The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the National Football League where the champion of the National Football Conference competes against the champion of the American Football Conference. The game is the culmination of a regular season that begins in the late summer of the previous calendar year. Roman numerals are used to identify each game, rather than the year in which it is held. For example, Super Bowl I was played on January 1967, following the 1966 regular season; the sole exception to this naming convention tradition occurred with Super Bowl 50, played on February 7, 2016, following the 2015 regular season, the following year, the nomenclature returned to Roman numerals for Super Bowl LI, following the 2016 regular season. The upcoming Super Bowl is Super Bowl LIV, scheduled for February 2, 2020, following the 2019 regular season; the game was created as a part of the merger agreement between the NFL and its then-rival, the American Football League. It was agreed that the two's champion teams would play in the AFL–NFL World Championship Game until the merger was to begin in 1970.
After the merger, each league was redesignated as a "conference", the game has since been played between the conference champions to determine the NFL's league champion. The National Football Conference leads the league with 27 wins to 26 wins for the American Football Conference; the Pittsburgh Steelers and the New England Patriots have the most Super Bowl championship titles, with six. The New England Patriots have the most Super Bowl appearances, with eleven. Tom Brady has six Super Bowl rings, the record for the most rings won by a single player; the day on which the Super Bowl is played, now considered by some as an unofficial American national holiday, is called "Super Bowl Sunday". It is the second-largest day for U. S. food consumption, after Thanksgiving Day. In addition, the Super Bowl has been the most-watched American television broadcast of the year. S. television history are Super Bowls. In 2015, Super Bowl XLIX became the most-watched American television program in history with an average audience of 114.4 million viewers, the fifth time in six years the game had set a record, starting with Super Bowl XLIV, which itself had taken over the number-one spot held for 27 years by the final episode of M*A*S*H.
The Super Bowl is among the most-watched sporting events in the world all audiences being North American, is second to the UEFA Champions League final as the most watched annual sporting event worldwide. The NFL restricts the use of its "Super Bowl" trademark; because of the high viewership, commercial airtime during the Super Bowl broadcast is the most expensive of the year, leading to companies developing their most expensive advertisements for this broadcast. As a result and discussing the broadcast's commercials has become a significant aspect of the event. In addition, popular singers and musicians including Mariah Carey, Michael Jackson, Prince, Justin Timberlake, Beyoncé, Janet Jackson, Paul McCartney, The Rolling Stones, The Who, Whitney Houston, Lady Gaga have performed during the event's pre-game and halftime ceremonies. For four decades after its 1920 inception, the NFL fended off several rival leagues. In 1960, it encountered its most serious competitor; the AFL vied with the NFL for fans.
The original "bowl game" was the Rose Bowl Game in Pasadena, first played in 1902 as the "Tournament East-West football game" as part of the Pasadena Tournament of Roses and moved to the new Rose Bowl Stadium in 1923. The stadium got its name from the fact that the game played there was part of the Tournament of Roses and that it was shaped like a bowl, much like the Yale Bowl in New Haven, Connecticut; the Tournament of Roses football game came to be known as the Rose Bowl Game. Exploiting the Rose Bowl Game's popularity, post-season college football contests were created for Miami, New Orleans, El Paso in 1935, for Dallas in 1937. By the time the first Super Bowl was played, the term "bowl" for any major American football game was well established. Lamar Hunt, owner of the AFL's Kansas City Chiefs, first used the term "Super Bowl" to refer to the NFL-AFL championship game in the merger meetings. Hunt said the name was in his head because his children had been playing with a Super Ball toy.
