France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Saint Melaine was a 6th-century Bishop of Rennes in Brittany. Melaine grew up at Plaz near Redon, he was a pious child being punished for spending too long at his prayers. He became a monk and abbot, he was nominated the successor to Bishop Amand of Rennes. Traditions recounted by Baring-Gould state that on the death of Amand, he was compelled by the local population to become the next Bishop, accepting the role with great reluctance. During his rule, Clovis took over the area and Melaine became his trusted advisor, he opposed immigration from Britain and attended the First Council of Orléans in 511. He was buried in the Abbey Church of Notre-Dame en Saint-Mélaine in Rennes. Melaine became revered as a saint after the wooden tower above his grave burnt down and his tomb miraculously survived, he has three feast days: 6 January and 11 October. In Wales, his feast is celebrated locally on 10 October rather than 11 October at St Mellons, in modern-day Cardiff, though there is ambiguity over whether Melaine is the Saint'Mellonius' said to have been born there.
In Cornwall, he is the patron of the villages of St Mellion and Mullion, where there is a tradition of his visit. In the English translation of the 1956 edition of the Roman Martyrology, he is listed under 6 January with the citation: At Rennes, in France, St Melanius and Confessor, who displayed innumerable virtues, with his thoughts fixed on heaven, passed from the world in glory. In the 2004 edition of the Roman Martyrology, Melaine is listed under 6 November, with the Latin name Melánii, he is mentioned as follows:'At Rhedónibus in Brittany, who passed to God in the place called Plácium on the River Vicenóniam, where with his own hands he built a church and gathered a congregation of monks and servants of God'. The abbey church of Notre-Dame-en-Saint-Melaine in Rennes was dedicated to him
A pro-cathedral is a parish church, temporarily serving as the cathedral or co-cathedral of a diocese or has the same function in a Catholic missionary jurisdiction, not yet entitled to a proper cathedral, such as an apostolic prefecture or apostolic administration. It is distinct from a proto-cathedral, the term in the Roman Catholic Church for a former cathedral, which results from moving an episcopal see to another cathedral, in the same or another city. In Ireland, the term is used to refer to St Mary's Pro-Cathedral in Dublin, the seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin since the Anglican Reformation in Ireland, when Christ Church Cathedral and St Patrick's Cathedral were occupied by the Church of Ireland. In Scotland, the term is used to refer to St Mary’s Pro-Cathedral in Edinburgh, the seat of the Archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, as the original St Andrews Cathedral was abandoned after the Scottish Reformation in 1560 and is in a ruinous state. St Andrew's Pro-Cathedral in Glasgow has been the seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Glasgow since 1889.
The original Glasgow Cathedral however had been re-established as the Church of Scotland’s High Kirk of Glasgow after the Scottish Reformation. The Cathedral of the Holy Apostles, in Bristol, was the pro-cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Clifton. In Spain, the Colegiata de San Isidro, Madrid served as the provisional cathedral for the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Madrid from its creation in 1885 until 1993, when Pope John Paul II consecrated the newly completed Almudena Cathedral; the Parish Church of St Helier in Jersey serves as the island's pro-cathedral. In Valletta, there is an Anglican St Paul's Pro-Cathedral. In Poland, Carmelite Church, Warsaw served as a pro-cathedral until the reconstruction of St John's Cathedral. In Albania, the Albanese Apostolic Administration of Southern Albania had the Kisha e Shën Maria dhe Shën Luigji, in Vlore, as only episcopal see of its Eastern Catholic particular sui jurus Albanian Catholic Byzantine Church. In Baku, the Church of the Immaculate Conception is the pro-cathedral episcopal see of the Apostolic Prefecture of Baku.
The Church of San Antonio de Motael was the pro-cathedral of Dili, East Timor before the Immaculate Conception Cathedral was constructed in 1989. In the Philippines, the Episcopal Diocese of the Central Philippines had the St. Stephen's Parish in Tondo, Manila as its pro-cathedral before the see was transferred to the Cathedral of Saint Mary and Saint John in Quezon City. In February 2012, the Pro-Cathedral Church of San Fernando de Dilao became the Pro-Cathedral of the Archdiocese of Manila, until the structural renovations of Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception on March 25,2014; the cathedral was reopened to the general public on April 9,2014. The Cathedral of the Holy Name, was the pro-cathedral of the Holy Name. In San Luis Obispo CA, the parish church of Old Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa and in Salinas, CA, the parish of Madonna Del Sasso, were both elevated to pro-cathedral status by the late Bishop Richard Garcia. In Qu'Appelle, the parish church of Saint Peter's was the pro-cathedral for the Anglican southern Saskatchewan diocese until 1944.
