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In public choice theory as well as in economics, rent-seeking means seeking to increase one's share of existing wealth without creating new wealth. Rent-seeking results in reduced economic efficiency through misallocation of resources, reduced wealth-creation, lost government revenue, heightened income inequality, potential national decline. Attempts at capture of regulatory agencies to gain a coercive monopoly can result in advantages for the rent seeker in a market while imposing disadvantages on their incorrupt competitors; this is one of many possible forms of rent-seeking behavior. The term rent-seeking was coined by the British 19th century economist David Ricardo, but only became the subject of durable interest among economists and political scientists more than a century after the publication of two influential papers on the topic by Gordon Tullock in 1967, Anne Krueger in 1976; the word "rent" does not refer to payment on a lease but rather to Adam Smith's division of incomes into profit and rent.

The origin of the term refers to gaining control of land or other natural resources. Georgist economic theory describes rent-seeking in terms of land rent, where the value of land comes from government infrastructure and services and the community in general, rather than from the actions of any given landowner, in their role as mere titleholder; this role must be separated from the role of a property developer, which need not be the same person. Rent-seeking is an attempt to obtain economic rent by manipulating the social or political environment in which economic activities occur, rather than by creating new wealth. Rent-seeking implies extraction of uncompensated value from others without making any contribution to productivity; the classic example of rent-seeking, according to Robert Shiller, is that of a feudal lord who installs a chain across a river that flows through his land and hires a collector to charge passing boats a fee to lower the chain. There is nothing productive about the collector.

The lord has made no improvements to the river and is not adding value in any way, directly or indirectly, except for himself. All he is doing is finding a way to make money from something. In many market-driven economies, much of the competition for rents is legal, regardless of harm it may do to an economy. However, some rent-seeking competition is illegal -- such as corruption. Rent-seeking is distinguished in theory from profit-seeking, in which entities seek to extract value by engaging in mutually beneficial transactions. Profit-seeking in this sense is the creation of wealth, while rent-seeking is "profiteering" by using social institutions, such as the power of the state, to redistribute wealth among different groups without creating new wealth. In a practical context, income obtained through rent-seeking may contribute to profits in the standard, accounting sense of the word; the Tullock paradox is the apparent paradox, described by Tullock, on the low costs of rent-seeking relative to the gains from rent-seeking.

The paradox is that rent-seekers wanting political favors can bribe politicians at a cost much lower than the value of the favor to the rent-seeker. For instance, a rent seeker who hopes to gain a billion dollars from a particular political policy may need to bribe politicians only to the tune of ten million dollars, about 1% of the gain to the rent-seeker. Luigi Zingales frames it by asking, "Why is there so little money in politics?" because a naive model of political bribery and/or campaign spending should result in beneficiaries of government subsidies being willing to spend an amount up to the value of the subsidies themselves, when in fact only a small fraction of, spent. Several possible explanations have been offered for the Tullock paradox: Voters may punish politicians who take large bribes, or live lavish lifestyles; this makes it hard for politicians to demand large bribes from rent-seekers. Competition between different politicians eager to offer favors to rent-seekers may bid down the cost of rent-seeking.

Lack of trust between the rent-seekers and the politicians, due to the inherently underhanded nature of the deal and the unavailability of both legal recourse and reputational incentives to enforce compliance, pushes down the price that politicians can demand for favors. An example of rent-seeking in a modern economy is spending money on lobbying for government subsidies in order to be given wealth, created, or to impose regulations on competitors, in order to increase market share. Another example of rent-seeking is the limiting of access to lucrative occupations, as by medieval guilds or modern state certifications and licensures. Taxi licensing is a textbook example of rent-seeking. To the extent that the issuing of licenses constrains overall supply of taxi services, forbidding competition from other vehicles for hire renders the transaction of taxi service a forced transfer of part of the fee, from customers to taxi business proprietors; the concept of rent-seeking would apply to corruption of bureaucrats who solicit and extract "bribe" or "rent" for applying their legal but discretionary authority for awarding legitimate or illegitimate benefits to clients.

