Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Waterloo (1970 film)
Waterloo is a 1970 epic period war film directed by Sergei Bondarchuk and produced by Dino De Laurentiis. It depicts the story of the preliminary events and the Battle of Waterloo and is famous for its lavish battle scenes, it was a co-production between the Soviet Union and Italy, was filmed on location in Ukraine. It stars Rod Steiger as Napoleon Bonaparte and Christopher Plummer as the Duke of Wellington with a cameo by Orson Welles as Louis XVIII of France. Other stars include Jack Hawkins as General Thomas Picton, Virginia McKenna as the Duchess of Richmond and Dan O'Herlihy as Marshal Ney. In 1814 French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, facing certain defeat at the hands of Britain, Austria and Russia, abdicates at the demand of his marshals, he is banished to Elba with 1,000 men, but returns to France. Ney, now serving the monarchy of Louis XVIII of France, is tasked with recapturing him, but he and his army defect to Napoleon. King Louis flees, Napoleon triumphantly enters Paris, the European powers declare war.
The Prussian von Muffling interrupts the Duchess of Richmond's ball to warn the Duke of Wellington that Napoleon has invaded Belgium to defeat the Allied forces before they can unite. Realising that Napoleon has got between himself and the Prussians, Wellington decides to halt the French at Waterloo; the French defeat the Prussians at Ligny. Field Marshal Blücher rejects the advice of his Chief of Staff, General Gneisenau to retreat and instead moves north to Wavre to keep contact with Wellington. Napoleon, enraged that Ney has let Wellington withdraw to ground of his choosing, directs 30,000 men under Marshal Grouchy to pursue Blücher and keep the Prussians from rejoining the British, while he leads his remaining force against Wellington; the battle of Waterloo, delayed to let the ground dry after the previous night's storm, starts shortly after 11:30 am with cannon fire from the French. Napoleon launches a diversionary infantry attack on Wellington's right flank, the Chateau of Hougoumont, but Wellington refuses to divert forces.
Napoleon attacks the allied left with d'Erlon's infantry corps. General Picton, in civilian dress having lost his uniform when his mule was lost halts the attack but is killed. Ponsonby's cavalry brigade, the renowned Union brigade, including the famous Royal Scots Greys, pursue the French, but go too far across the battlefield and become isolated from the rest of the Allied force, are thus cut to pieces by Napoleon's lancers. Ponsonby himself is killed. Napoleon realises that troops spotted emerging from the woods to the east are Prussians, not French, but keeps this from his army, he suffers stomach pain and withdraws temporarily, leaving Marshal Ney in command. Ney, in his desperation to win before Prussian intervention, misinterprets a reorganisation of the Allied line as a retreat and leads a cavalry charge, repelled with heavy losses by allied infantry squares. Napoleon rebukes his marshals for letting Ney attack without infantry support; however he hopes. The British strongpoint of La Haye Sainte falls, Napoleon sends the Imperial Guard for the decisive blow.
As they advance they are repulsed by Maitland's Guards Division, who were lying unseen in the grass on the reverse of the slope. The repulse of the Guard devastates French morale, the arrival of the Prussians makes matters certain. After refusing to surrender, the Imperial Guard squares are annihilated with point-blank artillery fire. After the battle, Wellington wanders among the piles of dead. At the same time Napoleon, who had declared that he would die with his men, is dragged by his marshals from the field and departs in a carriage for Paris. Columbia Pictures published a 28-page, full-colour pictorial guide when it released Waterloo in 1970. According to the guidebook, Italian producer Dino De Laurentiis had difficulty finding financial backers for the massive undertaking until he began talks with the Soviets in the late 1960s and reached agreement with the Mosfilm organization. Final costs were over £12 million, making Waterloo one of the most expensive movies made, for its time. Had the movie been filmed in the West, costs might have been as much as three times this.