From 1944 to 1979, St. Paul's Cathedral served as the pro-cathedral before it was elevated to cathedral status. In the United States, the church of St. Paul the Apostle in Savannah, Georgia, is the pro-cathedral for the Episcopal Diocese of Georgia; the Cathedral of the Incarnation was a pro-cathedral for 35 years before the Episcopal Diocese of Maryland passed a resolution in 1955 for it to become the diocesan cathedral. St. Stephen's Episcopal Church in Wilkes-Barre, was designated the pro-Cathedral in the Episcopal Diocese of Bethlehem in 1999 and as the Pro-Cathedral by the Presiding Bishop and the President of the House of Deputies of The Episcopal Church in 2001. St. Bartholomew's Anglican Church in Tonawanda, NY became a Pro-Cathedral on August 12, 2011 as part of the North American Anglican Conference, is the seat for Bishop Bill Atwood. Furthermore, St. John Chrysostom Malankara Syrian Catholic Pro-Cathedral in Hempstead, New York for the Syro-Malankara Catholic Exarchate in the United States St. Joseph Pro-Cathedral is in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Camden.
Holy Name of Mary Pro-Cathedral in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan is in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Marquette. St. Luke's Ministries in Copley, Ohio, is the Pro-Cathedral for the Anglican Diocese of the Great Lakes under Bishop Ronald W. Jackson. In Christchurch, New Zealand, St Mary's has become the pro-cathedral of the Christchurch Catholic Diocese, in place of the Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament, closed because of severe damage cause by the 2011 Christchurch earthquake. St John's Pro-Cathedral served as the pro-cathedral in Western Australia. Holy Cross Pro-Cathedral in Vanimo, West Sepik, Papua New Guinea, the see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Vanimo Co-cathedral List of cathedrals
The Roman Forum known by its Latin name Forum Romanum, is a rectangular forum surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Citizens of the ancient city referred to this space a marketplace, as the Forum Magnum, or the Forum. For centuries the Forum was the center of day-to-day life in Rome: the site of triumphal processions and elections. Here statues and monuments commemorated the city's great men; the teeming heart of ancient Rome, it has been called the most celebrated meeting place in the world, in all history. Located in the small valley between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, the Forum today is a sprawling ruin of architectural fragments and intermittent archaeological excavations attracting 4.5 million or more sightseers yearly. Many of the oldest and most important structures of the ancient city were located on or near the Forum; the Roman Kingdom's earliest shrines and temples were located on the southeastern edge. These included the ancient former royal residence, the Regia, the Temple of Vesta, as well as the surrounding complex of the Vestal Virgins, all of which were rebuilt after the rise of imperial Rome.
Other archaic shrines to the northwest, such as the Umbilicus Urbis and the Vulcanal, developed into the Republic's formal Comitium. This is; the Senate House, government offices, temples and statues cluttered the area. Over time the archaic Comitium was replaced by the larger adjacent Forum and the focus of judicial activity moved to the new Basilica Aemilia; some 130 years Julius Caesar built the Basilica Julia, along with the new Curia Julia, refocusing both the judicial offices and the Senate itself. This new Forum, in what proved to be its final form served as a revitalized city square where the people of Rome could gather for commercial, political and religious pursuits in greater numbers. Much economic and judicial business would transfer away from the Forum Romanum to the larger and more extravagant structures to the north; the reign of Constantine the Great saw the construction of the last major expansion of the Forum complex—the Basilica of Maxentius. This returned the political center to the Forum until the fall of the Western Roman Empire two centuries later.
Unlike the imperial fora in Rome—which were self-consciously modelled on the ancient Greek plateia public plaza or town square—the Roman Forum developed organically, piecemeal over many centuries. This is the case despite attempts, with some success, to impose some order there, by Sulla, Julius Caesar and others. By the Imperial period, the large public buildings that crowded around the central square had reduced the open area to a rectangle of about 130 by 50 meters, its long dimension was oriented northwest to southeast and extended from the foot of the Capitoline Hill to that of the Velian Hill. The Forum's basilicas during the Imperial period—the Basilica Aemilia on the north and the Basilica Julia on the south—defined its long sides and its final form; the Forum proper included this square, the buildings facing it and, sometimes, an additional area extending southeast as far as the Arch of Titus. The site of the Forum had been a marshy lake where waters from the surrounding hills drained.