For example, tax officials may take bribes for lessening the tax burden of the taxpayers. Regulatory capture is a related term for the collusion between firms and the government agencies assigned to regulate them, seen as enabling extensive rent-seeking behavior when the government agency

Scott Cooper (football manager)

Scott Cooper is an English football manager who serves as the head coach of the Philippines national football team. Cooper has coaching experiences with the Huntsville Fire, Chester City, Anguilla national football team, Montserrat national football team, Leicester City, the Independent Schools Football Association England Under-15 National Football Team and more with Police Tero United FC in the Thai Premier League. Cooper was picked by Buriram United to replace Attaphol Buspakom after 2013 AFC Champions League against FC Seoul along with his assistant Darren Read. On his arrival at Buriram United Cooper found the club in third place of the Thai Premier League, five points adrift of the league leaders. Under Cooper's managerial reign, Buriram were unbeaten in the Thai Premier League, AFC Champions League, Thai FA Cup and Thai League Cup. Buriram United won 23 out of 29 matches, losing only once under Cooper; the club won all their away games at the top four Thai clubs during the season. Named "Manager of the Month" in June 2013, Cooper has led Buriram United to the top 10 club rankings in Asia, creating history for the Thai club in the process.

Under Cooper's tutelage, Buriram on an average scored 3.1 goals per game whilst conceding 0.75 goals per game. Cooper had a major influence on developing Thai players in his squad, as nine Thai players were called up to the national team. On 2 January 2014, Muanthong United appointed Cooper as the head coach. On 11 December 2014, Mitra Kukar appointed Cooper as the head coach. On April 2015, Ubon UMT United appointed Cooper as the head coach. In June 2018, Cooper was appointed as Senior team adviser of the Philippines. Scott Cooper was tasked to oversee the national team's training camp in Bahrain in September 2018 in lieu of the newly appointed head coach Terry Butcher who resigned from his post in August 2018. Cooper's interim tenure ended in late August 2018 when he was named as the regular head coach of the Philippine national team. On 27 October 2018, Sven-Göran Eriksson took over as manager of the Philippines and Cooper assisted Eriksson in the Philippines' stint at the 2018 AFF Championship and 2019 Asian Cup.

Cooper returned as manager in January 2019 after the conclusion of the Philippines' campaign in the continental tournament and Eriksson's short-term contract. Cooper assisted the Philippine national team in their preparations for the 2022 FIFA World Cup qualifiers but was relegated to assistant team manager after Serbian Goran Milojević who holds a UEFA Pro License unlike Cooper was named head coach of the Philippines for the qualifiers. Unofficially Cooper will remain fulfilling head coaching duties; as of 31 August 20171 A loss by the penalty shoot-out is regarded as the draw in time. Thai League 2 Runner-up: 2016 Regional League Division 2:Winners: 2015Regional League North-East Division Runner-up: 2015

Collavier Corporation

Collavier Corporation is a Japanese video game developer and publisher, based in Kita-Ueno, Taito-ku, Tokyo Japan. Founded in 2008 by Yoshinori Satake, the lead game designer of Steel Empire and Over Horizon developed by Hot B. Releasing games in Japan, in 2014 Collavier Corp. started to release games and software in the North American and European markets. The company acquired the intellectual properties of Ertain after its shutdown. Comic Workshop 2 Monster Combine TD Painting Workshop Comic Workshop Magical Diary: Secrets Sharing Amida's Path My Aquarium: Seven Oceans Deep Sea Creatures'Mysterious Stars series' Mysterious Stars: The Samurai Mysterious Stars: The Singer Mysterious Stars: A Fairy Tale Comic Workshop 2 Monster Combine TD Painting Workshop Comic Workshop My Aquarium: Seven Oceans Comic Workshop 2 / コミック工房2 Monster Combine TD / カスタムモンスターズ Comic Workshop / コミック工房 Painting Workshop / もっと気軽に!お絵描き工房プラス Magical Diary: Secrets Sharing / ともだち作ろう!魔法のこうかん日記 Deep Sea Creatures / ディープアクアリウム My Aquarium: Seven Oceans / 極・美麗アクアリウム~世界の魚とイルカ・クジラ達~ タッチで漫才!メガミの笑壺DL Amida's Path / 阿・弥・陀 お絵描き工房'Mysterious Stars series / 不思議な点つなぎ' Mysterious Stars: The Singer / 不思議な点つなぎ 昭和・四畳半物語編 Mysterious Stars: The Samurai / 不思議な点つなぎ 江戸・立身出世編 Mysterious Stars: A Fairy Tale / 不思議な点つなぎ 中世・メルヘン編'Coloring Book series / みんなの塗り絵' Little Twin Stars' Coloring Book / Little Twin Starsとみんなの塗り絵 My Melody's Coloring Book / マイメロディとみんなの塗り絵 Hello kitty's Coloring Book / ハローキティのみんなの塗り絵 エプト王と1001人の后 Official website Official website

