Religion in Poland
While there are a number of religious communities operating in Poland, the majority of its population adheres to Christianity. Within this, the largest grouping is the Roman Catholic Church - with 92. 2% of Poles in 2011 identifying as Roman Catholic, 65% of Polish believers attend church services on a regular basis. It is particularly regarded by its members as a repository of Polish heritage, Poland lays claim to having the highest proportion of Catholic citizens than any country in Europe except for Malta. The rest of the population mainly of Eastern Orthodox, various Protestant churches. There are about 85,000 Greek Catholics in Poland, other religions practiced in Poland, by less than 1% of the population, include Islam and Judaism and to a lesser extent Hinduism and Buddhism. From the beginning of its statehood, different religions coexisted in Poland, with the baptism of Poland in 966, the old pagan religions were gradually eradicated over the next few centuries during the Christianization of Poland.
By the 13th century Catholicism had become the dominant religion throughout the country, Christian Poles coexisted with a significant Jewish segment of the population. The Protestant movement gained a significant following in Poland, and while Catholicism retained a dominant position, the resulting counter-reformation movement eventually succeeded in reducing the scope for tolerance by the late 17th and early 18th century - as evidenced by events such as the Tumult of Torun. When Poland lost its independence to foreign invaders in 1795, Poles were subjected to discrimination in the expanded Germany. Prior to Second World War there were 3,500,000 Jews in the Polish Second Republic, about 10% of the general population, between the 1939 German invasion of Poland, and the end of World War II, over 90% of Jewry in Poland perished. The Holocaust, known as Shoah took the lives of more than three million Jews in Poland, only a small percentage managed to survive in the German-occupied Poland or successfully escaped east into the territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union, beyond the reach of the Nazis.
According to Polands Constitution freedom of religion is ensured to everyone and this registration is not necessary, however, it is beneficial when it comes to serving the freedom of religious practice laws. This native Slavic religion is promoted by the Native Faith Association, there are roughly 125 faith groups and other minor religions registered in Poland. Data provided by Główny Urząd Statystyczny, Polands Central Statistical Office
Renaissance literature refers to European literature which was influenced by the intellectual and cultural tendencies associated with the Renaissance. It is characterized by the adoption of a humanist philosophy, the recovery of the literature of Antiquity. For the writers of the Renaissance Greco-Roman inspiration was shown both in the themes of their writing and in the forms they used. The world was considered from an anthropocentric perspective, platonic ideas were revived and put to the service of Christianity. The search for pleasures of the senses and a critical and rational spirit completed the ideological panorama of the period, new literary genres such as the essay and new metrical forms such as the sonnet and Spenserian stanza made their appearance. The impact of the Renaissance varied across the continent, countries that were predominantly Catholic or Protestant experienced the Renaissance differently, areas where the Orthodox Church was culturally dominant, as well as those areas of Europe under Islamic rule were more or less outside its influence.
The period focused on self-actualization and ones ability to accept what is going on in ones life, the earliest Renaissance literature appeared in Italy in the 14th century, Petrarch, Boccaccio and Ariosto are notable examples of Italian Renaissance writers. From Italy the influence of the Renaissance spread at different times to other countries, the English Renaissance and the Renaissance in Scotland date from the late 15th century to the early 17th century. In northern Europe the scholarly writings of Erasmus, the plays of Shakespeare, the poems of Edmund Spenser and the writings of Sir Philip Sidney may be considered Renaissance in character
This movement questioned existing orthodoxies, particularly with respect to women, the dowry system, the caste system, and religion. The parallel socio-religious movement, the Brahmo Samaj, developed during time period. Future leaders like Keshub Chunder Sen were as much devotees of Christ, as they were of Brahma and it must be acknowledged that many of the Brahmos were leaders of the freedom movement. The renaissance period after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 saw a magnificent outburst of Bengali literature, while Ram Mohan Roy and Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar were the pioneers, others like Bankim Chandra Chatterjee widened it and built upon it. The first significant nationalist detour to the Bengal Renaissance was given by the writings of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, writers of the period who introduced broad discussion of social problems and more colloquial forms of Bengali into mainstream literature included Saratchandra Chatterjee. The Tagore family, including Rabindranath Tagore, were leaders of this period and had a particular interest in educational reform and their contribution to the Bengal Renaissance was multi-faceted.
