España, three of those in the 1971 Vuelta, which he led for 10 days. Pijnen rode on the road with TI–Raleigh, managed by another Dutch track specialist, Peter Post, but he said the length of road races bored him, that he found himself looking at his watch to see how much longer he would have to ride; when he retired, he ran – among other enterprises he started during his cycling career – a hotel in Bergen op Zoom, the Noord-Brabant region where he was born. List of Dutch Olympic cyclists

Four fours

Four fours is a mathematical puzzle. The goal of four fours is to find the simplest mathematical expression for every whole number from 0 to some maximum, using only common mathematical symbols and the digit four. Most versions of four fours require that each expression have four fours, but some variations require that each expression have the minimum number of fours; this game requires skill. The first printed occurrence of the specific problem of four fours is in Knowledge: An Illustrated Magazine of Science in 1881. W. W. Rouse Ball described it in the 6th edition of his Mathematical Essays. In this book it is described as a "traditional recreation". There are many variations of four fours. All variations at least allow addition, multiplication and parentheses, as well as concatenation. Most allow the factorial, the decimal point and the square root operation. Other operations allowed by some variations include the reciprocal function, overline, an arbitrary root, the square function, the cube function, the cube root, the gamma function, percent.

Thus 4 % = 0.04 s q r = 16 c u b e = 64 4 = 2 4! = 24 Γ = 6! 4 = 9 4 ′ = 1 / 4 = 0.25.4 = 0.4. 4 ¯ =.4444... = 4 / 9 etc. A common use of the overline in this problem is for this value:. 4 ¯ =.4444... = 4 / 9 Typically the "log" operators or the successor function are not allowed, since there is a way to trivially create any number using them. This works by noticing 3 things: 1) you can take square roots without using any additional 4s 2) a square root can be written as the exponent 3) exponents have logarithms as their inverse. ⋯ 4 ⏟ n = 4 n Writing repeated square root in this form we can isolate n, the number of square roots!: 4 n we can isolate both exponents by using log base 4 log 4 ⁡ 4 n we can think of this log base 4 as the question--"4 to what power gives me 4 to the half power to the n power?" 4 x = 4 n so we are left with: n and now we can do the same thing to isolate the exponent, n: n = log ⁡ n so, putting it all together: n = log ⁡ log 4 ⁡ 4 n Now, we can rewrite the base with only 4s and the exponent back to a square root: n = log 4 / 4 ⁡ log 4 ⁡ ⋯ 4 ⏟ n We've used four fours and now the number of square roots we add equals whatever number we want out!

Paul Bourke credits Ben Rudiak-Gould with a different description of how four fours can be solved using natural logarithms to represent any positive integer n as: n = − 4 ln ⁡ ln ⁡

West Bloomfield, New York

West Bloomfield is a town in Ontario County, New York, United States. The population was 2,466 at the 2010 census; the Town of West Bloomfield is on the county's western border and sits parallel to the Town of East Bloomfield, both of which lay south of the City of Rochester. The town is within the historic homeland of the Seneca Nation, tradition holds that three of the tribe's villages were located in the town; as such, during the spring season when much of the towns farmland is being plowed, it is not uncommon to find arrowheads and other artifacts. The first Europeans to visit the area were members of the Jesuits in the 17th Century during their westward quests. Settlement began around 1789 and the Town of West Bloomfield was established in 1833 from part of the Town of Bloomfield; the West Bloomfield Congregational Church was founded in 1799. The Congregation would meet on top of a hill that would be home to the actual church building; the town was home to the Batavia Branch Rail Line, or "Peanut Line", of the New York Central Railroad, which brought much prosperity and business to the town for a century.

Built in 1853, it was a spur line between the rail hubs of Batavia and Canandaigua with stops in both the town itself and its hamlet of Ionia, there was a trestle constructed on the eastern side of the town that spans the gap now occupied by NY-64 just before entering the Town of East Bloomfield. The line provided daily freight and passenger service, with connections to larger stations, served as an integral part of the towns development. Service was discontinued in 1939, as ridership had fallen due to the usage of the automobile, the railroad was not making enough on freight to justify the cost; the Ontario and Livingston Mutual Insurance Office and John and Mary Dickson House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 25.5 square miles, of which, 25.5 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. West Bloomfield is the second smallest town in the county by area; the west town line is the border of Livingston County, formed by Honeoye Creek.

Conjoined US Route 20 and New York State Route 5 cross the town. New York State Route 64 is by the east town line, New York State Route 65 is in the northwest corner of West Bloomfield; the town sits on the southern edge of the Hopper Hills and the northern edge of the Bristol Hills, features a number of high points with views of the Finger Lakes Region. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,549 people, 1,013 households, 729 families residing in the town; the population density was 99.9 people per square mile. There were 1,049 housing units at an average density of 41.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.27% White, 0.43% African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.31% from other races, 0.55% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.78% of the population. There were 1,013 households out of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.2% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.0% were non-families.