In a July 25, 1966, letter to NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle, Hunt wrote, "I have kiddingly called it the'Super Bowl,' which can be improved upon." The leagues' owners chose the name "AFL–NFL Championship Game", but in July 1966 the Kansas City Star quoted Hunt in discussing "the Super Bowl — that's my term for the championship game between the two leagues", the media began using the term. Although the league stated in 1967 that "not many people like it", asking for suggestions and considering alternatives such as "Merger Bowl" and "The Game", the Associated Press reported that "Super Bowl" "grew and grew and grew-until it reached the point that there was Super Week, Super Sunday, Super Teams, Super Players, ad infinitum". "Super Bowl" became official beginning with the third annual game. Roman numerals were first affixed for the fifth edition, in January 1971. After the NFL's Green Bay Packers won the first two Super Bowls, some team owners feared for the future of the merger. At the time, many doubted the c
1980 Summer Olympics boycott
The 1980 Summer Olympics boycott was one part of a number of actions initiated by the United States to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The Soviet Union, which hosted the 1980 Summer Olympics, other countries would boycott the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Western governments first considered the idea of boycotting the Moscow Olympics in response to the situation in Afghanistan at the 20 December 1979 meeting of NATO representatives; the idea was not new: since 1975/1976 proposals for an Olympic boycott circulated among human rights activists and groups as a sanction for Soviet violations of human rights. At that moment, not many of the member governments were interested in the proposal; the idea began to gain popularity in early January 1980 when Soviet dissident Andrei Sakharov called for a boycott. On 14 January 1980, the Carter Administration joined Sakharov's appeal and set a deadline by which the Soviet Union must pull out of Afghanistan or face the consequences, including an international boycott of the games.
On 26 January 1980, Canadian Prime Minister Joe Clark announced that Canada, like the US, would boycott the Olympic Games if Soviet forces did not leave Afghanistan by 20 February 1980. When the deadline passed a month without any change to the situation in Central Asia, Carter pushed U. S. allies to pull their Olympic teams from the upcoming games. In late January the Soviet regime prepared to face down this "hostile campaign"; as Central Committee documents show, in addition to its own propaganda efforts it was relying on the International Olympic Committee and its 89 member committees to behave as in the past, not give in to pressure from national governments. It noted that the government and National Olympic Committee of France had stated a willingness to participate. After its 24 April meeting, the head of the United States Olympic Committee Robert Kane told the International Olympic Committee that the USOC would be willing to send a team to Moscow if there were a "spectacular change in the international situation" in the coming weeks.
In an attempt to save the Games Lord Killanin president of the IOC, arranged to meet and discuss the boycott with Jimmy Carter and Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, before the new 24 May deadline. Killanin insisted that the Games should continue as scheduled, while President Carter reaffirmed the US position. Viz. to boycott the Games unless the USSR withdrew from Afghanistan. Several interventions at the late April 1980 Bilderberg meeting in Aachen included discussion of the implications of the boycott; the world would perceive a boycott, it was argued, as little more than a sentimental protest, not a strategic act. An African representative at the Bilderberg meeting voiced a different view: whether there was additional support outside the US or not, he believed, a boycott would be an effective symbolic protest and be visible to those within the Soviet Union; some Russian dissidents expressed an opinion that boycott would be a strong message to the Soviets who breached the Olympic rules to achieve their political goals.
The Carter administration brought considerable pressure to bear on other NATO Member-States to support the boycott. Their support was not universal; the International Olympics Federations protested that the pressures by the US and other supporting countries for the boycott was an inappropriate means to achieve a political end, the victims of this action would be the athletes. West German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt said that the American attitude that the allies "should do as they are told" was unacceptable, although West Germany did join the boycott. Boxer Muhammad Ali traveled to Tanzania and Senegal to convince their leaders to join the boycott, he successfully convinced the Kenyan government to do so. Many countries joined the US in a full boycott of the Games; these included Japan and West Germany where Chancellor Schmidt was able to convince the National Olympic Committee to support the boycott. China, the Philippines, Chile and Canada boycotted the Games entirely; some of these countries competed at the alternative "Liberty Bell Classic" or Olympic Boycott Games held in Philadelphia that same year.