Mosfilm contributed more than £4 million of the costs, nearly 17,000 soldiers of the Soviet Army, including a full brigade of Soviet cavalry, a host of engineers and labourers to prepare the battlefield in the rolling farmland outside Uzhhorod, Ukraine. To recreate the battlefield authentically, the Soviets bulldozed away two hills, laid five miles of roads, transplanted 5,000 trees, sowed fields of rye and wildflowers and reconstructed four historic buildings. To create the mud, more than six miles of underground irrigation piping was specially laid. Most of the battle scenes were filmed using five Panavision cameras – from ground level, from 100-foot towers, from a helicopter, from an overhead railway built right across the location. Actual filming was accomplished over 28 weeks. Many of the battle scenes were filmed in the summer of 1969 in sweltering heat. In addition to the battlefield in Ukraine, filming took place on location in the Royal Palace of Caserta, while interior scenes were filmed on the large De Laurentiis Studios lot in Rome.
The battle sequences of the film include about 15,000 Soviet foot soldiers and 2,000 cavalrymen as extras and 50 circus stunt riders were used to perform the dangerous horse falls. It
Carry On at Your Convenience
Carry on at Your Convenience, released in 1971, is the 22nd in the series of Carry On films to be made, was the first box office failure of the series. This failure has been attributed to the film's attempt at exploring the political themes of the trade union movement, crucially portraying the union activists as idle, pedantic buffoons which alienated the traditional working-class audience of the series; the film, known as Carry On Round the Bend outside the United Kingdom, did not return full production costs until 1976 after several international and television sales. The film features regulars Sid James, Kenneth Williams, Charles Hawtrey, Joan Sims, Hattie Jacques and Bernard Bresslaw, it features Kenneth Cope in the first of his two Carry on appearances. In bathroom ceramics factory W. C. Boggs & Son, the traditionalist owner W. C. Boggs is having no end of trouble. Bolshy and lazy union representative Vic Spanner continually stirs up trouble in the works, to the irritation of his co-workers and management.
He calls a strike for any minor incident – or because he wants time off to attend a local football match. Sid Plummer is the site foreman bridging the gap between workers and management, shrewdly keeping the place going amid the unrest. Prissy floral-shirt-wearing product designer Charles Coote has included a bidet in his latest range of designs, but W. C. objects to the manufacture of such "dubious" items. W. C. will not change his stance after his son, Lewis Boggs, secures a large overseas order for the bidets. It is a deal that could save the struggling firm, which W. C. has to admit. Vic's dim stooge Bernie Hulke provides bumbling assistance in both his union machinations and his attempts to woo Sid's daughter, factory canteen worker Myrtle, she is torn between Vic and Lewis Boggs, something of a playboy but insists he loves her. Sid's wife is Beattie, a lazy housewife who does little but fuss over her pet budgie, which refuses to talk despite her concerted efforts, their neighbour is lascivious co-worker Chloe Moore.
Chloe contends with the endless strikes and with her crude, travelling salesman husband Fred, who neglects her and leaves her dissatisfied. Chloe and Sid are sorely tempted to stray. Unusually for Sid James, his character is a faithful husband, albeit a cheeky and borderline-lecherous one. Sid and Beattie find that Joey can predict winners of horseraces – he tweets when the horse's name is read out. Sid bets on Joey's tips and makes several large wins – including a vital £1,000 loaned to W. C. when the banks refuse a bridging loan – before Sid is barred by Benny his bookie after making several payouts. The strikers return to work, but it is only to attend the annual works outing, a coach trip to Brighton. A good time is had by all with barriers coming down between workers and management, thanks to that great social lubricant, alcohol. W. C. becomes intoxicated and spends the day – and it seems the night – with his faithful, adoring secretary, Miss Hortense Withering. Lewis Boggs manages to win Myrtle from Vic Spanner, giving his rival a beating, the couple elope.