This was drained by the Tarquins with the Cloaca Maxima. Because of its location, sediments from both the flooding of the Tiber and the erosion of the surrounding hills have been raising the level of the Forum floor for centuries. Excavated sequences of remains of paving show that sediment eroded from the surrounding hills was raising the level in early Republican times; as the ground around buildings rose, residents paved over the debris, too much to remove. Its final travertine paving, still visible, dates from the reign of Augustus. Excavations in the 19th century revealed one layer on top of another; the deepest level excavated was 3.60 meters above sea level. Archaeological finds show human activity at that level with the discovery of carbonized wood. An important function of the Forum, during both Republican and Imperial times, was to serve as the culminating venue for the celebratory military processions known as Triumphs. Victorious generals entered the city by the western Triumphal Gate and circumnavigated the Palatine Hill before proceeding from the Velian Hill down the Via Sacra and into the Forum.
From here they would mount the Capitoline Rise up to the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the summit of the Capitol. Lavish public banquets ensued back down on the Forum; the original, low-lying, grassy wetland of the Forum was drained in the 7th century BC with the building of the Cloaca Maxima, a large covered sewer system that emptied into the Tiber, as more people began to settle between the two hills. According to tradition, the Forum's beginnings are connected with the alliance between Romulus, the first king of Rome controlling the Palatine Hill, his rival, Titus Tatius, who occupied the Capitoline Hill. An alliance formed after combat had been halted by the cries of the Sabine women; because the valley lay between the two settlements, it was the designated place for th
Gothic architecture is a style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages. It was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France, it was used for cathedrals and churches, until the 16th century, its most prominent features included the use of the rib vault and the flying buttress, which allowed the weight of the roof to be counterbalanced by buttresses outside the building, giving greater height and more space for windows. Another important feature was the extensive use of stained glass, the rose window, to bring light and color to the interior. Another feature was the use of realistic statuary on the exterior over the portals, to illustrate biblical stories for the illiterate parishioners; these technologies had all existed in Romanesque architecture, but they were used in more innovative ways and more extensively in Gothic architecture to make buildings taller and stronger. The first notable example is considered to be the Abbey of Saint-Denis, near Paris, whose choir and facade were reconstructed with Gothic features.
The choir was completed in 1144. The style appeared in some civic architecture in northern Europe, notably in town halls and university buildings. A Gothic revival began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th century Europe and continued for ecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20th century. Gothic architecture was known during the period as opus francigenum, The term "Gothic architecture" originated in the 16th century, was very negative, suggesting barbaric. Giorgio Vasari used the term "barbarous German style" in his 1550 Lives of the Artists to describe what is now considered the Gothic style, in the introduction to the Lives he attributed various architectural features to "the Goths" whom he held responsible for destroying the ancient buildings after they conquered Rome, erecting new ones in this style; the Gothic style originated in the Ile-de-France region of northern France in the first half of the 12th century. A new dynasty of French Kings, the Capetians, had subdued the feudal lords, had become the most powerful rulers in France, with their capital in Paris.
They allied themselves with the bishops of the major cities of northern France, reduced the power of the feudal abbots and monasteries. Their rise coincided with an enormous growth of the population and prosperity of the cities of northern France; the Capetian Kings and their bishops wished to build new cathedrals as monuments of their power and religious faith. The church which served as the primary model for the style was the Abbey of St-Denis, which underwent reconstruction by the Abbot Suger, first in the choir and the facade, Suger was a close ally and biographer of the French King, Louis VII, a fervent Catholic and builder, the founder of the University of Paris. Suger remodeled the ambulatory of the Abbey, removed the enclosures that separated the chapels, replaced the existing structure with imposing pillars and rib vaults; this created higher and wider bays, into which he installed larger windows, which filled the end of the church with light. Soon afterwards he rebuilt the facade, adding three deep portals, each with a tympanum, an arch filled with sculpture illustrating biblical stories.
The new facade was flanked by two towers. He installed a small circular rose window over the central portal; this design became the prototype for a series of new French cathedrals. Sens Cathedral was the first Cathedral to be built in the new style. Other versions of the new style soon appeared in Noyon Cathedral; the Gothic style was adapted by some French monastic orders, notably the Cistercian order under Saint Bernard of Clairvaux It was used in an austere form without ornament at the new Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay and the church of Clairvaux Abbey, whose site is now occupied by a French prison. The new style was copied outside the Kingdom of France in the Duchy of Normandy. Early examples of Norman Gothic included Coutances Cathedral. Through the rule of the Angevin dynasty, the new style was introduced to England and spread from there to Low Countries, Spain, northern Italy and Sicily; the Gothic style did not replace the Romanesque everywhere in Europe. The Late Romanesque continued to flourish in the Holy Roman Empire under the Hohenstaufens and Rhineland.
