The Renault Juvaquatre is a small family car / compact car automobile produced by the French manufacturer Renault between 1937 and 1960, although production stopped or slowed to a trickle during the war years. The Juvaquatre was produced as a sedan/saloon until 1948 when the plant switched its full attention to the new Renault 4CV. During the second half of 1952 the plant restarted production of the Juvaquatre sedans/saloons for a period of five months. In 1950 a van based; the sedan/saloon found itself overshadowed and was soon withdrawn from production after the appearance in 1946 of the Renault 4CV. However, there was no estate version of the rear engined 4CV or Dauphine, the Juvaquatre "Dauphinoise" station wagon remained in production until replaced by the Renault 4 in 1960; the Juvaquatre was conceived in 1936 by Louis Renault as a small, affordable car designed to occupy the 6CV car tax class and to fit in the Renault range below existing more upmarket models such as the Primaquatre and Celtaquatre.
The company was focused on creating new customers who would not otherwise buy Renaults, on appealing to the new class of lower-income consumer created by changing labor conditions and the rise of the Popular Front in France in the 1930s. The Juvaquatre was inspired by the German Opel Olympia, a car by which the patron had been impressed during a 1935 visit to Berlin; the Juvaquatre early models, bore a strong resemblance to the Olympia. The Juvaquatre was showcased at the 1937 Paris Motor Show, on the opening day of which Louis Renault was photographed showing a Juvaquatre to President Lebrun; the motor show launch was part of a wider strategy to prepare for the start of volume production the next year. The first production prototype, identified as the "Juvaquatre AEB1", had been homologated with the relevant agency in February 1937. Four months in the early summer, Louis Renault gave orders for the construction of a batch of at least twenty preproduction prototypes identified as the "Juvaquatre AEB2".
Most of these were handed over to a selection of major Renault distributors who were invited to submit the cars to technical and customer appraisals. On the basis of the reports received following this exercise the engineers at Renault's Billancourt plant were able to apply the necessary modifications before volume production of the "AEB2" got underway in April 1938. On the publicity front, a non-stop endurance run was organised during the closing days of March 1938: a Juvaquatre was driven flat out round and round the Montlhéry racing circuit, driven by a team of four drivers who took turns to cover a distance of 5,391 kilometers during 50 hours at an average speed, computed at under 109 km/h. During the initial production phase, all Juvaquatres came; the steel body was welded into the chassis-platform in order to create what was for most purposes a monocoque body shell. Instead of perching on the front wings, the headlights, were integrated into the body, seen as a clear tribute to the Opel Olympia, although the idea of integrating headlights in this way had originated not with Opel but, in 1934, with the American Hupmobile Type 518 of 1934.
A camionette version of the Juvaquatre was developed soon afterwards for commercial usage and was used extensively by La Poste. When the van version reappeared in 1948, after the war the "camionette" appellation for the little van was switched "fourgonette". Public demand for four-door cars, the introduction of affordable 4-door models from the rival manufacturers Peugeot and Simca, led to the appearance of a 4-door Juvaquatre from April 1939. 80 2-seater coupé bodied Juvaquatres were built between 1939 and 1946, of which most were based on the prewar model and produced in 1939 and 1940. There was an intention to resume production of the coupé after the war, but the tooling was never commissioned to produce the necessary steel body-panels using heavy presses, which would have been necessary to produce the design in commercial volumes. According to one source a final batch of 30 coupés was produced between December 1945 and January 1946, while elsewhere it is recorded that production of this version was not resumed after the war.
