An adventure is an exciting experience, a bold, sometimes risky, undertaking. Adventures may be activities with some potential for physical danger such as traveling, skydiving, mountain climbing, scuba diving, river rafting or participating in extreme sports. Adventurous experiences create psychological arousal, which can be interpreted as negative or positive. For some people, adventure becomes a major pursuit of itself. According to adventurer André Malraux, in his La Condition Humaine, "If a man is not ready to risk his life, where is his dignity?". Helen Keller stated that "Life is either a daring adventure or nothing."Outdoor adventurous activities are undertaken for the purposes of recreation or excitement: examples are adventure racing and adventure tourism. Adventurous activities can lead to gains in knowledge, such as those undertaken by explorers and pioneers – the British adventurer Jason Lewis, for example, uses adventures to draw global sustainability lessons from living within finite environmental constraints on expeditions to share with schoolchildren.
Adventure education intentionally uses challenging experiences for learning. Author Jon Levy suggests that an experience should meet several criteria to be considered an adventure: Be remarkable—that is, worth talking about Involve adversity and/or perceived risk Bring about personal growth Some of the oldest and most widespread stories in the world are stories of adventure such as Homer's The Odyssey; the knight errant was the form. The adventure novel exhibits these "protagonist on adventurous journey" characteristics as do many popular feature films, such as Star Wars and Raiders of the Lost Ark. Adventure books may have the theme of the hero or main character going to face the wilderness or Mother Nature. Examples include My Side of the Mountain; these books are less about "questing", such as in mythology or other adventure novels, but more about surviving on their own, living off the land, gaining new experiences, becoming closer to the natural world. Many adventures are based on the idea of a quest: the hero goes off in pursuit of a reward, whether it be a skill, prize, or the safety of a person.
On the way, the hero must overcome various obstacles. Mythologist Joseph Campbell discussed his notion of the monomyth in his book, The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Campbell proposed that the heroic mythological stories from culture to culture followed a similar underlying pattern, starting with the "call to adventure", followed by a hazardous journey, eventual triumph. Many video games are adventure games. From ancient times and explorers have written about their adventures. Journals which became best-sellers in their day were written, such as Marco Polo's journal The Travels of Marco Polo or Mark Twain's Roughing It. Others were personal journals, only published, such as the journals of Lewis and Clark or Captain James Cook's journals. There are books written by those not directly a part of the adventure in question, such as The Right Stuff by Tom Wolfe, or books written by those participating in the adventure but in a format other than that of a journal, such as Conquistadors of the Useless by Lionel Terray.
Documentaries use the theme of adventure as well. There are many sports classified as adventure sports, due to their inherent excitement; some of these include skydiving, or other extreme sports. List of genres Exploration Tourism Travel Sports Adventure travel Website of the Research Unit "Philology of Adventure": ongoing research project on the literary history of the adventure pattern What is an adventure? A definition of "adventure", "hero" and "epic" with an illustration of the hero's journey. Wikivoyage
Nobility is a social class ranked under royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy. Nobility possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in society; the privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be honorary, vary by country and era. As referred to in the Medieval chivalric motto "noblesse oblige", nobles can carry a lifelong duty to uphold various social responsibilities, such as honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership positions. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is hereditary. Membership in the nobility has been granted by a monarch or government, unlike other social classes where membership is determined by wealth, lifestyle, or affiliation. Nonetheless, acquisition of sufficient power, military prowess, or royal favour has enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility. There are a variety of ranks within the noble class.
Legal recognition of nobility has been more common in monarchies, but nobility existed in such regimes as the Dutch Republic, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Old Swiss Confederacy, remains part of the legal social structure of some non-hereditary regimes, e.g. Channel Islands, San Marino, the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles and styles added to names, as well as honorifics distinguish nobles from non-nobles in conversation and written speech. In many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some hereditary titles do not indicate nobility; some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil or life peers in the United Kingdom. The term derives from the abstract noun of the adjective nobilis. In ancient Roman society, nobiles originated as an informal designation for the political governing class who had allied interests, including both patricians and plebeian families with an ancestor who had risen to the consulship through his own merit.