From the end of the 12th century until the middle of the 13th century, the gothic style spread from the Île-de-France to appear in other cities of northern France. New structures in the style included Chartres Cathedral; the early type of rib vault used of Saint Denis and Notre Dame, with six parts, was modified to four parts, making it simpler and stronger. Amiens and Chartres were among the first to use the flying buttress. At Reims, the buttresses were given greater weight and strength by the addition of heavy stone pinnacles on top; these were decorated with statues of ange
Saint Peter known as Simon Peter, Simon, or Cephas, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church. Pope Gregory I called him the "Prince of the Apostles". According to Catholic teaching, Jesus promised Peter in the "Rock of My Church" dialogue in Matthew 16:18 a special position in the Church, he is traditionally counted as the first Bishop of Rome—or pope—and by Eastern Christian tradition as the first Patriarch of Antioch. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and as the founder of the Church of Antioch and the Roman Church, but differ in their attitudes regarding the authority of his present-day successors; the New Testament indicates that Peter's father's name was John and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis. His brother Andrew was an apostle. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples.
A fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration. According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah, was part of Jesus's inner circle, thrice denied Jesus and wept bitterly once he realised his deed, preached on the day of Pentecost. According to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero, it is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, since he saw himself unworthy to be crucified in the same way as Jesus. Tradition holds, his remains are said to be those contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peter's Basilica, where Pope Paul VI announced in 1968 the excavated discovery of a first-century Roman cemetery; every 29 June since 1736, a statue of Saint Peter in St. Peter's Basilica is adorned with papal tiara, ring of the fisherman, papal vestments, as part of the celebration of the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul. According to Catholic doctrine, the direct papal successor to Saint Peter is the incumbent pope Pope Francis.
Two general epistles in the New Testament are ascribed to Peter, but modern scholars reject the Petrine authorship of both. The Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peter's preaching and eyewitness memories. Several other books bearing his name—the Acts of Peter, Gospel of Peter, Preaching of Peter, Apocalypse of Peter, Judgment of Peter—are considered by Christian denominations as apocryphal, are thus not included in their Bible canons. Peter's original name, as indicated in the New Testament, was "Simon" or "Simeon"; the Simon/Simeon variation has been explained as reflecting "the well-known custom among Jews at the time of giving the name of a famous patriarch or personage of the Old Testament to a male child along with a similar sounding Greek/Roman name". He was given the name כֵּיפָא in Aramaic, rendered in Greek as Κηφᾶς, whence Latin and English Cephas; the precise meaning of the Aramaic word is disputed, some saying that its usual meaning is "rock" or "crag", others saying that it means rather "stone" and in its application by Jesus to Simon, "precious stone" or "jewel", but most scholars agree that as a proper name it denotes a rough or tough character.
Both meanings, "stone" and "rock", are indicated in dictionaries of Syriac. Catholic theologian Rudolf Pesch argues that the Aramaic cepha means "stone, clump, clew" and that "rock" is only a connotation; the combined name Σίμων Πέτρος appears 19 times in the New Testament. In some Syriac documents he is called, in Simon Cephas. Peter's life story is told in the four canonical gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, New Testament letters, the non-canonical Gospel of the Hebrews and other Early Church accounts of his life and death. In the New Testament, he is among the first of the disciples called during Jesus' ministry. Peter became the first listed apostle ordained by Jesus in the early church. Peter was a fisherman in Bethsaida, he was named son of Jonah or John. The three Synoptic Gospels recount how Peter's mother-in-law was healed by Jesus at their home in Capernaum. 1 Cor. 9:5 has been taken to imply that he was married. In the Synoptic Gospels, Peter was a fisherman along with his brother and the sons of Zebedee and John.