The governments of the United Kingdom and Australia supported the boycott, but left any final decision over the participation of their country's athletes to their respective NOCs and the decision of their individual athletes. The United Kingdom and France sent a much smaller athletic delegation than would have been possible; the British associations that governed equestrian sports and yachting boycotted the 1980 summer Olympics. Spain, Sweden and Finland were other principal nations representing western Europe at the Games. All these countries participated under a neutral flag with the Olympic anthem played in any ceremony. Italian athletes serving in its military corps could not attend the Games, because of the national government's official support of the boycott. Many events were affected by the loss of participants and some US-born athletes who were citizens of other countries, such as Italy and Australia, did compete in Moscow. A firm enemy of the United States under Ayatollah Khomeini's new theocracy, Iran boycotted the Moscow Games after Khomeini joined the condemnation by the United Nations and the Islamic Conference of the invasion of Afghanistan.
Independently of the United States, the Islamic Conference urged a boycott of Moscow after the invasion.
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
110 metres hurdles
The 110 metres hurdles, or 110-meter hurdles, is a hurdling track and field event for men. It is included in the athletics programme at the Summer Olympic Games; the female counterpart is the 100 metres hurdles. As part of a racing event, ten hurdles of 1.067 metres in height are evenly spaced along a straight course of 110 metres. They are positioned. Fallen hurdles do not carry a fixed time penalty for the runners, but they have a significant pull-over weight which slows down the run. Like the 100 metres sprint, the 110 metres hurdles begins in the starting blocks. For the 110 m hurdles, the first hurdle is placed after a run-up of 13.72 metres from the starting line. The next nine hurdles are set at a distance of 9.14 metres from each other, the home stretch from the last hurdle to the finish line is 14.02 metres long. The Olympic Games have included the 110 metre hurdles in their program since 1896; the equivalent hurdles race for women was run over a course of 80 metres from 1932 to 1968. Starting with the 1972 Summer Olympics, the women's race was set at 100 metres.
In the early 20th century, the race was contested as 120 yard hurdles, thus the imperial units distances between hurdles. The fastest 110 metre hurdlers run the distance in around 13 seconds. Aries Merritt of the United States holds the current world record of 12.80 seconds, set at the Memorial Van Damme meet on 7 September 2012 in Belgium. For the first hurdles races in England around 1830, wooden barriers were placed along a stretch of 100 yards; the first standards were attempted in 1864 in Oxford and Cambridge: The length of the course was set to 120 yards and over its course, runners were required to clear ten 3 foot 6 inch high hurdles. The height and spacing of the hurdles have been related to Imperial units since. After the length of the course was rounded up to 110 metres in France in 1888, the standards were pretty much complete; the massively constructed hurdles of the early days were first replaced in 1895 with somewhat lighter T-shaped hurdles that runners were able to knock over.
However, until 1935 runners were disqualified if they knocked down more than three hurdles, records were only recognized if the runner had left all hurdles standing. In 1935 the T-shaped hurdles were replaced by L-shaped ones that fall forward if bumped into and therefore reduce the risk of injury; however those hurdles are weighted. The current running style where the first hurdle is taken on the run with the upper body lowered instead of being jumped over and with three steps each between the hurdles was first used by the 1900 Olympic champion, Alvin Kraenzlein; the 110 metre hurdles have been an Olympic discipline since 1896. Women ran it in the 1920s but it never became accepted. From 1926 on, women have only run the 80 metre hurdles, increased to 100 metres starting in 1961 on a trial basis and in 1969 in official competition. In 1900 and 1904, the Olympics included a 200-metre hurdles race, the IAAF recognized world records for the 200 metre hurdles until 1960. Don Styron held the world record in the event for over 50 years until Andy Turner broke the record in a specially arranged race at the Manchester City Games in 2010.
Styron still holds the world record in the 220 yard low hurdles. The sprint hurdles are a rhythmic race because both men and women take 3 steps between each hurdle, no matter whether running 110/100 meters outdoors, or the shorter distances indoors. In addition, the distance from the starting line to the first hurdle - while shorter for women - is constant for both sexes whether indoors or outdoors, so sprint hurdlers do not need to change their stride pattern between indoor and outdoor seasons. One difference between indoor and outdoors is the shorter finishing distance from the last hurdle indoors, compared to longer distance from the last hurdle outdoors to the finish line. Top male hurdlers traditionally took 8 strides from the starting blocks to the first hurdle; the 8-step start persisted from the 1950s to the end of the 20th century and included such World- and Olympic champions as Harrison Dillard, Rod Milburn, Greg Foster, Renaldo Nehemiah, Roger Kingdom, Allen Johnson, Mark Crear, Mark McCoy, Colin Jackson.