One was still on display at the Brussels Motor Show in January 1948, adding to the variety on the Renault show stand and suggesting that at that stage it was still intended to produce more Juvaquatre coupés. A station wagon model based on the van, known simply as the "Renault Break 300 Kg" was launched only in 1950; this version, rebranded in 1956 as the "Renault Dauphinoise", would remain in production for nearly a decade after the withdrawal of the saloon/sedan versions of the Juvaquatre, since the rear engined configurations of Renault's post war small cars, the 4CV and the Dauphine made them far less suitable for conversion to the station wagon format than the front engined Juvaquatre. The four-cylinder water-cooled engine with which the Juvaquatre was launched in 1937 shared the 95 mm cylinder stroke of the broadly similar engine that had powered the Renault Celtaquatre since 1934. On the Juvaquatre the cylinder bore (diameter was reduced to 58 mm, giving rise to an overall engine capacity of just 1003cc
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles, the wheelbase is the distance between the steering axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a tri-axle truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles; the wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its rear wheels. At equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero. Therefore, the wheelbase is related to the force on each pair of tires by the following formula: F f = d r L m g F r = d f L m g where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, L is the wheelbase, d r is the distance from the center of mass to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the center of gravity to the front wheels, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the gravity constant. So, for example, when a truck is loaded, its center of gravity shifts rearward and the force on the rear tires increases.
The vehicle will ride lower. The amount the vehicle sinks will depend on counter acting forces, like the size of the tires, tire pressure, the spring rate of the suspension. If the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating, extra torque is placed on the rear or front tire respectively; the equation relating the wheelbase, height above the ground of the CM, the force on each pair of tires becomes: F f = d r L m g − h c m L m a F r = d f L m g + h c m L m a where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, d r is the distance from the CM to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the CM to the front wheels, L is the wheelbase, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the acceleration of gravity, h c m is the height of the CM above the ground, a is the acceleration. So, as is common experience, when the vehicle accelerates, the rear sinks and the front rises depending on the suspension; when braking the front noses down and the rear rises.:Because of the effect the wheelbase has on the weight distribution of the vehicle, wheelbase dimensions are crucial to the balance and steering.
For example, a car with a much greater weight load on the rear tends to understeer due to the lack of the load on the front tires and therefore the grip from them. This is why it is crucial, when towing a single-axle caravan, to distribute the caravan's weight so that down-thrust on the tow-hook is about 100 pounds force. A car may oversteer or "spin out" if there is too much force on the front tires and not enough on the rear tires; when turning there is lateral torque placed upon the tires which imparts a turning force that depends upon the length of the tire distances from the CM. Thus, in a car with a short wheelbase, the short lever arm from the CM to the rear wheel will result in a greater lateral force on the rear tire which means greater acceleration and less time for the driver to adjust and prevent a spin out or worse. Wheelbases provide the basis for one of the most common vehicle size class systems; some luxury vehicles are offered with long-wheelbase variants to increase the spaciousness and therefore the luxury of the vehicle.
This practice can be found on full-size cars like the Mercedes-Benz S-Class, but ultra-luxury vehicles such as the Rolls-Royce Phantom and large family cars like the Rover 75 came with'limousine' versions. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair was given a long-wheelbase version of the Rover 75 for official use, and some SUVs like the VW Tiguan and Jeep Wrangler come in LWB models In contrast, coupé varieties of some vehicles such as the Honda Accord are built on shorter wheelbases than the sedans they are derived from. The wheelbase on many commercially available bicycles and motorcycles is so short, relative to the height of their centers of mass, that they are able to perform stoppies and wheelies. In skateboarding the word'wheelbase' is used for the distance between the two inner pairs of mounting holes on the deck; this is different from the distance between the rotational centers
Renault Billancourt engine
The Billancourt engine was an automotive engine designed by Renault for the Renault 4CV, used subsequently until 1985. It received the internal code "B", for Billancourt; the "sport" version is called Ventoux engine. The engine is liquid-cooled, with four cylinders in line, it is characterised by its three main bearing design and its piston stroke of 80 mm. It has a cast-iron block, aluminium cylinder head and uses a lateral camshaft to operate overhead valves, which operated the fan belt on its other end. In June 1940, Louis Renault appointed Fernand Picard who became deputy technical director in the automobile engine department. During the World War II, he participated in the study of a small car: the future 4CV, its engine was ready in 1942 and a year it first turned a wheel. Renault replaced this engine with the Cléon-Fonte engine, a new design; this engine designed by Fernand Picard was produced from 1947 to 1985, in displacements of 0.6 L, 0.7 L, 0.8 L, 0.8 L. These differences were carried out by changing the cylinder bore diameter Commercialized in 1947 with the Renault 4CV, the first version of the "engine Billancourt" was a 0.8 L of 17 hp SAE.