Indeed, Tagores 1901 Bengali novella, Nastanirh was written as a critique of men who professed to follow the ideals of the Renaissance, in many ways Rabindranath Tagores writings can be seen as imbued with the spirit of the Upanishads. His works repeatedly allude to Upanishadic ideas regarding soul, transmigration and—perhaps most essentially—about a spirit that all creation not unlike the Upanishadic Brahman. Tagores English translation of a set of poems titled the Gitanjali won him the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913 and he was the first Asian to win this award. That was the example at the time but the contribution of the Tagore family is enormous. A serious comparison was started by the dramatis personae of the Bengal renaissance like Keshub Chunder Sen, Bipin Chandra Pal, for about a century, Bengals conscious awareness and the changing modern world was more developed and ahead of the rest of India. The role played by Bengal in the awakening of India is thus comparable to the position occupied by Italy in the European renaissance.
Very much like the Italian Renaissance, it was not a mass movement, there were, examples of Muslim intellectuals such as Syed Ameer Ali, Mosharraf Hussain, Sake Dean Mahomed, Kazi Nazrul Islam, and Roquia Sakhawat Hussain. The Freedom of Intellect Movement sought to challenge religious and social dogma in Bengali Muslim society, sir Jagadish Chandra Bose was a polymath, a physicist, botanist and writer of science fiction. He pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics, made significant contributions to plant science. He is considered one of the fathers of science, and is considered the father of Bengali science fiction. He was the first from the Indian subcontinent to get a US patent, anil Kumar Gain and Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis were leading mathematicians and statisticians of their time. Gain went on to found Vidyasagar University, while Mahalanobis laid the foundation of the Indian Statistical Institute, satyendra Nath Bose was a physicist, specializing in mathematical physics
The Renaissance was a period in European history, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history. It started as a movement in Italy in the Late Medieval period and spread to the rest of Europe. This new thinking became manifest in art, politics, Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, the Renaissance began in Florence, in the 14th century. Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan, the word Renaissance, literally meaning Rebirth in French, first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelets 1855 work, Histoire de France, the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century.
The Renaissance was a movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism, however, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion that was reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were back from Byzantium to Western Europe. Political philosophers, most famously Niccolò Machiavelli, sought to describe life as it really was. Others see more competition between artists and polymaths such as Brunelleschi, Ghiberti and Masaccio for artistic commissions as sparking the creativity of the Renaissance. Yet it remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins. During the Renaissance and art went hand in hand, Artists depended entirely on patrons while the patrons needed money to foster artistic talent. Wealth was brought to Italy in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries by expanding trade into Asia, silver mining in Tyrol increased the flow of money.
Luxuries from the Eastern world, brought home during the Crusades, increased the prosperity of Genoa, unlike with Latin texts, which had been preserved and studied in Western Europe since late antiquity, the study of ancient Greek texts was very limited in medieval Western Europe. One of the greatest achievements of Renaissance scholars was to bring this entire class of Greek cultural works back into Western Europe for the first time since late antiquity, Arab logicians had inherited Greek ideas after they had invaded and conquered Egypt and the Levant. Their translations and commentaries on these ideas worked their way through the Arab West into Spain and Sicily and this work of translation from Islamic culture, though largely unplanned and disorganized, constituted one of the greatest transmissions of ideas in history
Renaissance music is vocal and instrumental music written and performed in Europe during the Renaissance era. From this changing society emerged a common, unifying musical language, in particular the style of the Franco-Flemish school. The invention of the press in 1440 made it cheaper and easier to distribute music and musical theory texts on a wider geographic scale. Prior to the invention of printing and music that were written down and music theory texts had to be hand-copied, demand for music as entertainment and as a leisure activity for educated amateurs increased with the emergence of a bourgeois class. These musicians were sought throughout Europe, particularly in Italy, where churches and aristocratic courts hired them as composers, performers. This reversed the situation from a hundred years earlier, opera, a dramatic staged genre in which singers are accompanied by instruments, arose at this time in Florence. Opera was developed as an attempt to resurrect the music of ancient Greece.