However, beginning in the 2000s, some hurdle coaches embraced a transition to a faster 7-step start, teaching the men to lengthen their first few strides out of the starting blocks. Cuban hurdler Dayron Robles set his 2008 world record of 12.87 using a 7-step start. Chinese star Liu Xiang won the 2004 Olympics and broke the world record in 2006 utilizing an 8-step approach, but he switched to 7-steps by the 2011 outdoor season. After the 2010 outdoor season, American Jason Richardson trained to switch to a 7-step start and went on to win the 2011 World Championship. American Aries Merritt trained in Fall 2011 to switch from 8 to 7, had his greatest outdoor season in 2012 - running 8 races in under 13 seconds - capped by winning the London 2012 Olympics and setting a world record of 12.80. Of the 10 men with the fastest 110m hurdle times in 2012, seven used 7-steps, including the top 4: Aries Merritt, Liu Xiang, Jason Richardson, David Oliver. Hurdle technique experts believe the off-season training required to produce the power and speed necessary to reach the first hurdle in 7 steps, yields greater endurance over the last half of the race.
That added endurance allows hurdlers to maintain their top speed to the finish, resulting in a faster time. First official IAAF world
Weltklasse Zürich is an annual, invitation-only, world-class track and field meeting at the Letzigrund in Zürich, Switzerland held at the end of August. One of the IAAF Golden League events, it is now part of the IAAF Diamond League. One of the first large-scale international athletics events, it is sometimes referred to as the one-day Olympics. Weltklasse Zürich first took place on 12 August 1928. In the beginning, the meeting was nicknamed by the public the "Nurmi meeting" after the most admired and celebrated participant at the time, Paavo Nurmi. On 21 June 1960, on the Letzigrund track, Armin Hary became the first human to run the 100m dash in 10.0 seconds. UBS has supported Weltklasse Zürich as its main sponsor since 1981. Other sponsors are Vaudoise Assurances, Migros, Le Gruyère Switzerland, Omega, Lexus and Puma; the surface at the Letzigrund Stadium was developed in 2014 by the Swiss company CONICA. The new surface was installed in June 2014 at a cost of 800,000 CHF and was paid for by the city of Zurich, which owns Letzigrund Stadium.
Over the course of its history, numerous world records have been set at Weltklasse Zürich. Spitzen Leichtathletik Luzern Media related to Weltklasse Zürich at Wikimedia Commons Diamond League – Zurich official website
Jerry Lee Rice Sr is a retired American football wide receiver who played in the NFL with the San Francisco 49ers. Due to his numerous records and accolades, he is regarded as the greatest wide receiver in NFL history. Rice is the career leader in most major statistical categories for wide receivers, including receptions, touchdown receptions, receiving yards, once being the leader for total yards and touchdowns in a season, he has scored more points than any other non-kicker in NFL history with 1,256. Rice was named All-Pro 12 times in his 20 NFL seasons, he won an AFC Championship with the Oakland Raiders. As of 2017, Rice holds over the most of any player by a wide margin. In 1999, The Sporting News listed Rice second behind Jim Brown on its list of "Football's 100 Greatest Players". In 2010, he was chosen by NFL Network's NFL Films production The Top 100: NFL's Greatest Players as the greatest player in NFL history. Rice was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2010 and the College Football Hall of Fame in 2006.
In January 2015, Rice admitted to using Stickum on his gloves saying "I know this might be a little illegal, but you put a little spray, a little Stickum on them, to make sure that texture is a little sticky". Stickum was banned in the NFL in 1981. Jerry Lee Rice was born in Starkville and grew up in the small town of Crawford, Mississippi, as the son of a brick mason, he attended B. L. Moor High School in Mississippi. According to his autobiography Rice, his mother did not allow him to join the school's football team in his freshman year; when Rice was a sophomore, the school's principal caught Rice being truant. After Rice sprinted away, the principal told the school's football coach about Rice's speed and he was offered a place on the team. While at B. L. Moor, Rice played basketball and was on the track and field team. Rice attended Mississippi Valley State University from 1981 to 1984, he became a standout receiver and acquired the nickname "World" due to "his ability to catch anything near him."