2018 NCAA Division III Baseball Tournament

The 2018 NCAA Division III Baseball Tournament was played at the end of the 2018 NCAA Division III baseball season to determine the 43rd national champion of college baseball at the NCAA Division III level. The tournament concluded with eight teams competing at Neuroscience Group Field at Fox Cities Stadium in Grand Chute, Wisconsin for the championship. Eight regional tournaments were held to determine the participants in the World Series. Regional tournaments were contested in double-elimination format, with three regions consisting of six teams, five consisting of eight, for a total of 58 teams participating in the tournament, up from 56 in 2017; the tournament champion was Texas-Tyler, who defeated Texas Lutheran in the championship series in two games. This was the final DIII World Series contested with the current regional format and World Series location. Source: NCAA Bold indicates winner. Whitehouse Field-Harwich, MA GCS Ballpark-Sauget, IL Ting Park-Holly Springs, NC PeoplesBank Park-York, PA Frank Wade Municipal Stadium-Duluth, MN Leo Pinckney Field at Falcon Park-Auburn, NY Nicolay Field-Adrian, MI Avista Stadium-Spokane, WA Neuroscience Group Field at Fox Cities Stadium-Grand Chute, WI This was the first Division III World Series in which two schools from the same state met to decide the National Championship

Sehba Sarwar

Sehba Sarwar is the author of Black Wings. She grew up in Karachi and has published essays and short stories in newspapers and magazines in India, the US and Canada, she produces experimental videos and art installations. Sarwar received her B. A. in English from Mount Holyoke College in 1986, a graduate degree from the University of Texas, Austin in Public Affairs. She has worked as a journalist in Pakistan and as an educator in Houston before founding Voices Breaking Boundaries in 2000. Recovering My Voice Black Wings Karachi's Winter Days Devouring Mangoes With Gusto On Belonging Crossing the Cultural Chasm Poignant Pen Interview: Sehba Sarwar I let the writing guide me Living Room Art Official site SAWNET biography Voices Breaking Boundaries• Blog


Haltham is a village and civil parish in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. The population of the civil parish at the 2011 Census was 122, it is situated 4 miles south from the town of Horncastle, on the east bank of the River Bain in the Lincolnshire Wolds, a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Haltham is listed in the Domesday Book of 1086 as "Holtha", with 15 households, King William I as Lord of the Manor; the parish church was dedicated to Saint Benedict, is a Grade I listed building built of greenstone and red-brick dating from the 12th century, with restorations in 1881 and 1890. In 1964 Pevsner noted a flagon, dated 1765, by London silversmith Francis Crump; the church was closed by the Diocese of Lincoln in October 1977, is now maintained by the Churches Conservation Trust. In the churchyard is the base of a 14th-century cross, Grade II listed and a scheduled monument; the village was served by a half-timbered thatched building. In 1885 Kelly's Directory recorded that agricultural production in the 2,380 acres acre parish was chiefly wheat and turnips, The 1881 population was 179.

Media related to Haltham at Wikimedia Commons