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Repertory theatre

"Repertory" redirects here. For the set of works one is ready to perform or are performed, see repertoire. A repertory theatre can be a Western theatre or opera production in which a resident company presents works from a specified repertoire in alternation or rotation. In British English a similar term, "weekly rep," denotes a movement started in the early 1900s that focused on shorter runs of a single new work, rather than having several plays ready to perform at any given time; the acting company would consist of a leading lady, a leading man, a set of juveniles, a character actor and actress and a vain and girlish soubrette. The company might bring in a guest star to increase interest, albeit in exchange for a cost increase large enough to offset the rise in revenues brought by any increase in attendance; the resident cast would number seven, plus the resident director serving as the artistic director in charge of the whole enterprise. Additionally there would be the stage director, the assistant stage manager, some unpaid apprentices, light and sound technicians.

Newcomers to the profession would start their careers in this fashion, members would gain a foundation upon which to base their future careers. Paid members could be sure of a steady income for one or more seasons, which might last for six months. Examples of performers who went on to universal recognition are Errol Flynn, John Gielgud, Ralph Richardson, Laurence Olivier, Jeremy Brett, Judi Dench, Rosemary Harris, Ian McKellen, Peter O'Toole, Christopher Plummer, Harold Pinter, Imelda Staunton, Lynn Redgrave, Arthur Lowe, Vanessa Redgrave, Patrick Stewart, Geraldine McEwan and Ronnie Barker. Dirk Bogarde wrote about his start at tiny Amersham rep in 1939, Michael Caine has recounted his time spent at Horsham rep in the early fifties. For weekly rep and for a typical three-act play, the actors' week would start on Tuesday, go as follows: Tuesday: notes on last night's opening of the current play from the director a sit-down read-through of the next week's play with some discussion by the director, on-the-feet blocking of the moves for Act I, with a few questions from the actors, followed by the second performance of the current play.

Wednesday: run Act I of next week's play and start to block Act II, but break early because there would be a matinée of the current play. Thursday: finish blocking Act II of next week's play, run Act II and block Act III. Friday: run Act III, run through the entire play with no scripts in hand, technicals – meaning lights and sound – to watch, write down cues. Saturday: run through again, stop and go to test lighting and sound cues. Two shows today, including a matinée. After the last show, the set would be struck by the crew - apprentices – and the stage manager. Sunday: for actors, an opportunity to brush up on lines and moves, for private rehearsals. However, for the crew it would mean putting up the new sets and focusing lights, setting sound equipment. Monday: in the morning, a run-through without costumes for the technicals. In the afternoon: a "Full Perfect" dress rehearsal, maybe with a few friends seated in front to gauge reaction copious notes. In the evening, 8 o'clock opening night, followed by notes from the director, visits with friends from the audience and maybe a party nearby.

The process would start all over again on Tuesday. From the audience's point of view, local communities would become fans, champion their favourites who would be treated as celebrities. Sometimes entire families would make a visit to their local rep part of the weekly routine, like going to church, for the young people it could became part of their future appreciation for live "legitimate" theatre. During the forties and sixties, two impresarios dominated the field of British rep in the North, they were Harry Hanson and his Court players, Frank H. Fortescue's Famous Players, with Arthur Brough in Folkestone for the South, their system was the toughest of all, for if you joined one of their companies, it could mean "twice-nightly" shows, a new play to learn every week. Rosemary Harris has told of her 50 consecutive weeks of doing just that at Bedford rep; that cannot happen any more, owing to the restrictions of British Equity, which came to mandate just eight shows a week, including two matinées.

Fortescue, who died in 1957, was known to be a strict and upright man. When Pygmalion was playing at one of his theatres, the sign "FOR ADULTS ONLY!" would be posted in the front of house, because of Eliza Doolittle's line "Not bloody likely!". Not to be overlooked is a form of touring rep known as "bus and truck", which involves transporting the actors and sets for about five different plays which can be performed in smaller communities on consecutive nights. In Russia and much of Eastern Europe, repertory theatre is based on the idea that each company maintains a number of productions that are performed on a rotating basis; each production’s life span is determined by its success with the audience. However, many productions remain in repertory for years as this approach presents each piece a few times in a given season, not enough to exhaust the potential audience pool. After the fall of the Soviet regime and the substantial diminution of government subsidy, the repertory practice has required re-examination.