Music was increasingly freed from constraints, and more variety was permitted in range, harmony, form. In the Renaissance, music became a vehicle for personal expression, composers found ways to make vocal music more expressive of the texts they were setting. Secular music absorbed techniques from sacred music, and vice versa, popular secular forms such as the chanson and madrigal spread throughout Europe. Courts employed virtuoso performers, both singers and instrumentalists, Music became more self-sufficient with its availability in printed form, existing for its own sake. Precursor versions of familiar modern instruments developed into new forms during the Renaissance. These instruments were modified to responding to the evolution of musical ideas, Early forms of modern woodwind and brass instruments like the bassoon and trombone appeared, extending the range of sonic color and increasing the sound of instrumental ensembles. From the Renaissance era, notated secular and sacred music survives in quantity, including vocal and instrumental works, an enormous diversity of musical styles and genres flourished during the Renaissance.
These can be heard on recordings made in the 20th and 21st century, including masses, madrigals, accompanied songs, instrumental dances, beginning in the late 20th century, numerous early music ensembles were formed. One of the most pronounced features of early Renaissance European art music was the reliance on the interval of the third. Polyphony – the use of multiple, independent melodic lines, performed simultaneously – became increasingly elaborate throughout the 14th century, the beginning of the 15th century showed simplification, with the composers often striving for smoothness in the melodic parts. The modal characteristics of Renaissance music began to break down towards the end of the period with the use of root motions of fifths or fourths
Culture of medieval Poland
The culture of medieval Poland was closely linked to the Catholic Church and its involvement in the countrys affairs, especially during the first centuries of the Polish states history. Many of the oldest Polish customs and artifacts date from the Middle Ages, which in Poland lasted from the late 10th to late 15th century, around the 12th century, the ecclesiastical network in Poland was composed of about one thousand parishes grouped in eight dioceses. The new customs spread as the Church acted as the educational system. Church run schools with Latin trivium and quadrivium and was helped by various religious orders established monasteries throughout the countryside. Another powerful tool employed by the Church was the skill of writing, the Church had the knowledge and the ability to make parchments, and scribes created and copied manuscripts and established libraries. Thus the earliest examples of Polish literature were written in Latin, among them were the Gospels from Gniezno and Płock, Codex aureus Gnesnensis and Codex Aureus Pultoviensis, dating from around the late 11th century.
Other notable examples of early Polish books include the Bishop Ciołeks Latin Missal, famous are the chronicles of Gallus Anonymus and Wincenty Kadłubek. While folk music did not disappear during this time, relatively little of the early Polish music is known, musical instruments, commonly homemade were used. The Gregorian chorales and monodic music appeared in Polish churches and monasteries at the end of the 11th century, the architecture of Poland was transformed. Over one hundred buildings have survived which provide a testament to the popularity of the new, the style was influenced by Cologne, particularly early on. Among those is the Crypt of Saint Leonard at Wawel Hill in Kraków, many similar churches from that era, usually round or square with semicircular apses, can be found throughout Poland, in towns like Ostrów Lednicki or Giecz. Another example is the brick Church of St. Jacob in Sandomierz, founded in 1226 by Iwo Odrowąż, at the Cathedral in Gniezno is an important example of Romanesque art, the bronze Gniezno Doors.