In 1950, a 21 hp SAE version was fitted to the Renault 4CV Grand Luxe, produced only in 1950. In October 1950, the 0.7 L replaced the 0.8 L. The lower displacement was obtained by reducing the size of the bore from 55 to 54.5 mm, while the stroke remained unchanged. This change was decided by the leaders of Renault in order to be able to use the engine in competitions where it was necessary to stay below 0.8 L to homologate the car in its category. This new displacement offered six power levels, from 24 to all of 4 Fiscal Hp. In 1971, the 0.8 L appeared with an increased bore, from 54.5 to 55.8 mm, always with an unchanged stroke of 80 mm. This engine was proposed in both variants developing 36 hp; the less powerful one was mounted under the hood of the Renault 4L produced between 1971 and 1980, while the variant developing 36 hp was used on the Renault 5 produced between 1972 and 1976. The highest engine capacity of the Billancourt engine appeared in 1956 at the launch of the Renault Dauphine, one of the main models equipped with this engine.
It equipped the Renault 4 from the Renault 6 base model. The bore was increased to 58 mm; the power varied between 30 and 55 bhp SAE. The third version developed 57 N ⋅ m torque at 2,500 rpm; this was made possible by machining the cylinder head, with new valves and valve seats, as well as improvements in engine cooling. It was fitted on the Renault 5L from 1977 to 1984; this was the cheapest Billancourt engine. The bore was reduced to 49 mm for a total displacement of 0.6 L. The maximum power reached 20 hp DIN at 4,800 rpm, while the maximum torque was 42 N ⋅ m; this engine was mounted only on the Renault 3, an ultra-Spartan version of The Renault 4. The "sport" version is called Ventoux engine, named after the Mont Ventoux Hill Climb; the sport variant of the engine, which equipped the Alpine A106 and the Renault 4 CV R1063, underwent major modifications which affected, among other things, the connecting rods, the camshaft, the valves and the Solex carburetor. Higher values were obtained, ranging from 35 hp SAE nominal for a Renault 4 CV R1063 standard to 43 hp SAE for the engine used on the A106.
For this last application, the Solex twin-choke carburetor was preferred to a twin-choke Weber carburetor. The more powerful versions will be developed by Amédée Gordini from the original engine; the machining of the inclined valve seats allows for a greater range but leaving intact the camshaft spindle, improved cylinder head cooling, the engine is fitted with a new 32 mm Solex carburettor. This, in conjunction with the increase in compression ratio, results in a maximum power of 37 hp SAE at 5,000 rpm with a maximum torque of 62.8 N⋅m at 3500 rpm. This engine made its debut in the fall of 1957 in 1959, it underwent further modifications and its power was increased to 40 hp SAE; the "Sorcerer" makes a small preparation, thus the Dauphine Gordini is born in 1957. The power of the block increases to 37 hp SAE and the top speed to 126 km/h thanks to a new cylinder head, increased compression ratio and the use of a 32 mm carburetor, springs Harder valves and larger intake and exhaust ducts; the first modifications made by Amedée Gordini will not however be kept on the model of series for reasons of cost.