In 1982, Rice played his first season with redshirt freshman quarterback Willie Totten. Rice caught 66 passes for seven touchdowns as a sophomore that year. Together and Rice became known as "The Satellite Express" and set numerous NCAA records in the spread offense of coach Archie Cooley, nicknamed "The Gunslinger". Rice had a record-setting 1983 campaign, including NCAA marks for receptions and receiving yards, was named a first-team Division I-AA All-American, he set a single-game NCAA record by catching 24 passes against Louisiana's Southern University. As a senior in 1984, he broke his own Division I-AA records for receptions and receiving yards, his 27 touchdown receptions in that 1984 season set the NCAA record for all divisions. The 1984 Delta Devils scored 628 points in an average of more than 57 per game. Subsequent to an August practice experiment, Cooley had Totten call all the plays at the line of scrimmage without a huddle; the result was more staggering offensive numbers. Rice caught 17 passes for 199 yards against Southern, 17 for 294 against Kentucky State, 15 for 285 against Jackson State.
He scored five touchdowns in a single game twice that year. Rice was named to every Division I-AA All-America team and finished ninth in Heisman Trophy balloting in 1984. In the Blue–Gray Classic all-star game played on Christmas Day, he earned MVP honors, he finished his career with 301 catches for 50 touchdowns. Rice became a member of Phi Beta Sigma fraternity at the Delta Phi chapter while at Valley. In the spring of 1999, the school renamed its football stadium from Magnolia Stadium to Rice–Totten Stadium in honor of Rice and Totten. Rice was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame on August 12, 2006. Rice's record-breaking season at Mississippi Valley State caught the attention of many NFL scouts, but his below-average speed kept most teams wary. Sources vary on his 40-yard dash time, as slow as 4.71 seconds. The Dallas Cowboys and San Francisco 49ers showed interest in him. In the first round of the 1985 NFL Draft, Dallas had the 17th selection and San Francisco, as Super Bowl champion from the previous season, had the last.
49ers coach Bill Walsh sought Rice after watching highlights of Rice the Saturday night before San Francisco was to play the Houston Oilers on October 21, 1984. On draft day, the 49ers traded its first two picks for the New England Patriots' first-round choice, the 16th selection overall, selected Rice before, as some report, the Cowboys were intending to pick him. Rice was prized more by the USFL, as he was the number-one pick overall in that league's 1985 draft, selected by the Birmingham Stallions, but the USFL would fold after the 1986 season. Although he struggled at times, Rice impressed the NFL in his rookie season for the 49ers in 1985 after a 10-catch, 241-yard game against the Los Angeles Rams in December. For that rookie season, he recorded 49 catches for 927 yards, averaging 18.9 yards per catch and was named the NFC Offensive Rookie of the Year by United Press International. The following season, he caught 86 passes for 15 touchdowns, it was the first of six seasons in which Rice led the NFL in receiving yar
San Francisco 49ers
The San Francisco 49ers are a professional American football team located in the San Francisco Bay Area. They compete in the National Football League as a member of the league's National Football Conference West division; the team plays its home games at Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara, located 45 miles southeast of San Francisco in the heart of Silicon Valley. Since 1988, the 49ers have been headquartered in Santa Clara; the team was founded in 1946 as a charter member of the All-America Football Conference and joined the NFL in 1949 when the leagues merged. The 49ers were the first major league professional sports franchise based in San Francisco; the name "49ers" comes from the prospectors who arrived in Northern California in the 1849 Gold Rush. The team is and corporately registered as the San Francisco Forty Niners; the team began play at Kezar Stadium in San Francisco before moving across town to Candlestick Park in 1970 and to Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara in 2014. The 49ers won five Super Bowl championships between 1981 and 1994, led by Hall of Famers Joe Montana, Jerry Rice, Ronnie Lott, Steve Young, coach Bill Walsh.