It is recognized as the first major work of Polish art with a national theme and their relief depicts eighteen scenes of the life and death of Saint Adalbert. From the 13th century on the culture of Poland was increasingly affected by other than the Church. The 14th century saw the important transition from the Piast dynasty to the Jagiellonian dynasty, the schools prepared their students for careers not only in priesthood but in law and administration. Cracow Academy, one of the oldest universities in the world, was founded in 1364, Polish law begun to develop as legal texts recorded laws in secular chancelleries. Polish science developed, as works of Polish scholars became known abroad, notable examples of Polish scholarly texts discussed in the Western Europe include a chronicle of popes and emperors by Martinus Polonus and the treatise on optics by Witelo. By the end of the 14th century, over 18,000 students had been educated at the Cracow Academy
Renaissance technology is the set of European artifacts and customs which span the Renaissance period, roughly the 14th century through the 16th century. The era is marked by profound technical advancements such as the press, linear perspective in drawing, patent law, doubl. Sketchbooks from artisans of the give an deep insight into the mechanical phones known. Renaissance science spawned the Scientific Revolution and technology began a cycle of mutual advancement, early evidence of such machines appears, among other things, in the works of the 15th-century engineers Anonymous of the Hussite Wars and Taccola. The Printing Revolution which it sparks throughout Europe works as an agent of change in the transformation of medieval society. The mechanical device consists of a screw press modified for printing purposes which can produce 3,600 pages per workday, by the start of the 16th century, printing presses are operating in over 200 cities in a dozen European countries, producing more than twenty million volumes.
By 1600, their output had risen tenfold to an estimated 150 to 200 million copies, the prized incunables, which are testimony to the aesthetic taste and high proficient competence of Renaissance book printers, are one lasting legacy of the 15th century. Parachute The earliest known parachute design appears in a manuscript from 1470s Renaissance Italy. As a safety measure, four straps run from the ends of the rods to a waist belt. Around 1485, an advanced parachute was sketched by the polymath Leonardo da Vinci in his Codex Atlanticus. Leonardos canopy was open by a square wooden frame, altering the shape of the parachute from conical to pyramidal. The Venetian inventor Fausto Veranzio modifies da Vincis parachute sketch by keeping the square frame and this he realized decelerates the fall more effectively. Claims that Veranzio successfully tested his design in 1617 by jumping from a tower in Venice cannot be substantiated, since he was around 65 years old at the time. Dry dock While dry docks were already known in Hellenistic shipbuilding, these facilities were reintroduced in 1495/96, floating dock The earliest known description of a floating dock comes from a small Italian book printed in Venice in 1560, titled Descrittione dellartifitiosa machina.
In the booklet, an unknown author asks for the privilege of using a new method for the salvaging of a ship and proceeds to describe. The included woodcut shows a ship flanked by two large floating trestles, forming a roof above the vessel, the ship is pulled in an upright position by a number of ropes attached to the superstructure. Lifting tower A lifting tower was used to great effect by Domenico Fontana to relocate the monolithic Vatican obelisk in Rome and its weight of 361 t was far greater than any of the blocks the Romans are known to have lifted by cranes. Newspaper The newspaper is an offspring of the press from which the press derives its name
The Portuguese Renaissance refers to the cultural and artistic movement in Portugal during the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries. As the pioneer of the Age of Discoveries, Portugal flourished in the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries, with voyages to India, the Orient, the Americas, and Africa. Diplomats, students, humanists and artists, the maritime trade of the Age of Discovery played a decisive role in the evolution of the Portuguese Renaissance. The discovery of new worlds and contact with other civilizations led to a cultural mix, the new trade of items with the newly discovered lands is what allowed the Portuguese Renaissance to be funded, by creating a wealthy Portuguese nobility and merchant class. As the pioneer in Age of Discovery and its renaissance attracted experts in astronomy and naval technology and he was the inventor of several measuring apparatus, including the nonius, to measure fractions of a degree. With Vasco da Gamas arrival in India, and the Portuguese Empires expansion into that land, many scientists were sent eastward to study and compile new drugs and medicinal plants.