The engine will win three horses on the 1960 models. The Dauphine Gordini will appear in the catalog from the summer of 1957 to 1963 and reappear in 1965. In 1960 and 1965, new modifications improved the torque. Came a much more powerful version, obtained by a new camshaft, new valves, a 32 mm Solex double body carburettor, by increasing the compression ratio by 9.2:1. Bringing the maximum power to 55 hp SAE, 49 hp DIN. Renault called on Amédée Gordini to produce a supertuned version of the Renault Dauphine: The Dauphine 1093, a sporty derivative of the Dauphine which appeared
Renault 1 000 kg
The Renault 1 000 Kg is light van of a one ton capacity, introduced by the manufacturer in 1947. A 1,400 Kg version followed in 1949, the Renault 1,400 Kg soon became the more popular choice. A name change in 1956 saw the vans branded as the Renault Voltigeur and the Renault Goélette, but in retrospect the Renault 1,000 Kg name is preferred; the 1000 Kg was presented in 1945 as a prototype light van designed for the military, was offered for general sales from February 1947. In the summer of 1944 the French Ministry of Industrial Production set out a prescriptive plan for the post war motor industry, it was headed by Paul-Marie Pons and so it was known as the Plan Pons. Under "The Plan", Renault and Peugeot were restricted to making vans for the 1000–1400 kg market, while Citroën was to make small trucks of between 2 and 3.5 tonnes. In the event Citroën, which had developed a van in the 1000 kG class before the war, went ahead with the design of the Citroën H Van, launched in 1947, it was the Citroën which would be the Renault's most effective rival in this sector, although the Renault would in the early years beat its rival on volumes thanks in part to the large number of Renaults produced for military and police use and for other public sector vehicle operators such as the French postal service.
Police versions gained the informal appellation “panier à salade”, appearing in newsreels removing arrested suspects following instances of civil disturbance during the troubled 1950s or, more memorably for many United States and UK film-goers in the 1960s, removing Inspector Clouseau following his arrest in the wake of a successful bank raid. Renault followed the Plan Pons agreement and designed the 206 E1 following general pre-war design ideas, it had a chassis onto which the van body was bolted and the body was made, until 1950, by fitting metal panels to a wooden frame. At a time when French industrial wages were low, the Renault was inexpensive to produce. In contrast to the rival Citroën H Van, Renault’s design applied a traditional approach, using a rear wheel drive layout and rigid axles. Large wheels combined with a short wheelbase allowed for a tight turning circle and good ground clearance; these features reflected plans for a four wheel drive version in anticipation of military sales and to deal with the poor state of many French roads in the countryside, at this time.
The rear-wheel drive and big wheels resulted in the vehicle's raised interior floor height. Renault saw a steady demand for the van from public sector buyers, 124,570 units vehicles were produced. By some criteria, it was France’s best selling vehicle in its class during the 1950s; the basic architecture and overall silhouette of the vehicle changed during a production run of nearly two decades, but there were numerous minor changes to the sheet metal, door hinge arrangements, front bumpers and indicators as well as extensive adaptations for military and police versions. Models, from the 1960s, can be distinguished by a small additional windows behind each of the side-doors. At launch the vehicle appeared as a boxy flat sided van with an advertised load volume of 7.45 m³ which compared with 7.3 m³ for the Citroën H as it appeared in the same year. The Renault’s 2,383cc petrol engine had been introduced in 1936 for the Renault Primaquatre; the dry weight of 835 kg provided a maximum laden weight of 1,835 kg.
During 1947 a flatbed truck version appeared along with a bare chassis version enabling users to specify their own bespoke body variants from specialist truck-body builders. In July 1949, a heavy duty 1,400 kg version joined the range, this was the year when four-wheel drive became an advertised option. By 1952, Renault offered a more modern engine for economy minded buyers and a detuned version of the 1996 cc 49 PS unit from the introduced Renault Frégate was an option for the 1,000 kg model. In 1956 the vans received a name, now being branded as the Renault Voltigeur and the Renault Goélette; the Goélette, with its 1,400 kg weight limit, was now offered with the 2141 cc "Étendard" engine, which featured the same 88mm bore as the 1996 cc but had an 88mm stroke. This engine was developed for the Renault Frégate, which during its earlier years had failed to win market acceptance because it was underpowered; the 64 PS output when the engine in the van was lower than that produced in the passenger car.