Moscow Art Theatre and Lev Dodin’s Maly Drama Theatre of St. Petersburg are the world’s mos


Dad-windad was a Parthian grandee, who served as the chief secretary of the last Arsacid monarch, Artabanus V. He took part in the climatic battle of Hormozdgan in 224 between the Arsacid and Sasanian forces, which resulted in the defeat and death of Artabanus V, with Dad-windad meeting his end shortly afterwards. Dad-windad served as the chief secretary, a powerful post but a risky one, with the possibility of a harsh penalty or death. On April 28 224, Dad-Windad took part in the climatic battle of Hormozdgan between the Arsacid and Sasanian forces; the forces of the Sasanian king Ardashir I numbered 10,000 cavalry, with some of them wearing flexible chain armor akin to that of the Romans. Artabanus V led a greater number of soldiers, however, were less disposed, due to wearing the inconvenient lamellar armor. Ardashir's son and heir, Shapur I, as portrayed in the Sasanian rock reliefs took part in the battle. Artabanus V was defeated and killed during the battle, which marked the end of the Parthian era and the start of 427-years of Sasanian rule.

Dad-windad was afterwards executed by Ardashir I. Ardashir I celebrated his victory in a relief sculptured at his previous capital, Ardashir-Khwarrah in his homeland, Pars. On the relief, Ardashir I is portrayed as riding on a horse whilst ousting Artabanus V, mounted. Ardashir I's son Shapur I on horseback, is portrayed as impaling Dad-windad with his lance. Rajabzadeh, Hashem. "Dabīr". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VI, Fasc. 5. Pp. 534–539. Shahbazi, A. Shapur. "Hormozdgān". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XII, Fasc. 5. Pp. 469–470. Shahbazi, A. Shapur. "SASANIAN DYNASTY". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition

Scaffold Law (New York)

The Scaffold Law is a New York State law that holds employers and property owners liable when an employee becomes injured due to a gravity-related fall while working at high elevations without proper safety equipment. The law was enacted in 19th century and is contained in New York State Labor Law § 240/241. Critics and politicians have blamed the law for driving up public construction costs in New York State. New York State is the only state that imposes an absolute liability penalty in gravity-related injury cases; the Scaffold Law was enacted by the New York State Legislature in 1885. The law was enacted at a time in the nation's history when the federal government had not yet enacted widespread worker protection such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or workers compensation programs. In 1995, the state of Illinois repeals their absolute liability standard law for gravity related injuries, leaving New York as the last and only state with such a statute. There was a lobbying effort in 2013 on behalf of contractors and minority and women owned business enterprises to replace the absolute liability standard with a comparative standard, which would require a jury or arbitrator to determine the amount of negligence cause by an employee.

In 2018, United States Congressman John Faso introduced a federal bill that passed the U. S. Senate but did not pass in the U. S. House of Representatives in February 2018 that would have denied funding to construction projects that impose an absolute liability standard for gravity-related falls. Critics have cited the law for increasing public construction costs, increasing insurance costs, creating barriers to entry for Minority and Women-Owned Business Enterprises; the Rockefeller Institute of Government has blamed the law for costing taxpayers $785 million a year. Habitat for Humanity blamed the law for creating obstacles in rebuilding attempts after Hurricane Sandy. Congressman Faso has blamed the law for adding $200 million to the cost of the new Tappan Zee Bridge. Two state congress members noted that the law is the last and only absolute liability law in the country for gravity-related construction falls

Shelly Peiken

Shelly Meg Peiken is an American songwriter, best known for co-writing the US #1 hits "What a Girl Wants" and "Come On Over Baby" by Christina Aguilera the US #2 hit "Bitch" by Meredith Brooks, "Almost Doesn't Count" by Brandy, "Who You Are" by Jessie J. She has written for or with Britney Spears, The Pretenders, Natasha Bedingfield, Keith Urban, Celine Dion, Reba McEntire, Jessie J, Miley Cyrus, Ed Sheeran, Selena Gomez, Idina Menzel and Demi Lovato and has had hundreds of songs licensed for TV and film. Shelly Peiken grew up in Long Island where she became interested in music at an early age, she attended the University of Maryland where she studied fashion design only to come to New York City afterwards where she spent many years developing her true passion as a singer songwriter. She signed her first publishing deal with boutique company, Hit & Run Music, went on to write songs for Brandy, Natalie Cole, Celine Dion, The Pretenders, Britney Spears, Jessie J, Demi Lovato, Selena Gomez, INXS, Backstreet Boys, Keith Urban and many others.