The botonist Tomé Pires and physicians Garcia de Orta and Cristóvão da Costa collected and published works on new plants, Portuguese portolan chart were in great demand in Europe, for their greater knowledge and accuracy. Although protected as a secret, the cartographic knowledge would eventually be passed clandestinely by some of those involved in the operation. In 1475, for the first time a Latin translation of Ptolemys world map, the arts in the Portuguese Renaissance are a matter of historiographical dispute. This is because despite arts flourishing in this time, they did not follow the classicist aesthetic standards on which the Italians built their Renaissance, the arts of the Portuguese Renaissance were unique amongst other Renaissance arts. They were a mixing of Late Gothic style with the innovations of the fifteenth century, for the larger part of the Portuguese Renaissance, its architecture was largely the continuation and elaboration of the Gothic style. The profits of the trade, during the reigns of John II, Manuel I, and John III, financed the sumptuous and dominant style of the Portuguese Renaissance.
The Manueline was largely an intricate and complex style, with gothic and light neo-classical influence. The first known building to be done in Manueline style is the Monastery of Jesus of Setubal, by the architect Diogo de Boitaca, one of the originators and masters of the style. The Hermitage of Nossa Senhora da Conceição, in Tomar, by Diogo de Torralva, is an excellent examples of the pure Renaissance classical architecture from the Portuguese Renaissance. The Quinta da Bacalhoa and the Casa dos Bicos are good examples of strong classical Renaissance style palaces, painting was one of the more distinguishing factors of the Portuguese Renaissance, being one of the more contrasting arts to the other Renaissances of Europe. Portuguese Renaissance painting was largely in contact with Flemish style, links between the two movements reached a new level, in 1430, with the marriage of Isabel of Aviz, Infanta of Portugal, to Philip III, Duke of Burgundy. While the marriage was in negotiations, the Burgundian court sent the famed Jan van Eyck, van Eyck remained in Portugal for over a year, where he established a school of art, alongside Olivier de Gand and Jean dYpres
Age of Discovery
It marks the rise of the period of widespread adoption in Europe of colonialism and mercantilism. Many lands previously unknown to Europeans were discovered during this period, from the perspective of many non-Europeans, the Age of Discovery marked the arrival of settlers and invaders from a previously unknown continent. This represented one of the most-significant global events concerning ecology, agriculture and it allowed for the expansion of Christianity throughout the world with the spread of missionary activity, becoming the worlds largest religion. The Portuguese began systematically exploring the Atlantic coast of Africa from 1418, in 1488 Bartolomeu Dias reached the Indian Ocean by this route. In 1492 the Catholic Monarchs of Castile and Aragon funded Christopher Columbuss plan to sail west to reach the Indies by crossing the Atlantic and he landed on a continent uncharted by Europeans and seen as a new world, the Americas. In 1498, a Portuguese expedition commanded by Vasco da Gama reached India by sailing around Africa, the Portuguese sailed further eastward, to the valuable Spice Islands in 1512, landing in China one year later.
In 1513, Spanish Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama, Europe first received news of the eastern and western Pacific within a one-year span around 1512. Meanwhile, from the 1580s to the 1640s, Russians explored and conquered almost the whole of Siberia, another source was the Radhanite Jewish trade networks of merchants established as go-betweens between Europe and the Muslim world during the time of the Crusader states. Knowledge about the Atlantic African coast was fragmented and derived mainly from old Greek and Roman maps based on Carthaginian knowledge, the Red Sea was barely known and only trade links with the Maritime republics, the Republic of Venice especially, fostered collection of accurate maritime knowledge. Indian Ocean trade routes were sailed by Arab traders, between 1405 and 1421, the Yongle Emperor of Ming China sponsored a series of long range tributary missions under the command of Zheng He. The fleets visited Arabia, East Africa, Maritime Southeast Asia, by 1400 a Latin translation of Ptolemys Geographia reached Italy coming from Constantinople.