For 1961 buyers could specify a diesel option. The 1816 cc 58 PS diesel unit came from Indenor, a company established by Peugeot to specialise in the design and manufacture of diesel engines; this engine was offered in the Peugeot D4 since 1959. Although diesel powered vehicles were not popular in France, the lower fuel tax rate on diesel fuel made it attractive for buyers. From the middle of 1962, Renault substituted a 2720 cc diesel engine of their own construction producing 61 PS. In 1959 Renault launched the Renault Estafette with a front-wheel drive layout which allowed for a lower floor and much improved space utilisation: the bulkier but in other respects comparable Renault Voltigeur was formally withdrawn in 1963. Production of the Renault Goélette continued until May 1965, when it was replaced by the Renault Super Goélette SG2 range of larger light trucks; the military version of the vehicle was homologated as the R 2087. It came with greater ground clearance than the standard vehicle and was built, featuring four-wheel drive, from 1952.
A variety of vans, with or without extra side-w
Chenard-Walcker known as Chenard & Walcker, was a French automobile and commercial vehicle manufacturer from 1898 to 1946. Chenard-Walcker designed and manufactured trucks marketed via Peugeot sales channels until the 1970s; the factory was at first in Asnières-sur-Seine moving to Gennevilliers in 1906. The make is remembered as the winner of the first Le Mans 24 Hours Race in 1923. Ernest Chenard was a railway engineer and maker of bicycles with a factory in the rue de Normandie at Asnières-sur-Seine just outside Paris on its north side, he joined with mining engineer Henri Walcker in 1898 to make motor tricycles. Together they founded their automobile business on 19 January 1899, with Chenard in charge of design and Walcker sales and finance; the business was formally registered as Chenard, Walcker et Compagnie in 1900. In order to ensure short-term commercial viability they started out producing a quadricycle, but in 1900 their "first true automobile", the "Chenard et Walcker Type A" was homologated with the authorities.
This had a two-cylinder, 1,160 cc engine of their own design which drove the rear wheels through a four-speed gearbox and an unusual transmission system. From the gearbox there were two drive shafts, one to each rear hub, with the hubs driven by gear teeth cut on the inside; the car was shown at the 1901 Paris Salon. The "Chenard et Walcker Type B" followed in 1901 and a fuller range was soon on offer. In March 1906 the company went public, in the process being renamed as the Société Anonyme des Anciens Étabissements Chenard et Walcker, moved to a new factory at Gennevilliers in 1908; the new name has caused confusion over the years as to whether the cars should be called Chenard-Walcker or Chenard et Walcker. Both names seem to have been used. Annual production increased with a major market being the supply of taxis in Paris. In 1910 they made over 1500 cars making them the ninth largest car maker in France. A six-cylinder car of 4.5-litre joined the line up in 1913 and at the outbreak of war in 1914 the model range consisted of the six-cylinder and fours of 2.0-litre, 2.6-litre and 3-litre capacities.
During World War I Hispano-Suiza aircraft engines were made as well as military versions of the Type U car. With peace, only production of the six-cylinder, now called the Model UU, was resumed but in 1920 a brand new 2,648 cc four, the 12CV, was added. FAR commercial vehicles were made. Following the death of Ernest Chenard in 1922, his son Lucien Chenard took over; the 3-litre car of 1922, designed by Henri Toutée, with the company since 1906, with overhead camshaft engine was the winner of the first Le Mans 24 Hours Race, in 1923 driven by René Léonard and André Lagache, both engineers employed by Chenard et Walcker. A 2-litre version, the 10/12 was subsequently sold to the public. In 1925 Chenard et Walcker was the fourth largest car maker in France. In 1927 the company entered into a tripartite "consortium" with Delahaye and Rosengart, sharing designs and components. Unic were offered a place in the consortium but declined the offer; the "entente" was advertised in 1929 with the slogan "L'Union fait la force" The arrangement lasted four years, until 1931, when it would be Chenard et Walcker that broke with the other partners.