22.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.92. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.2% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 28.7% from 45 to 64, 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $43,347, the median income for a family was $52,206. Males had a median income of $37,340 versus $26,410 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,309. About 1.9% of families and 3.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.7% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over. The towns executive government is made up by of an elected Town Board and an elected Town Supervisor, both positions are part-time; the town does operate its own court for minor criminal and traffic matters.

An elected Highway Supervisor. The majority of residents have well water due to the rural population. A small, populated section in the central part of the town does have piped water for homes and fire hydrants. Electric services are provided by companies such as National Grid, Niagara Mohawk and RG&E, however a growing number of residents are turning to alternative forms of power such as solar or wind; the town operates Michael Prouty Memorial Park as the sole town park/recreation area. The park is home to a multi use sports field area, a pavilion and a playground. In years past, the town operated a summer recreation program for youths at the park, however in recent years due to funding concerns the town has joined with East Bloomfield to offer a joint program at the central school grounds; the town does not operate its own police department, the area maintains low crime rates. It instead rel

Sri Lankan literature

Sri Lankan literature is the literary tradition of Sri Lanka. The largest part of Sri Lankan literature was written in the Sinhala language, but there is a considerable number of works in other languages used in Sri Lanka over the millennia. However, the languages used in ancient times were much different from the language used in Sri Lanka now. Up to the present, short stories are a important part of Sri Lankan literature, it should be completed. Su Hae Ja Sugunasiri§ Gurulugomi Thotagamuwe Sri Rahula Thera Kumaratunga Munidasa S. Mahinda Thero Sagara Palansooriya Wimalaratne Kumaragama Siri Gunasinghe Mahagama Sekara Gunadasa Amarasekara Parakrama Kodituwakku Eric Illayapparachchi Sunil Ariyaratne Lucien Bulathsinhala Saman Tilakasiri Rathna Sri Wijesinghe Veedagama maithree thero Martin Wickramasinghe Ediriweera Sarachchandra Gunadasa Amarasekara Nalin de Silva Piyaseeli Wijegunasinghe Shelton Payagala Sucharitha Gamlath J B Disanayake Su Hae Ja Sugunasiri John de Silva Ediriweera Sarachchandra Sugathapala de Silva Sunanda Mahendra Simon Navagattegama Dayananda Gunawardena Henry Jayasena Dhamma Jagoda Namel Weeramuni Eelattu Poothanthevanar Maravanpulo Sellam Ambalavanar Neelaavanan Ru Freeman Michael Ondaatje Christopher Ondaatje Nira Wickramasinghe Jayadeva Uyangoda Romesh Gunesekera Shyam Selvadurai SJ Sindu Nayomi Munaweera Sunil Yapa Tissa Abeysekara Regi Siriwardena Jean Arasanayagam Lishan Perera Rajiva Wijesinha Nihal De Silva V.

V. Ganeshananthan Ru Freeman David Blacker Punyakante Wijenaike Roshi Fernando Suwanda Sugunasiri Sri Lankan culture Henry Parker, British engineer who studied and compiled the oral literature of Sri Lanka WebCite query result All Authors Listed by Country: The South Asian Literary Recordings Project Northeastern Herald Books on Sinhala Literature | Sinala Books | Sri Lanka books – LankaHands.com Gertrude De Livera - BOONDI. LK – Sri Lankan Site for Literature and Politics - A list of recommended Sri Lankan literature Heart Chakra

Race and crime in the United Kingdom

The relationship between race and crime in the United Kingdom is the subject of academic studies, government surveys, media coverage, public concern. Under the Criminal Justice Act 1991, section 95, the government collects annual statistics based on race and crime; these statistics have highlighted differences in rates of crime between racial groups, some commentators have suggested cultural explanations for these differences. In 2003 Lee Jasper, a race advisor to the London mayor, said drugs and gun crime were the "biggest threat to the black community since its arrival here". In 2007, after a series of murders committed by black people, prime minister Tony Blair attributed them to a distinctive black culture: "the black community need to be mobilised in denunciation of this gang culture, killing innocent young black kids, but we won't stop this by pretending it isn't young black kids doing it." Some from the black community criticised his remarks. Gang involvement is said to be a "continuing problem" in the community.