The rediscovery of Roman geographical knowledge was a revelation, both for mapmaking and worldview, although reinforcing the idea that the Indian Ocean was landlocked, a prelude to the Age of Discovery was a series of European expeditions crossing Eurasia by land in the late Middle Ages. A series of Europeans took advantage of these to explore eastwards, most were Italians, as trade between Europe and the Middle East was controlled mainly by the Maritime republics. The close Italian links to the Levant raised great curiosity and commercial interest in countries which lay further east, christian embassies were sent as far as Karakorum during the Mongol invasions of the Levant, from which they gained a greater understanding of the world. The first of these travellers was Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, dispatched by Pope Innocent IV to the Great Khan, about the same time, Russian prince Yaroslav of Vladimir, and subsequently his sons Alexander Nevsky and Andrey II of Vladimir, travelled to the Mongolian capital.
Though having strong political implications, their journeys left no detailed accounts, other travellers followed, like French André de Longjumeau and Flemish William of Rubruck, who reached China through Central Asia. After returning, he dictated an account of his journeys to a scholar he met in Granada, the Rihla, between 1357 and 1371 a book of supposed travels compiled by John Mandeville acquired extraordinary popularity. These overland journeys had little immediate effect, the Mongol Empire collapsed almost as quickly as it formed and soon the route to the east became more difficult and dangerous
History of science in the Renaissance
During the Renaissance, great advances occurred in geography, chemistry, mathematics, manufacturing and engineering. But, at least in its period, some see the Renaissance as one of scientific backwardness. Historians like George Sarton and Lynn Thorndike have criticized how the Renaissance affected science, humanists favored human-centered subjects like politics and history over study of natural philosophy or applied mathematics. Marie Boas Hall coined the term Scientific Renaissance to designate the early phase of the Scientific Revolution and after the Renaissance of the 12th century, Europe experienced an intellectual revitalization, especially with regard to the investigation of the natural world. In the 14th century, however, a series of events that would come to be known as the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages was underway, when the Black Death came, it wiped out so many lives it affected the entire system. It brought an end to the previous period of massive scientific change. The plague killed 25–50% of the people in Europe, especially in the conditions of the towns.
Recurrences of the plague and other disasters caused a decline of population for a century. The 14th century saw the beginning of the movement of the Renaissance. The rediscovery of ancient texts was accelerated after the Fall of Constantinople, in 1453, the invention of printing was to have great effect on European society, the facilitated dissemination of the printed word democratized learning and allowed a faster propagation of new ideas. But this initial period is seen as one of scientific backwardness. There were no new developments in physics or astronomy, and the reverence for classical sources further enshrined the Aristotelian, philosophy lost much of its rigour as the rules of logic and deduction were seen as secondary to intuition and emotion. At the same time, Humanism stressed that nature came to be viewed as a spiritual creation that was not governed by laws or mathematics. Science would only be revived later, with figures as Copernicus, Gerolamo Cardano, Francis Bacon. Alchemy is the study of the transmutation of materials through obscure processes and it is sometimes described as an early form of chemistry.
One of the aims of alchemists was to find a method of creating gold from other substances. Medieval alchemists worked with two elements and mercury. Paracelsus was an alchemist and physician of the Renaissance, the Paracelsians added a third element, salt, to make a trinity of alchemical elements
The School of Athens
The School of Athens is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. It was painted between 1509 and 1511 as a part of Raphaels commission to decorate the rooms now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, the picture has long been seen as Raphaels masterpiece and the perfect embodiment of the classical spirit of the Renaissance. The School of Athens is one of a group of four main frescoes on the walls of the Stanza that depict distinct branches of knowledge, the figures on the walls below exemplify Philosophy, Poetry and Law. The traditional title is not Raphaels, indeed and Aristotle appear to be the central figures in the scene. However, all the philosophers depicted sought knowledge of first causes, many lived before Plato and Aristotle, and hardly a third were Athenians. The architecture contains Roman elements, but the general semi-circular setting having Plato, compounding the problem, Raphael had to invent a system of iconography to allude to various figures for whom there were no traditional visual types.