In modern usage, "nobility" is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies, excepting the ruling dynasty. In the feudal system, the nobility were those who held a fief land or office, under vassalage, i.e. in exchange for allegiance and various military, services to a suzerain, who might be a higher-ranking nobleman or a monarch. It came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. While noble status conferred significant privileges in most jurisdictions, by the 21st century it had become a honorary dignity in most societies, although a few, residual privileges may still be preserved and some Asian and African cultures continue to attach considerable significance to formal hereditary rank or titles. Nobility is a historical and legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income, possessions or lifestyle.
Being wealthy or influential cannot ipso facto make one noble, nor are all nobles wealthy or influential. Various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens; this is distinct from countries which have not abolished the right to inherit titles, but which do not grant legal recognition or protection to them, such as Germany and Italy, although Germany recognizes their use as part of the legal surname. Still other countries and authorities allow their use, but forbid attachment of any privilege thereto, e.g. Finland and the European Union, while French law protects lawful titles against usurpation. Although many societies have a privileged upper class with substantial wealth and power, the status is not hereditary and does not entail a distinct legal status, nor differentiated forms of address. Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se. Privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate.
Most nobles' wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small, that might include fields, orchards, hunting grounds, etc. It included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although at a price. Nobles were expected to live "nobly", that is, from the proceeds of these possessions. Work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. On the other hand, membership in the nobility was a prerequisite for holding offices of trust in the realm and for career promotion in the military, at court and the higher functions in the government and church. Prior to the French Revolution, European nobles commanded tribute in the form of entitlement to cash rents or usage taxes, labour or a portion of the annual crop yield from commoners or no
A peddler, in British English pedlar known as a canvasser, cheapjack, higler, monger, or solicitor, is a traveling vendor of goods. In England, the term was used for travellers hawking goods in the countryside to small towns and villages. In London more specific terms were used, such as costermonger. Peddlers have a colourful history. From antiquity, peddlers filled the gaps in the formal market economy by providing consumers with the convenience of door-to-door service, they operated alongside town markets and fairs where they purchased surplus stocks which were subsequently resold to consumers. Peddlers were able to distribute goods to the more geographically isolated communities such as those who lived in mountainous regions of Europe, they called on consumers, who for whatever reason, found it difficult to attend town markets. Thus, peddlers played an important role in linking these consumers and regions to wider trade routes; some peddlers worked as agents or travelling salesmen for larger manufacturers, thus were the precursor to the modern travelling salesman.
Images of peddlers feature in art from as early as the 12th-century. Such images were popular with the genre and Orientalist painters and photographers of the 18th and 19th centuries; some imagery depicts peddlers in a pejorative manner, while others portray idealised, Romantic visions of peddlers at work. The origin of the word, known in English since 1225, is uncertain, but is an Anglicised version of the French pied, Latin pes, pedis "foot", referring to a petty trader travelling on foot. A peddler, under English law, is defined as: “any hawker, petty chapman, caster of metals, mender of chairs, or other person who, without any horse or other beast bearing or drawing burden and trades on foot and goes from town to town or to other men’s houses, carrying to sell or exposing for sale any goods, wares, or merchandise to be delivered, or selling or offering for sale his skill in handicraft." The main distinction between peddlers and other types of street vendor is that peddlers travel as they trade, rather than travel to a fixed place of trade.
Peddlers travel around and approach potential customers directly whereas street traders set up a pitch or a stall and wait for customers to approach them. When not engaged in selling, peddlers are required to keep moving. Although peddlers may stop to make a sale, they are precluded from setting up a pitch or remaining in the same place for lengthy periods. Although peddlers travel by foot, there is no reason why they cannot use some means of assistance, such as a cart or a trolley, to assist in the transportation of goods. Peddlers have been known since antiquity and earlier, they were known by a variety of names throughout the ages, including Arabber, costermonger, huckster, itinerant vendor or street vendor. According to marketing historian, Eric Shaw, the peddler is "perhaps the only substantiated type of retail marketing practice that evolved from Neolithic times to the present." The political philosopher, John Stuart Mill wrote that "even before the resources of society permitted the establishment of shops, the supply of wants fell universally into the hands of itinerant dealers, the pedlars who might appear once a month, being preferred to the fair, which only returned once a year."Typically, peddlers operated door-to-door, plied the streets or stationed themselves at the fringes of formal trade venues such as open air markets or fairs.