In a letter dated 13 June 1930 to Delahaye, the company's president stated that it seemed quite impossible to continue the collaboration as it was working, the collaboration was formally dissolved at the end of September 1931, the fifteen intervening months having been used by the partners to configure their separate model ranges, although some "run-out" models from the period of the collaboration continued to appear after 1931. Front independent suspension was introduced on some 1934 models and front-wheel drive using Grégoire designs on the Super Aigle models but this was not a great success as it was launched at the same time as the Citroën Traction Avant but was more expensive. In the same year the Aigle 8 with V-8 engine was launched; the company had never had sufficient capital to modernise and the cars remained hand built leaving them unable to compete on price. As a result, they were taken over by body maker Chausson; the 1938 models shared bodies with Matford, distinguishable only by the radiator grilles and were powered by Citroën or Ford V-8 engines.
There were plans to rejuvenate the appearance of the big Chenard & Walcker "Aigle 22CV" model for 1939, giving it a raked grille, but this came to nothing and car production ceased in 1939 or 1940. In April 1940 an advertisement for the company's Matford based passenger cars appeared in the French-language version of a leading Swiss based motor magazine, but by this time the company appears to have been finishing up existing stocks of new cars rather than building more. In September 1939 France declared war on Germany and in June 1940 the German Army invaded and occupied Northern France; the war years were characterised by a desperate shortage of raw materials for civilian industry and of petrol. In 1940 Chenard & Walcker presented the prototype for a light van based ambulance intended for the army, this vehicle turned out to be the first in a long line of forward control light vans. By 1941 the van was listed for civilian use, powered by a compact 720 cc two-stroke water-cooled engine which occupied a central position between the driver's right leg and the left leg of his passenger.
Power output was in the region of 20 hp which seems to have been compatible with the stated 1,500 kg of carrying capacity. By 1942 fuel for civilian use had become vi
Renault Dauphine is a rear-engined economy car manufactured by Renault in a single body style – a three-box, 4-door saloon – as the successor to the Renault 4CV. Along with such cars as the Citroën 2CV, Volkswagen Beetle, Morris Minor and Fiat 500, the Dauphine pioneered the modern European economy car. Renault marketed numerous variants of the Dauphine, including a luxury version, the Renault Ondine, sporting versions, the Dauphine Gordini and the Ondine Gordini, the 1093 factory racing model, the Caravelle/Floride, a Dauphine-based two-door coupé and two-door convertible; as Louis Renault's successor, as Renault's chairman, Pierre Lefaucheux continued to defy the postwar French Ministry of Industrial Production – which had wanted to convert Renault to truck manufacture. Lefaucheux instead saw Renault's survival in automobiles and achieved considerable success with the 4CV, with over 500,000 produced by 1954; the Dauphine was born during a conversation with engineer Fernand Picard. The two agreed the 4CV was appropriate in its postwar context, but that French consumers would soon need a car appropriate for their increasing standard of living.
Internally known as "Project 109" the Dauphine's engineering began in 1949 with engineers Fernand Picard, Robert Barthaud and Jacques Ousset managing the project. A 1951 survey conducted by Renault indicated design parameters of a car with a top speed of 110 km/h, seating for four passengers and fuel consumption of less than 7 L/100 km; the survey indicated that women held stronger opinions about a car's colors than about the car itself. Engineers spent the next five years developing the Dauphine. Within the first year, designers had created a ⅛th-scale clay model, studied the model's aerodynamics, built a full-scale clay model, studied wood interior mockups of the seating, instrument panel, steering column – and built the first prototype in metal. Having finalized the exterior design, testing of the prototype began at Renault's facilities at Lardy, France – by secrecy of night, on July 24, 1952. Using new laboratories and new specially designed tracks, engineers measured maximum speed, acceleration and fuel consumption as well as handling and ventilation, noise levels and parts durability.