For example, while the Socrates figure is immediately recognizable from Classical busts, aside from the identities of the figures depicted, many aspects of the fresco have been variously interpreted, but few such interpretations are unanimously accepted among scholars. The popular idea that the gestures of Plato and Aristotle are kinds of pointing is very likely. Aristotle, with his four-elements theory, held that all change on Earth was owing to motions of the heavens, in the painting Aristotle carries his Ethics, which he denied could be reduced to a mathematical science. Finally, according to Vasari, the scene includes Raphael himself, however, as Heinrich Wölfflin observed, it is quite wrong to attempt interpretations of the School of Athens as an esoteric treatise. The all-important thing was the motive which expressed a physical or spiritual state. An interpretation of the fresco relating to hidden symmetries of the figures, the identities of some of the philosophers in the picture, such as Plato or Aristotle, are certain.
Beyond that, identifications of Raphaels figures have always been hypothetical, to complicate matters, beginning from Vasaris efforts, some have received multiple identifications, not only as ancients but as figures contemporary with Raphael. Vasari mentions portraits of the young Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, leaning over Bramante with his hands raised near the bottom right and he was writing over 40 years after the painting, and never knew Raphael, but no doubt reflects what was believed in his time. Many other popular identifications of portraits are very dubious, luitpold Dussler counts among those who can be identified with some certainty, Aristotle, Pythagoras, Ptolemy, Raphael and Diogenes. Other identifications he holds to be more or less speculative, both figures hold modern, bound copies of their books in their left hands, while gesturing with their right. Plato holds Timaeus, Aristotle his Nicomachean Ethics, Plato is depicted as old, wise-looking, and bare-foot. By contrast Aristotle, slightly ahead of him, is in manhood, well-shod and dressed with gold
Yiddish is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. Yiddish is written with a fully vocalized alphabet based on the Hebrew script, the earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז or טײַטש, a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German. Colloquially, the language is sometimes called מאַמע־לשון, distinguishing it from לשון־קדש, the term Yiddish, short for Yiddish-Teitsch, did not become the most frequently used designation in the literature until the 18th century. In the late 19th and into the 20th century the language was commonly called Jewish, especially in non-Jewish contexts. Modern Yiddish has two major forms, Eastern Yiddish is far more common today. It includes Southeastern and Northeastern dialects, Eastern Yiddish differs from Western both by its far greater size and by the extensive inclusion of words of Slavic origin. Western Yiddish is divided into Southwestern and Northwestern dialects, the term Yiddish is used in the adjectival sense, synonymously with Jewish, to designate attributes of Ashkenazi culture.
Prior to the Holocaust, there were over 10 million speakers of Yiddish, 85% of the Jews who died in the Holocaust were Yiddish speakers, assimilation following World War II further decreased the use of Yiddish both among survivors and Yiddish-speakers from other countries. However, the number of speakers is increasing in global Hasidic communities, the established view is that, as with other Jewish languages, Jews speaking distinct languages learned new co-territorial vernaculars, which they Judaized. Exactly what German base lies behind the earliest form of Yiddish is disputed, both Weinreich and Solomon Birnbaum developed this model further in the mid-1950s. In Weinreichs view, this Old Yiddish substrate bifurcated into two versions of the language and Eastern Yiddish. They retained the Semitic vocabulary needed for religious purposes and created a Judeo-German form of speech, recent linguistic research has finessed, contested, or challenged the Weinreich model, providing alternative approaches to the origins of Yiddish.
Some theorists argue that the fusion occurred with a Bavarian dialect base, the two main candidates for the germinal matrix of Yiddish, the Rhineland and Bavaria, are not necessarily incompatible. There may have been developments in the two regions, seeding the Western and Eastern dialects of Modern Yiddish. Dovid Katz proposes that Yiddish emerged from contact between speakers of High German and Aramaic-speaking Jews from the Middle East, wexlers model has met with little academic support, and strong critical challenges, especially among historical linguists. Alternative theories recognize the extent of Yiddishs Germanic vocabulary. Ashkenaz was centered on the Rhineland and the Palatinate, in what is now the westernmost part of Germany and its geographic extent did not coincide with the German principalities of the time, and it included northern France. Ashkenaz bordered on the inhabited by another distinctive Jewish cultural group, the Sephardim or Spanish Jews