In the Greco-Roman world, open-air markets served urban customers, while peddlers filled in the gaps in distribution by selling to rural or geographically distant customers. In the Bible the term ` peddler' was used to describe those; the book of Corinthians has the following phrase, "For we are not as so many, peddling the word of God.". The Greek term translated "peddling" referred to small-scale merchant who profited from acting as a middleman between others; the Apocrypha has the following, "A merchant shall hardly keep himself from doing wrong. In some economies the work of itinerant selling was left to nomadic minorities, such as gypsies, travellers, or Yeniche who offered a varied assortment of goods and services, both evergreens and novelties. In 19th century USA, peddling was the occupation of immigrant communities including Italians and Jews; the more colourful peddlers were those that doubled as healers, or fortune-tellers. Peddlers used a variety of different transport modes: they travelled by foot, carrying their wares.
Abram Goodman, who took to peddling in the US in the 1840s, reports that he travelled by foot, used a sleigh when roads were snowbound and travelled, with his pack, by boat when traversing longer distances. As market towns flourished in medieval Europe, peddlers found a role operating on the fringes of the formal economy, they called directly on homes, delivering produce to the door thereby saving customers time travelling to markets or fairs. However, customers paid a higher price for this convenience; some peddlers operated out of inns or taverns, where they acted as an agent rather than a reseller. Peddlers played an important role providing services to geographically isolated districts, such as in the mountainous regions of Europe, thereby linking these districts with wider trading routes. A 16th-century commentator wrote of the: “many pedlars and chapmen, that from fair to fai
Santa Fe Dam Recreation Area
The Santa Fe Dam Recreation Area is a county park located in Irwindale, California, USA, in the San Gabriel Valley, inside the Santa Fe Dam. The park and dam are nestled among gravel quarries in the area, many of which are inactive; the dam is a flood-control dam on the San Gabriel River. The dam functions as a dry dam most of the time; the San Gabriels produce more gravel than most other mountains. The park is operated by the Los Angeles County Department of Parks and Recreation; the park, located off the San Gabriel River Freeway, contains a 70-acre lake for year-round fishing and non motorized watercraft. The dam is a popular tourist attraction, most due to the views of the San Gabriel Mountains. Recreational activities at the park include seasonal swimming, non-motorized boating, cycling and hiking. In 2005, the annual Renaissance Pleasure Faire of Southern California was relocated to the park from its long-established location at the Glen Helen Regional Park in Devore, California; the San Gabriel River Bike Trail runs through the recreation area.
The bike path traces the rim of the dam around to the east of the flood basin and park, with access at Azusa Canyon Drive Fish found in the lake include largemouth bass, bluegills and carp. Rainbow trout are stocked in the cooler months, channel catfish are stocked in the summer months; some of the rare plants and wildlife found in the river fan include the alluvial fan sage scrub, cactus wrens, California gnatcatchers, scissor-tail flycatchers, horned lizards, kangaroo rats. The focus of the Santa Fe Dam Nature Center is the plant life and wildlife of the alluvial fan of the San Gabriel River; the nature center is open Saturdays from 10 AM to 1 PM, is operated by the San Gabriel Mountains Regional Conservancy. Programs include nature and bird walks, nature hobby presentations, insect identification, Tongva cultural history and other special programs. Santa Fe Dam Recreational Area The Natural History of Santa Fe Dam Recreation Area Renaissance Pleasure Faire Streaming Water Santa Fe Dam Nature Center Santa Fe Dam Fishing San Gabriel River: Past and Present
Society for Creative Anachronism
The Society for Creative Anachronism is an international living history group with the aim of studying and recreating Medieval European cultures and their histories before the 17th century. A quip used within the SCA describes it as a group devoted to the Middle Ages "as they ought to have been", choosing to "selectively recreate the culture, choosing elements of the culture that interest and attract us". Founded in 1966, the non-profit educational corporation has over 30,000 paid members as of 2017 with about 60,000 total participants in the society; the SCA's roots can be traced to a backyard party of a UC Berkeley medieval studies graduate, the author Diana Paxson, in Berkeley, California, on May Day in 1966. The party began with a "Grand Tournament" in which the participants wore helmets, fencing masks, some semblance of a costume, sparred with each other using weapons such as plywood swords, padded maces, fencing foils, it ended with a parade down Telegraph Avenue with everyone singing "Greensleeves".