In 1998, Peiken and Meredith Brooks earned a Best Rock Song Grammy nomination for "Bitch". Further success followed with two No. 1's for Christina Aguilera, "What a Girl Wants" and "Come On Over Baby," "I Wanna Be With You" for Mandy Moore, "Hook Me Up", "Who You Are", "Human on the Inside" for the Pretenders, "Almost Doesn't Count" for Brandy. She has blogged for notable sites such as Huffington Post, Yamaha Music where she writes of her experiences as a songwriter, the challenges of the current music business, the balancing of career and parenthood, she has a personal blog as well. Peiken's first book, Confessions of a Serial Songwriter, was published by Backbeat Books, on March 1, 2016 and received a Grammy nomination in 2017 for Best Spoken Word Album. "She resides in Los Angeles with husband, film composer Adam Gorgoni and her daughter, Layla

National symbols of the Philippines

The national symbols of the Philippines consist of symbols that represent Philippine traditions and ideals and convey the principles of sovereignty and national solidarity of the Filipino people. Some of these symbols namely the national flag, the Great Seal, the coat of arms and the national motto are stated in the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines, known as Republic Act 8491. In the Constitution of the Philippines, the Filipino language is stated as the national language of the Philippines. Aside from those stated symbols in the Constitution and in Republic Act 8491, there are only six official national symbols of the Philippines enacted through law, namely sampaguita as national flower, narra as national tree, the Philippine eagle as national bird, Philippine pearl as national gem, arnis as national martial art and sport and the Filipino Sign Language as the national sign language. Thus, there is a total of twelve official national symbols passed through Philippine laws. There are symbols such as the carabao and anahaw that are known as national symbols but have no laws recognizing them as official national symbols.

Jose Rizal, considered as a national hero, has not been declared as a national hero in any existing Philippine law according to historical experts. Although in 2003, Benigno Aquino, Jr. was declared by the President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo as a national hero by an executive order. A National Artist of the Philippines is a rank or a title given to a Filipino citizen in recognition to the recipient's contributions to Philippine arts and letters and they are not considered as a national symbol that represents traditions and ideals. Through the years, there were attempts to make those traditional symbols official. One of them is House Bill 3926, a bill proposed on 17 February 2014 by Bohol First District Representative Rene Relampagos of the Philippine House of Representatives that sought to declare, re-declare or recognize a number of national symbols. House Bill 3926, aimed to encourage nationalism and unity. Among the national symbols listed in the measure are Jose Rizal as the only historical Filipino to be recognized as national hero, adobo as national food and jeepney as national vehicle.

It includes the previous official national symbols, which were eleven during the filing of the bill. As of February 2014, the bill is still pending with the Committee on Revision Laws of the House of Representatives and is not yet a law that would make the proposed symbols as official national symbols; the Republic Act 8491 known as Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines, stipulates the code for national flag, motto, coat-of-arms and other heraldic items and devices of the Philippines. According to Article XIV Section 6 of the Constitution of the Philippines, the national language of the Philippines is Filipino. Apart from RA 8491 and the Constitution, the Philippines has only six official national symbols enacted either through a proclamation by the executive department or through a Republic Act by the legislative department, namely sampaguita, the Philippine eagle, the Philippine pearl and the Filipino Sign Language. In 1934, during the Commonwealth era, Governor-General Frank Murphy declared sampaguita and narra as national flower and national tree through Proclamation No. 652.

Philippine President Fidel Ramos proclaimed the Philippine eagle as the national bird in 1995 through Proclamation No. 615. Ramos declared the South Sea Pearl or Philippine Pearl as the national gem in 1996 through Proclamation No. 905. In 2009, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo declared arnis as the national sport and martial art through Republic Act 9850. On 30 October 2018, President Rodrigo Duterte signed Republic Act No. 11106, a law declaring the Filipino Sign Language as the national sign language of the Filipino deaf and the official sign language of the Philippine government involving communications to the deaf. A Philippine national symbol will be considered official once it is declared through a law or a proclamation. National symbols such as the cariñosa, carabao and anahaw that are circulating through various sources have no official status and have not established by law. According to Nestor Castro, a Filipino cultural anthropologist, most of these unofficial symbols were passed on as tradition in schools every start of the school year when students were asked to buy posters containing the supposed national symbols.

While official national symbols are declared through law and National Historical Commission of the Philippines Section Chief Teodoro Atienza considered that the public must be consulted first before declaration of national symbol. Throughout the history of legislation in the Philippines, attempts were made to expand the list of official national symbols. In February 2013, the Philippine Senate passed a bill declaring waling-waling as the national flower alongside Sampaguita. A similar bill in the House of Representatives had been passed in 2012; the bill would become law after being signed by the President. However, it was vetoed by President Benigno Aquino III; the veto did not grant the waling-waling as the second national flower due to the confusion that it would create. A year on 17 February 2014, Representative Rene Relampagos, a congressman from the First District of Bohol, introduced a legislation in the Philippine House of Representatives that sought to declare, re-declare or recognize a number of national symbols.