African-Caribbean people are underrepresented in white-collar crime. Some commentators have argued that the issue of black people and crime is hidden away or downplayed, that the fear of accusations of racism may have contributed to this; the Metropolitan Police Service is one of the few police forces which has collected statistics on gang rape. Filmmaker Sorious Samura compiled 29 such incidents involving young people from January 2006 to March 2009, found that, of 92 people convicted, 66 were black or mixed race. Samura said he found it "impossible to ignore the fact that such a high proportion were committed by black and mixed-race young men". In June 2007 the Home Affairs Select Committee published a report on young black people and the criminal justice system of England and Wales, it said. The Commission for Racial Equality and youth charities welcomed the report. Ministry of Justice figures regarding race and the criminal justice system in 2009/10 are shown in the table below. Police officers have the power to search individuals under a range of legislation.

Statistics have shown that black people are disproportionately more to be subject to stop and searches. In 2008/09 in England and Wales, more black people were stopped and searched under Section 1 of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act per head of population than any other ethnicity, black people were seven times more to be stopped and searched than white people. Black people were the subject of 14.8 percent of all stop and searches, compared to 7.6 percent of arrests and 6.7 percent of cautions. The disproportionate number of stop and searches is accounted for by the fact that 54 percent of the black population in England and Wales live in London, where stop and searches are more common for all ethnicities. In some police-force areas, there were more stop and searches per head of population of white people than of black people. From 2004/05 to 2008/09, there was an increase in the number of stop and searches of black people relative to white people. Stop and searches can be conducted under Section 60 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994.

These searches are designed to deal with the threat of violence. Comparative analysis by researchers at the London School of Economics and the Open Society Justice Initiative has shown that, in England and Wales in 2008/09, black people were 26 times more to be stopped and searched than white people. Asian people were 6.3 times more to be stopped and searched than white people. The OSI researchers stated that these figures highlighted that Britain had the widest "race gap" in stop-and-searches that they had uncovered internationally. Ben Bowling, a professor of criminal justice at King's College London, commented on the analysis, stating: The police are making greater use of a power, only meant to be used in exceptional circumstances and lacks effective safeguards; this leaves room for increased stereotyping, to alienate those communities which are most affected. There is strong evidence that, once stopped and searched, black people are no more than white people to be arrested, suggesting that they are disproportionately targeted.

This is arguably due to the fact that black male youths are more to commit certain types of crime. The black population of London in 2010 was just over 12%, yet black males were responsible for 54% of street crimes and 59% of gun crimes. In 2005-6, 1,543 victims of racist crime in Scotland were of Pakistani origin, while more than 1,000 victims were classed as being white British; the British Crime Survey reveals that in 2004, 87,000 people from black or minority ethnic communities said they had been a victim of a racially motivated crime. They had suffered 49,000 violent attacks, with 4,000 being wounded. At the same time 92,000 white people said they had fallen victim of a racially motivated crime; the number of violent attacks against whites reached 77,000, while the number of white people who reported being wounded was five times the number of black and minority ethnic victims at 20,000. Figures from the Office for National Statistics showed that in 2007 an estimated 10.6 percent of London's population of 7,556,900 were black.

Evidence shows that the black population in London boroughs increases with the level of deprivation, that the level of crime increases with deprivation, such that "It is clear that ethnicity, deprivation and offending are and intricately inter-related". In June 2010, through a Freedom of Information Act request, The Sunday Telegraph obtained statistics on accusations of crime broken down by race from the Metropolitan Police Service; the figures showed that the

Stephen Charles (cricketer)

Stephen Flockton Charles was an English first-class cricketer and British Army officer. Charles was born at Kensington in August 1858, he was educated before attending the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. He graduated from Sandhurst in February 1878, entering into the Middlesex Regiment as a second lieutenant, before resigning his commission with the Middlesex Regiment in April of the same year, he was serving with the Lancashire Fusiliers in 1880, with promotion to the rank of lieutenant coming in July 1880. He was promoted to the rank of captain in July 1888, he married Mina Steele Watson in 1890, with Charles seconded for service with the Auxiliary Forces in July of the same year, with him vacating the secondment in May 1893. Charles made his debut in first-class cricket for the Marylebone Cricket Club against Dublin University at Dublin in 1895, he made three further first-class appearances for the MCC in 1897, playing against Oxford and Cambridge Universities, in addition to the touring Philadelphians.

He played two first-class matches for the Gentlemen in the Gentlemen v Players fixtures of 1897 and 1898. He was promoted to the rank of major in November 1897, he appeared in a first-class match for the MCC against Derbyshire at Lord's. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel in April 1902, before retiring from active service in November 1903, he made a final appearance in first-class cricket for the MCC in 1905, against Oxford University at Lord's. In eight first-class matches, Charles scored a total of 143 runs at an average of 20.42, with a high score of 30. He played minor counties cricket for Norfolk in 1906 and 1907, making fourteen appearances in the Minor Counties Championship, he died at Wroxham in June 1950. Stephen Charles at ESPNcricinfo