It was styled as a "protest against the 20th century". The SCA still measures dates within the society from the date of that party, calling the system Anno Societatis. For example, 2009 May 1 to 2010 April 30 was A. S. XLIV; the name Berkeley Society for Creative Anachronism was coined by science fiction author Marion Zimmer Bradley, an early participant, when the nascent group needed an official name in order to reserve a park for a tournament. "Berkeley" was dropped as the group expanded. Three more co-founders are mentioned by Douglas Martin in the New York Times Obituaries of August 3, 2001: " moved to San Francisco and were married... They and their daughter, Astrid...founded the Society for Creative Anachronism, which...has spread nationwide." In 1968, Bradley moved to Staten Island, New York and founded the Kingdom of the East, holding a tournament that summer to determine the first Eastern King of the SCA. That September, a tournament was held at the 26th World Science Fiction Convention, in Berkeley that year.
The SCA had produced a book for the convention called A Handbook for the Current Middle Ages, a how-to book for people wanting to start their own SCA chapters. Convention goers purchased the idea spread. Soon, other local chapters began to form. In October 1968, the SCA was incorporated as a 501 non-profit corporation in California. By the end of 1969, the SCA's three original kingdoms had been established: West Kingdom and Middle. All SCA kingdoms trace their roots to these original three; the number of SCA kingdoms has continued to grow by the division of existing kingdoms. In 2012, SCA agreed to pay $1.3 million to settle a lawsuit brought on behalf of 11 victims of child sexual abuse. The abuse was committed in Pennsylvania at the private residence of Ben Schragger, who pleaded guilty to criminal charges in 2004. Schragger was a member of SCA at the time of the abuse, his membership was permanently revoked after his plea. The lawsuit contended that the SCA had not conducted a background check on Schragger, though at the time the organization did not perform background checks in general and there is no legal requirement to do so.
The SCA engages in a broad range of activities, including SCA armoured combat, SCA fencing, equestrian activities, medieval dance and recreating medieval arts and sciences, including a broad range of crafts as well as medieval music and theatre. Other activities include the practice of heraldry and scribal arts. Members are afforded opportunities to register coat of arms. SCA scribes produce illuminated scrolls to be given by SCA royalty as awards for various achievements. Most local groups in the SCA hold weekly fighter practices, many hold regular archery practices, dance practices, A&S nights and other regular gatherings; some kingdoms and regions have occasional war practices, where fighters practice formations and group tactics in preparation for large scale "war" events. The research and approach by members of the SCA toward the recreation of history has led to new discoveries about medieval life; some local groups participate in nearby Renaissance fairs, though the main focus of activity is organized through the SCA's own events.