Wan Azizah Wan Ismail

Dato' Seri Dr Wan Azizah binti Wan Ismail is a Malaysian politician who served as the first female Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia and the Minister of Women and Community Development from 2018 to 2020 under Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad. She is the Member of Parliament for Pandan, she is the first woman to hold the position in Malaysia. She is the President of the Pakatan Harapan coalition and was President of the People's Justice Party from 1999 until 2018 and was elected Selangor State Legislative Assembly member for Kajang until May 2018. Wan Azizah was also elected as the Member of Parliament for Permatang Pauh from 1999 to 2008 and was the Leader of Opposition in Dewan Rakyat from March 2008 until 31 July 2008, from May 2015 to May 2018, before she vacated both positions to expedite her husband Anwar Ibrahim's return to political office. Wan Azizah was born in 1952 in Singapore, she was raised Malay Muslim. She received her early education in St. Nicholas Convent School, Alor Setar and continued her education at Tunku Kurshiah College in Seremban.

She went on to study medicine at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland where she was awarded a gold medal in obstetrics and gynaecology and she graduated as a qualified ophthalmologist. Wan Azizah served as a government doctor for 14 years before deciding to focus on volunteering work, when her husband, Anwar Ibrahim was appointed the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia in 1993; as part of her voluntary pursuits, she became a patron of MAKNA in that period and became the second woman to lead a political party in Malaysia's history. Following the dismissal and arrest of her husband on 20 September 1998, Wan Azizah became leader of the fledgling Reformasi movement, she first led the Social Justice Movement, a civil rights NGO, before helping to establish the Parti Keadilan Nasional on 4 April 1999. The establishment of the party saw Wan Azizah elected as the first party president. On 3 August 2003, Wan Azizah brought the party into a merger with the older Malaysian People's Party which saw the establishment of the People's Justice Party and was elected as the president of the newly merged party.

In the first elections competed by the party in 1999, Wan Azizah led the party to win five seats in the Parliament and was herself elected as the Member of Parliament for Permatang Pauh. She retained the seat in the 2004 elections, after five recounts, with a reduced majority; as a political party leader and a parliamentary representative, Wan Azizah has spoken at UN-sponsored programs, the local and international media. She is the Vice-Chair of the Malaysian Parliamentary Caucus for Democracy in Myanmar and a member of the ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Myanmar Caucus. Wan Azizah won her parliamentary seat of Permatang Pauh in the 12th Malaysian general election with a majority of 13,388, she was supported by all the component parties of Pakatan Rakyat to lead the opposition in the lower house of parliament, House of Representatives. With the public announcement by Anwar Ibrahim regarding his intention to return to active politics despite being barred from doing so, Wan Azizah indicated her readiness to vacate the position of party president if he was elected.

Nonetheless, she has indicated that she intends to defend her parliamentary seat for Permatang Pauh. She resigned her parliamentary seat for Permatang Pauh on 31 July 2008, to make way for her husband, who won the subsequent by-election on 26 August 2008 with a large majority. Wan Azizah was honoured on the occasion of the official birthday of the Yang di-Pertua Negeri of Penang on 12 July 2008 when she was awarded the Darjah Panglima Pangkuan Negeri, a chivalric order of the second rank in the state; the award carries the title Dato' Seri. On 9 March 2014, PKR announced Wan Azizah as its new candidate for the Kajang by-election; this was following Anwar Ibrahim's sentencing to five years in prison after Malaysia's court of appeal overturned his sodomy acquittal, causing Anwar to be unable to run in the by-election. On 23 March 2014, Wan Azizah was elected as the Selangor state legislative assembly member for Kajang. A by-election was held for the Dewan Rakyat seat of Permatang Pauh on 7 May 2015, after Wan Azizah's husband Anwar Ibrahim was disqualified from holding the seat after being found guilty of sodomy in a controversial trial.

Wan Azizah contested the seat against three other candidates, retaining it for PR with a majority of 8,841 votes. On 7 January 2018, the opposition alliance Pakatan Harapan announced Mahathir Mohamad as their candidate for Prime Minister in the 2018 election, with Wan Azizah as Deputy, it was announced as part of a deal for Mahathir to serve as interim if elected, seeking a pardon for Anwar and making way for him to take over. Others have speculated, that it would be Wan Azizah who would make way for her husband. Penang: Knight Commander of the Order of the Defender of State - Dato' Seri Pakatan Rakyat Pakatan Harapan Reformasi Asia Week: A Woman of Grace Result of Malaysian General Election 2008 for Permatang Pauh