After arriving home late after the outing and with Fred away, Chloe invites Sid in for a cup of tea. They fight their desires and decide not to have the tea fearing that neighbours might see Sid enter Chloe's home and get the wrong idea. At the picket lines the next day, Vic gets his comeuppance – at the hands of his mother – and the workers and management all pull together to produce the big order to save the firm. Sid James as Sid Plummer Kenneth Williams as WC Boggs Charles Hawtrey as Charles Coote Hattie Jacques as Beattie Plummer Joan Sims as Chloe Moore Bernard Bresslaw as Bernie Hulke Kenneth Cope as Vic Spanner Jacki Piper as Myrtle Plummer Richard O'Callaghan as Lewis Boggs Patsy Rowlands as Hortense Withering Davy Kaye as Benny Bill Maynard as Fred Moore Renée Houston as Agatha Spanner Marianne Stone as Maud Margaret Nolan as Popsy Geoffrey Hughes as Willie Hugh Futcher as Ernie Simon Cain as Barman Amelia Bayntun as Mrs Spragg Leon Greene as Chef Harry Towb as Film doctor Shirley Stelfox as Bunny waitress Peter Burton as Hotel manager Julian Holloway as Roger Anouska Hempel as New canteen girl Jan Rossini as Hoopla girl Philip Stone as Mr Bulstrode Screenplay – Talbot Rothwell Music – Eric Rogers Production Manager – Jack Swinburne Art Director – Lionel Couch Editor – Alfred Roome Director of Photography – Ernest Steward Camera Operator – James Bawden Make-up – Geoffrey Rodway Continuity – Rita Davidson Assistant Director – David Bracknell Sound Recordists – Danny Daniel & Ken Barker Hairdresser – Stella Rivers Costume Designer – Courtenay Elliott Set Dresser – Peter Howitt Assistant Art Director – William Alexander Dubbing Editor – Brian Holland Titles – GSE Ltd Processor – Rank Film Laboratories Toilets – Royal Doulton Sanitary Potteries Assistant Editor – Jack Gardner Producer – Peter Rogers Director – Gerald Thomas Filming dates – 22 March-7 May 1971Interiors: Pinewood Studios, BuckinghamshireExteriors: Brighton – Palace Pier.
The West Pier in Brighton was used two years for Carry On Girls. Brighton – Clarges Hotel; the same location was used in the Carry On Girls. Pinewood Studios; the studio's wood storage area was used as the exterior of WC Boggs' factory Pinewood Green, Pinewood Estate. Sid Plummer's house and the Moores' house The Red Lion, Shreding Green, Buckinghamshire Odeon Cinema, Uxbridge. Heatherden Hall, Pinewood Studios Black Pa
Hodder & Stoughton
Hodder & Stoughton is a British publishing house, now an imprint of Hachette. The firm has its origins in the 1840s, with Matthew Hodder's employment, aged fourteen, with Messrs Jackson and Walford, the official publisher for the Congregational Union. In 1861 the firm became Jackson and Hodder. Hodder & Stoughton published both religious and secular works, its religious list contained some progressive titles; these included George Adam Smith's Isaiah for its Expositor’s Bible series, one of the earliest texts to identify multiple authorship in the Book of Isaiah. There was a sympathetic Life of St Francis by Paul Sabatier, a French Protestant pastor. Matthew Hodder made frequent visits to North America, meeting with the Moody Press and making links with Scribners and Fleming H. Revell; the secular list only accepted fiction, it was still subject to "moral censorship" in the early part of the twentieth century. Matthew Hodder was doubtful about the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, the company refused Michael Arlen's The Green Hat, a novel published by Collins in 1924.
In 1922, Hodder and Stoughton published an edition of Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, very controversial at the time given the fantastical nature of the work. The 1920s brought an explosion of commercial fiction at keen prices - Hodder's "Yellow jackets" series were the precursors of the first paperbacks, included bestsellers from John Buchan, Edgar Wallace, Dornford Yates and Sapper's Bulldog Drummond. In 1928, the company became the exclusive British hardback publisher of Leslie Charteris's adventure novel series, The Saint, publishing all 50 UK first editions of the series until 1983. In this decade they took over ownership of the medical journal, The Lancet. Hodder & Stoughton were the originators of the Teach Yourself line of self-instruction books, which are still published through Hodder Headline's educational division; as the company expanded at home and overseas, Hodder & Stoughton's list swelled to include the real life adventures in Peary's North Pole and several works by Winston Churchill.