Engineers tested parts by subjecting them to twisting and vibration stresses, redesigning the parts for manufacture. By August 1953 head engineer Picard had an almond-green prototype delivered to Madrid for dry condition testing experiencing only five flat tires and a generator failure after 2,200 km. Subsequently, Lefaucheux ordered engineers to test a Dauphine prototype directly against a Volkswagen Beetle; the engineers determined that noise levels were too high, interior ventilation and door sealing were inadequate and most the engine capacity was insufficient at only four CV. The four-cylinder engine was redesigned to increase its capacity to 845 cc by increasing the bore to 58 mm, giving the car a new informal designation, the 5CV. By 1954 a second series of prototypes incorporated updates, using the older prototypes for crash testing. Lefaucheux followed the testing often meeting with his engineers for night testing to ensure secrecy, but did not live to see the Dauphine enter production.
He was killed in an automobile accident on February 11, 1955, when he lost control of his Renault Frégate on an icy road and was struck on the head by his unsecured luggage as the car rolled over. The Flins factory was renamed in his honor, he was succeeded on the project by Pierre Dreyfus. A monument in Lefaucheux's memory is erected at the Saint-Dizier highway exit, Haute-Marne 52100. By the end of testing, drivers had road tested prototypes in everyday conditions including dry weather and dusty condition testing in Madrid, engine testing in Bayonne, cold testing at the Arctic Circle in Norway, suspension testing in Sicily, weatherseal testing in then-Yugoslavia – a total of more than two million kilometres of road and track testing. In December 1955, Pierre Bonin and Fernand Picard presented the first example to leave the factory to Pierre Dreyfus, who had taken over the project after Lefaucheux's death. Renault revealed the model's existence to the press through L’Auto Journal and L’Action Automobile et Touristique in November 1955, referring to it by its unofficial model designation "the 5CV".
Advance press preview testing began on February 4, 1956, under the direction of Renault press secretary Robert Sicot, with six Dauphines shipped to Corsica. Journalists were free to drive anywhere on the island, while under contract not to release publication before the embargo date of March 1, 1956; the Dauphine debuted on March 6, 1956 at Paris' Palais de Chaillot with over twenty thousand people attending, two days before its official introduction at the 1956 Salon International de l'Auto in Geneva. In addition to its internal project number, Project 109, the prototype had been called by its unofficial model designation, the "5CV". Lefaucheux, Renault's chairman simply called it La machine de Flins, referring to the Flins factory where Renault would initiate its production. Renault considered the name Corvette for its new model, but to avoid a conflict with the launched Chevrolet Corvette instead chose a name that reinforced the importance of the project's predecessor, the 4CV, to France's postwar industrial rebirth.
The final name was attributed to a dinner conversation at l'auberge de Port-Royal, chaired by Fernand Picard, wher
M-segment is a car classification defined by European Commission as multi purpose cars. In the recent past, the M-segment was increasing in volume year over year in Europe; these vehicles are used for multi-tasking. The models with removable seats to transport objects around. Over the decades, they have gained popularity with large families who used station wagons to commute, with sliding doors being far more practical for entry and more room for the seats. Luxury MPVs have emerged; these are popular in Japan but are heavily exported. Other vehicles in this segment are devoted to just transporting goods around, such as light commercial vehicles or leisure activity vehicles. Typical M-segment cars include the Renault Toyota Previa; the most recent figures available for all models are from 2014. Pickup vehicles fall into the M-segment, much like light commercial vehicles, they can be tasked for carrying loads, albeit more convenient for hot dry weather locations. Current December 2017 sales in Europe: Current December 2017 sales in Europe: Current December 2017 sales in Europe: Car classifications