The Gospel of John depicts Peter fishing after the resurrection of Jesus, in the story of the Catch of 153 fish. In Matthew and Mark, Jesus called Simon and his brother Andrew to be "fishers of men". A Franciscan church is built upon the traditional site of Apostle Peter's house. In Luke, Simon Peter owns the boat that Jesus uses to preach to the multitudes who were pressing on him at the shore of Lake Gennesaret. Jesu
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rennes, Dol and Saint-Malo
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rennes and Saint-Malo is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The diocese is coextensive with the department of Vilaine; the Archdiocese has 8 suffragans: the Diocese of Angers, the Diocese of Laval, the Diocese of Le Mans, the Diocese of Luçon, the Diocese of Nantes, the Diocese of Quimper and Léon, the Diocese of Saint-Brieuc and Tréguier, the Diocese of Vannes. In the Middle Ages the Bishop of Rennes had the privilege of crowning the dukes of Brittany in his cathedral. On the occasion of his first entry into Rennes it was customary for him to be borne on the shoulders of four Breton barons; the Concordat of 1802 re-established the Diocese of Rennes which since has included: the ancient Diocese of Rennes with the exception of three parishes given to the Diocese of Nantes. On 3 January 1859, the See of Rennes, which the French Revolution had desired to make a metropolitan, became an archiepiscopal see, with the Diocese of Quimper and Léon, Diocese of Vannes, Diocese of St. Brieuc as suffragans.
Cardinal Place obtained from Pope Leo XIII permission for the Archbishop of Rennes to add the titles of Dol and St. Malo to that of Rennes. In 2014, in the Archdiocese of Rennes and Saint-Malo there was one priest for every 2,537 Catholics. Tradition names as first apostles of the future Diocese of Rennes, but of an uncertain date: Saint Maximinus, reported to have been a disciple and friend of Saint Paul, Saint Clarus, Saint Justus. On the other hand, when in the fifth and sixth centuries bands of Christian Britons emigrated from Great Britain to Armorica and formed on its northern coast the small Kingdom of Domnonée, the Gospel was preached for the first time in the future Diocese of Dol and Diocese of Aleth. Among these missionaries were St. Armel, according to the legend, founded in the sixth century the town of Ploermel in the Diocese of Vannes and retired into the forests of Chateaugiron and Janzé and attacked Druidism on the site of the Dolmen of the Fairy Rocks; the earliest historical reference to the See of Rennes dates from 453.
An assembly of eight bishops of Provincia Lugdunensis Tertia took place at Angers on 4 October 453 to consecrate a new bishop for Angers. Four of the bishops can be associated with particular Sees; the other four are assigned by scholars to the other dioceses in the ecclesiastical province, one of, Rennes. One of the four prelates, Chariato and Viventius, was Bishop of Rennes; this bishop's successor his immediate successor, took part in the Council of Tours in 461. Louis Duchesne is of opinion that the St. Amandus reckoned by some scholars among the bishops of Rennes at the end of the fifth century is the same as St. Amand of Rodez, he therefore excludes him from his list of authentic bishops. In 1180 Bishop Philippe, acting in accordance with a dream, began the replacement of the old cathedral with a new edifice; the ceremony of consecration did not take place until 3 November 1359, though the edifice was still uncompleted. A new cathedral, built and dedicated to Saint Peter in 1541 was demolished in 1755 and replaced by the current edifice.
The Chapter of the Cathedral of Saint-Pierre was composed of five dignities and sixteen Canons, sixteen prebends. The dignities were: the Archdeacon of Rennes, the Archdeacon of Le Désert, the Cantor, the Succentor, the Treasurer; the royal pouillé of 1648 names six dignities, omitting the Succentor and adding the Theologian and Penitentiary. The Treasurer was presented by the Pope; the Chapter, all the cathedral chapters in France, were suppressed by the Constituent Assembly in 1790. The diocese contained three Collegiate Churches which had Canons: La Guerche, Vitré, Champeau. Notre-Dame de Guerche had twelve Canons and prebends, S. Marie Madeleine at Vitry had twenty-two Canons, headed by their Treasurer. Notre-Dame de Champeau had six Canons and prebends, were headed by a Dean. In accordance with the terms of the Concordat of Bologna of 1516, between King Francis I of France and Pope Leo X all bishops in France were to be nominated by the King and approved by the Pope; this was continued under Napoleon by the terms of the Concordat of 1801 and by the Bourbon monarchs and their successors to 1905 by the Concordat of 1817.
The practice did not apply during the French Revolution, when the Civil Constitution of the Clergy mandated the election of bishops by qualified electors in each of the new départements of the republic. These'Constitutional Bishops' were in schism with the Papacy. Therefore, nearly all Archbishops of Rennes from 1516 to 1905 were nominees of the French government. In addition to the nomination of the Bishop of Rennes, the king held the nomination of the Abbey of Saint-Mélaine, the Abbey of Saint-Pierre de Rillé, the Abbey of Saint-Georges-de-Rennes aux Nonnains, the Abbey of Saint-Sulpice aux Nonnains. Noteworthy bishops of the diocese of Rennes are: Marbodus, the hymnog