During the war, Ralph Hodder Williams set up the Brockhampton Book Co. to sell off overstocks of theological works. The manager, Ernest Roker, had an interest in children's books and managed to persuade author Enid Blyton to write a series of books for them about four children and a dog. In 1942, the Famous Five series was born with Five on a Treasure Island. In 1962, Brockhampton took over the children's writer Elinor Lyon, whose novels the parent company had introduced in 1948. Hodder & Stoughton published the Biggles books by Captain W. E. Johns, after he moved publishers from the Oxford University Press during the Second World War. Hodder & Stoughton published their first original Biggles book in 1942 with "Biggles Sweeps the Desert" around Sept/Oct of that year and the Brockhampton Press published Johns' Gimlet books from 1947. From 1953 Brockhampton Press would publish Biggles books, alternating with Hodder & Stoughton and Captain W. E. Johns remained with them until his death in 1968, with the last Hodder & Stoughton Biggles book appearing in August 1965 and the last Brockhampton Press Biggles book appearing in July 1970.
Hodder & Stoughton published some of Johns' Worrals books. Hodder & Stoughton published 35 Biggles first editions and Brockhampton Press published a further 29 Biggles first editions. In 1953 they published Sir John Hunt's successful The Ascent of Everest, began their long association with thriller writer John Creasey. In the 1970s, they brought the Coronet imprints into common use; the latter is memorable for David Niven's much-celebrated autobiography The Moon's a Balloon. In the 1960s the Hodder and Stoughton fiction list broadened to include many quality commercial authors, including Mary Stewart whose works included Madam, Will You Talk? and sold millions of copies worldwide. The non-fiction publishing included Anthony Sampson's era-defining The Anatomy of Britain in 1962. Another notable title in the children's sphere was the 1969 Brockhampton Press publication of Asterix the Gaul by Goscinny and Uderzo. In 1974, John le Carré’s Tinker, Soldier, Spy was published to much critical acclaim, earning him a Literary Guild Choice.
The following year, previous employee John Attenborough published A Living Memory of Hodder. In 1981, the company acquired the New English Library, an imprint created by the American Times Mirror Company that published works from several genres including fantasy, science fiction and suspense and included books by James Herbert and Stephen King. In 1986, Hodder & Stoughton introduced Sceptre as a literary imprint to sit alongside mass-market imprints Coronet and NEL. Publishing in paperback only, early books on the Sceptre list included Thomas Keneally’s Schindler’s Ark which had won the Booker Prize in 1982. Hodder & Stoughton won the Booker Prize in 1985 with the publication of Keri Hulme’s The Bone People acquired from its New Zealand office. Other notable books on the Hodder & Stoughton list in this decade include Rosamunde Pilcher’s The Shell Seekers, Elizabeth George’s A Great Deliverance and the first novel in Jean M. Auel’s prehistoric fiction series Earth’s Children® The Clan of the Cave Bear, an international success and the series, completed with the publication of The Land of Painted Caves in 2011, has sold over 45 million copies worldwide.
In 1993, Headline bought Hodder & Stoughton and the company became a division of Hodder Headline Ltd. In 1997 Sceptre published Charles Frazier’s Co
Historical romance is a broad category of fiction in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past. Walter Scott helped popularize this genre in the early 19th-century, with works such as Rob Roy and Ivanhoe. Literary fiction historical romances continue to be published, a notable recent example is Wolf Hall, a multi-award-winning novel by English historical novelist Hilary Mantel, it is a genre of mass-market fiction, related to the broader romantic love genre. The terms "romance novel" and "historical romance" are ambiguous, because the word "romance", the associated word "romantic", have a number of different meanings. In particular, on the one hand there is the mass-market genre of "fiction dealing with love", harlequin romance, on the other hand, "a romance" can be defined as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse. However, many romances, including the historical romances of Walter Scott, are frequently called novels, Scott describes romance as a "kindred term". To add to the confusion literary fiction romances, for example Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights have a strong love story interest.
Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo." In French literature, a prominent inheritor of Walter Scott's style of the historical novel was Balzac. In 1829 Balzac published Les Chouans, a historical work in the manner of Sir Walter Scott; this was subsequently incorporated into La Comédie Humaine. The bulk La Comédie Humaine, takes place during the Bourbon Restoration and the July Monarchy, though there are several novels which take place during the French Revolution and others which take place of in the Middle Ages or the Renaissance, including About Catherine de Medici and The Elixir of Long Life; the Hunchback of Notre-Dame by Victor Hugo is an important French historical romance of the early nineteenth century. The title refers to the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, on which the story is centred, the true protagonist of the story Esméralda. English translator Frederic Shoberl named the novel "The Hunchback of Notre Dame" in 1833 because at the time, Gothic novels were a popular form of Romance at that time in England.
The story is set in Paris, France in the Late Middle Ages, during the reign of Louis XI. Alexander Dumas's The Three Musketeers is another famous French historical romance. Set in 1625, it recounts the adventures of a young man named d'Artagnan after he leaves home to travel to Paris, to join the Musketeers of the Guard. Although D'Artagnan is not able to join this elite corps he befriends the three most formidable musketeers of the age: Athos and Aramis and gets involved in affairs of the state and court. In genre, The Three Musketeers is a historical and adventure novel. However, Dumas frequently works into the plot various injustices and absurdities of the old regime, giving the novel an additional political aspect at a time when the debate in France between republicans and monarchists was still fierce; the story was first serialized from March to July 1844, during the July Monarchy, four years before the French Revolution of 1848 violently established the Second Republic. The author's father, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas, had been a well-known General in France's Republican army during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The story of d'Artagnan is continued in Twenty Years After and The Vicomte of Bragelonne: Ten Years Later. The twentieth century produced the popular Angelique by Anne Golon set in the France of Louis XIV. Walter Scott is seen as the inventor of the modern historical novel and the inspiration for enormous numbers of imitators and genre writers both in the United Kingdom and on the European continent. In the cultural sphere, though Jane Porter was writing in this genre before him. Scott is most famous for his series the Waverley novels. One of the first mass market historical romances Georgette Heyer's The Black Moth appeared in 1921. Eleanor Hibbert was an English author who published an enormous number of novels, including many historical romances about European royalty under the nom de plume of Jean Plaidy, she combined imagination with facts to bring history alive through novels of romance. She was a prolific writer who published several books a year in different literary genres, each genre under a different pseudonyms: Victoria Holt for gothic romances, Philippa Carr for a multi-generational family saga.
A literary split personality, she wrote light romances, crime novels, murder mysteries and thrillers under the names Eleanor Burford, Elbur Ford, Kathleen Kellow, Anna Percival, Ellalice Tate. Some of the numerous historical romance series Hibbert published, as Jean Plaidy, sre: The Tudor Saga. James Fenimore Cooper was a popular American writer of the early 19th century, his historical romances of frontier and Indian life in the early American days created a unique form of American literature. Before embarking on his career as a writer he served in the U. S. Navy as a Midshipman, which influenced many of his novels and other writings; the novel that launched his career was The Spy, set during the Revolutionary War and published in 1821. He wrote numerous sea stories and his best-known works are five historical novels known as the Leatherstocking Tales. Though some scholars have hesitated to classify Cooper as a str
A palette knife is a blunt tool used for mixing or applying paint, with a flexible steel blade. It is used for mixing paint colors, etc. or for marbling, decorative endpapers, etc. The "palette" in the name is a reference to an artist's palette, used for mixing oil paint and acrylic paints. Art knives come in two types: palette knife resembling a putty knife with a rounded tip, suited for mixing paints on the palette. While palette knives are manufactured without sharpened cutting edges, with prolonged use they may become "sharpened" by the action of abrasive pigments such as earth colors. Palette knives are used in cooking, where their flexibility allows them to slide underneath pastries or other items. See frosting spatula. Palette