As of 2017, the team has won 12 conference championships, with the first in 1981 and the last in 2018. They have been division champions 29 times between 1970 and 2019, making them one of the most successful teams in NFL history; the 49ers have been in the league playoffs 50 times: 49 times in the NFL and one time in the AAFC. The team has set numerous notable NFL records, including most consecutive road games won, most consecutive seasons leading league scoring, most consecutive games scored, most field goals in a season, fewest turn-overs in a season, most touchdowns in a Super Bowl. According to Forbes Magazine, the team is the 4th most-valuable team in the NFL, valued at $3 billion in July 2016. In 2016, the 49ers were ranked the 10th most valuable sports team in the world, behind basketball's Los Angeles Lakers and above soccer's Bayern Munich; the San Francisco 49ers, an original member of the new All-America Football Conference, were the first major league professional sports franchise based in San Francisco, one of the first major league professional sports teams based on the Pacific Coast.
In 1946, the team joined the Los Angeles Rams of the rival National Football League as the first two teams playing a "big four"-sport in the Western United States becoming part of the NFL themselves in 1950. In 1957, the 49ers enjoyed their first sustained success as members of the NFL. After losing the opening game of the season, the 49ers won their next three against the Rams and Packers before returning home to Kezar Stadium for a game against the Chicago Bears on October 27, 1957; the 49ers fell behind the Bears 17–7. Tragically, 49ers owner Tony Morabito died during the game; the 49ers players learned of his death at halftime when coach Frankie Albert was handed a note with two words: "Tony's gone." With tears running down their faces, motivated to win for their departed owner, the 49ers scored 14 unanswered points to win the game, 21–17. Dicky Moegle's late-game interception in the endzone sealed the victory. After Tony's death 49er ownership went to Tony's widow, Josephine V. Morabito; the 49ers special assistant to the Morabitos, Louis G. Spadia was named general manager.
During the decade of the 1950s the 49ers were known for their so-called "Million Dollar Backfield", consisting of four future Hall of Fame members: quarterback Y. A. Tittle and running backs John Henry Johnson, Hugh McElhenny, Joe Perry, they became the only full-house backfield inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame. For most of the next 13 years, the 49ers hovered around.490, except for 1963 and 1964 when they went 2–12 and 4–10 respectively. Key players for these 49ers included running back Ken Willard, quarterback John Brodie, offensive lineman Bruce Bosley. During this time the 49ers became the first NFL team to use the shotgun formation, it was named by the man who devised the formation, San Francisco 49ers' coach Red Hickey, in 1960. The formation, where the quarterback lines up seven yards behind the center, was designed to allow the quarterback extra time to throw; the formation was used for the first time in 1960 and enabled the 49ers to beat the Baltimore Colts, who were not familiar with the formation.
In 1961 using the shotgun, the 49ers got off to a fast 4–1 start, including two shutouts in back-to-back weeks. In their sixth game they faced the Chicago Bears, who by moving players closer to the line of scrimmage and rushing the quarterback, were able to defeat the shotgun and in fact shut out the 49ers, 31–0. Though the 49ers went only 3–5–1 the rest of the way, the shotgun became a component of most team's offenses and is a formation used by football teams at all levels. In 1962, the 49ers had a frustrating season, they won only one game at Kezar Stadium. After posting a losing record in 1963. Victor Morabito died May 10, 1964, at age 45; the 1964 season was another lost campaign. According to the 1965 49ers Year Book the co-owners of the team were: Mrs. Josephine V. Morabito Fox, Mrs. Jane Morabito, Mrs. O. H. Heintzelman, Lawrence J. Purcell, Mrs. William O'Grady, Albert J. Ruffo, Franklin Mieuli, Frankie Albert, Louis G. Spadia and James Ginella; the 1965 49ers rebounded nicely to finish with a 7–6–1 record.
They were led that year by John Brodie, who after being plagued by injuries came back to become one of the NFL's best passers by throwing for 3,112 yards and 30 touchdowns. In 1966, the Morabito widows named Lou Sp