Each kingdom in the SCA runs its own schedule of events which are announced in the kingdom newsletter, but some of the largest SCA-sanctioned events, called "wars", attract members from many kingdoms. Pennsic War, fought annually between the East Kingdom and Middle Kingdom, is the biggest event in the SCA; the Estrella War has been held for over thirty years between two large regional SCA groups: the Kingdom of Atenveldt and the Kingdom of the Outlands. Most Estrella wars are held near last around 7 -- 9 days. Several thousand people attend each year, some from as far as Sweden, France, Italy and Australia. Other annual SCA wars include Gulf Wars in Gleann Abhann, Great Western War in Caid, War of the Lillies in Calontir and others. Other annual or semi-annual Kingdom-level events held analogously by most or all SCA kingdoms include Crown Tournament, Kingdom Art
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
San Jose, California
San Jose the City of San José, is an economic and political center of Silicon Valley, the largest city in Northern California. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,035,317, it is the third-most populous city in California and the tenth-most populous in United States. Located in the center of the Santa Clara Valley, on the southern shore of San Francisco Bay, San Jose covers an area of 179.97 square miles. San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County, the most affluent county in California and one of the most affluent counties in the United States. San Jose is the most populous city in both the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area, which contain 7.7 million and 8.7 million people respectively. San Jose is a global city, notable as a center of innovation, for its affluence, Mediterranean climate, high cost of living. San Jose's location within the booming high tech industry, as a cultural and economic center has earned the city the nickname "Capital of Silicon Valley".
San Jose is one of the wealthiest major cities in the United States and the world, has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution. The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States per capita. With a median home price of $1,085,000, San Jose has the most expensive housing market in the country and the fifth most expensive housing market in the world, according to the 2017 Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey. Major global tech companies including Cisco Systems, eBay, Adobe Systems, PayPal, Samsung, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Western Digital maintain their headquarters in San Jose, in the center of Silicon Valley. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area around San Jose was inhabited by the Tamien nation of the Ohlone peoples of California. San Jose was founded on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the first city founded in the Californias, it became a part of Mexico in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence.
Following the American Conquest of California during the Mexican–American War, the territory was ceded to the United States in 1848. After California achieved statehood two years San Jose became the state's first capital. Following World War II, San Jose experienced an economic boom, with a rapid population growth and aggressive annexation of nearby cities and communities carried out in the 1950s and 1960s; the rapid growth of the high-technology and electronics industries further accelerated the transition from an agricultural center to an urbanized metropolitan area. Results of the 1990 U. S. Census indicated that San Jose had surpassed San Francisco as the most populous city in Northern California. By the 1990s, San Jose and the rest of Silicon Valley had become the global center for the high tech and internet industries, making it California's fastest-growing economy; the Santa Clara Valley has been home to the Tamyen group of the Ohlone people since around 4,000 BCE. The Tamyen spoke Tamyen language of the Ohlone language family.
With the Spanish colonization of California, the majority of the Tamyen came to inhabit Mission Santa Clara de Asís and Mission San José. California was claimed as part of the Spanish Empire in 1542, when explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo charted the Californian coast. During this time and Baja California were administered together as Province of the California. For nearly 200 years, the Californias were sparsely populated and ignored by the government of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in Mexico City. Only in 1769 was Northern California surveyed by Spanish authorities, with the Portolá Expedition. In 1776, the Californias were included as part of the Captaincy General of the Provincias Internas, a large administrative division created by José de Gálvez, Spanish Minister of the Indies, in order to provide greater autonomy for the Spanish Empire's populated and ungoverned borderlands; that year, King Carlos III of Spain approved an expedition by Juan Bautista de Anza to survey the San Francisco Bay Area, in order to choose the sites for two future settlements and their accompanying mission.
First he chose the site for a military settlement in San Francisco, for the Royal Presidio of San Francisco, Mission San Francisco de Asís. On his way back to Mexico from San Francisco, de Anza chose the sites in Santa Clara Valley for a civilian settlement, San Jose, on the eastern bank of the Guadalupe River, a mission on its western bank, Mission Santa Clara de Asís. San Jose was founded as California's first civilian settlement on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe by José Joaquín Moraga, under orders of Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Viceroy of New Spain. San Jose served as a strategic settlement along El Camino Real, connecting the military fortifications at the Monterey Presidio and the San Francisco Presidio, as well as the California mission network. In 1791, due to the severe flooding which characterized the pueblo, San Jose's settlement was moved a mile south, centered on the Pueblo Plaza. In 1800, due to the growing population in the northern part of the Californias, Diego de Borica, Governor of the Californias split the province into two parts: Alta California, which would become a U.
S. state, Baja California, which would become two Mexican states. San Jose became part of the First M