The Republic F-105 Thunderchief was an American supersonic fighter-bomber used by the United States Air Force. Capable of Mach 2, it conducted the majority of strike bombing missions during the early years of the Vietnam War. Designed as a single-seat, nuclear-attack aircraft, a two-seat Wild Weasel version was developed for the specialized Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses role against surface-to-air missile sites; the F-105 was known as the "Thud" by its crews. As a follow-on to the Mach 1 capable North American F-100 Super Sabre, the F-105 was armed with missiles and a rotary cannon. First flown in 1955, the Thunderchief entered service in 1958; the single-engine F-105 could deliver a greater bomb load than some American heavy bombers of World War II such as the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress and Consolidated B-24 Liberator. The F-105 was one of the primary attack aircraft of the Vietnam War. Although less agile than smaller MiG fighters, USAF F-105s were credited with 27.5 kills. During the war, the single-seat F-105D was the primary aircraft delivering the heavy bomb loads against the various military targets.
Meanwhile, the two-seat F-105F and F-105G Wild Weasel variants became the first dedicated SEAD platforms, fighting against the Soviet-built S-75 Dvina surface-to-air missiles. Two Wild Weasel pilots were awarded the Medal of Honor for attacking North Vietnamese surface-to-air missile sites, with one shooting down two MiG-17s the same day; the dangerous missions required them to be the "first in, last out", suppressing enemy air defenses while strike aircraft accomplished their missions and left the area. When the Thunderchief entered service it was the largest single-seat, single-engine combat aircraft in history, weighing 50,000 pounds, it could reach Mach 2 at high altitude. The F-105 could carry up to 14,000 lb of missiles; the Thunderchief was replaced as a strike aircraft over North Vietnam by both the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II and the swing-wing General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark. However, the "Wild Weasel" variants of the F-105 remained in service until 1984 after being replaced by the specialized F-4G "Wild Weasel V".
Republic Aviation started the Thunderchief as an internal project to replace the RF-84F Thunderflash, which first used the characteristic wing-root air intakes to make room for cameras in the nose section. The design team led by Alexander Kartveli examined some 108 configurations before settling on a large, single-engine AP-63FBX AP-63-31; the new aircraft was intended for supersonic, low altitude penetration to deliver a single, internally carried nuclear bomb. The emphasis was placed on low-altitude speed and flight characteristics and payload; the aircraft would be fitted with a large engine, a small wing with a high wing loading for a stable ride at low altitudes, less drag at supersonic speeds. Traditional fighter attributes such as maneuverability were a secondary consideration. Enthusiastic at first, the United States Air Force awarded Republic with a contract for 199 aircraft in September 1952. However, by March 1953, the USAF had reduced the order to 37 fighter-bombers and nine tactical reconnaissance aircraft, citing the approaching end of the Korean War.
By the time the F-105 mock-up had been completed in October 1953, the aircraft had grown so large that the Allison J71 turbojet intended for it was abandoned in favor of the more powerful Pratt & Whitney J75. Anticipating a protracted development of the engine, it was expected that the first aircraft would use the smaller Pratt & Whitney J57. Near the end of 1953, the entire program was canceled by the USAF due to a number of delays and uncertainties regarding the aircraft. However, on 28 June 1954, the USAF ordered 15 F-105s under the Weapon System designation WS-306A; the YF-105A prototype first flew on 22 October 1955, with the second YF-105A following on 28 January 1956. In spite of being powered by a less potent J57-P-25 engine with 15,000 pounds-force of afterburning thrust, the first prototype attained the speed of Mach 1.2 on its maiden flight. Both aircraft featured conventional wing root air intakes and slab-sided fuselages typical of the early jets. Insufficient power and aerodynamic problems with transonic drag, as well as Convair's experience with their F-102, led to a redesign of the fuselage to conform to the area rule, giving it a characteristic "wasp waist".
In combination with the distinctive forward-swept variable-geometry air intakes which regulated airflow to the engine at supersonic speeds and the J75 engine, this redesign enabled the F-105B to attain Mach 2.15. In March 1956, the USAF placed a further order for 17 RF-105Bs. In order to conduct the nuclear mission, an MA-8 fire control system, AN/APG-31 ranging radar, K-19 gunsight to allow for toss bombing were integrated; the first pre-production YF-105B flew on 26 May 1956. Five of the F-105C trainer variant were added to the procurement plan in June 1956, before being canceled in 1957
The Secretary of State for Equality and Gender Violence of Spain is a senior minister within the Spanish Department of Equality. It is a political appointment made by the Monarch with the advice of the minister in charge of the ministerial department; the Secretary of State for Equality is responsible for proposing and developing the Government's policies on equality and elimination of all kinds of discrimination against persons based on sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or ideology, sexual orientation or identity of gender, disability or any other condition or personal or social circumstance, of eradication of the different forms of violence against women, as well as violence against lesbian, bisexual and intersex persons and within the affective relationships of these. From Secretariat of State depend two departments, the Directorate-General for Equality of Treatment and Diversity and the Government Delegation for Gender Violence; the Government's equality policies got a greater leadership during the governments of PM José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero.
At the first, the equality department was within the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs with the level of a General Secretariat between 2004 and 2008. In 2008, after Zapatero's reelection, he elevated this department to a ministerial level, creating the Ministry of Equality until 2010 when the Ministry merged with the Ministry of Health and the Secretariat of State of Equality was properly created. During the governments of PM Mariano Rajoy, the Secretariat merged with the Secretariat of State of Social Services creating the Secretariat of State of Social Services and Equality between late 2011 and middle 2018. In 2018, with the arrival of PM Pedro Sánchez the Secretariat of State recovered its full autonomy and importance when it was integrated in the Ministry of the Presidency, with the direct supervision of the Deputy Prime Minister. In January 2020, the Ministry of Equality was re-established and the Secretariat of State was integrated into it. From the Secretary of State depends the following officials: The Director-General for Equality of Treatment and Diversity The Deputy Director-General for Equality of Treatment and Non-Discrimination The Council for the Elimination of Racial or Ethnic Discrimination The Government Delegation for Gender Violence The Deputy Director-General for Sensitization and Knowledge of Gender-based Violence The Deputy Director-General for Inter-institutional Coordination in Gender Violence The State Observatory on Violence against Women The Cabinet of the Secretary of State for Equality The Chef de Cabinet Three Advisors Before this office was created, all its duties were carried out by the Secretary General for Equality first and by the Minister of Equality later
Martanda Sydney Tondaiman was the son and only child of Martanda Bhairava Tondaiman, Raja of Pudukkottai and his Australian wife Molly Fink. Martanda Sydney Tondaiman was born while his parents were residing in Australia. Martanda Bhairava Tondaiman had left India as the British Resident of the State of Pudukkottai felt that the marriage would undermine his position among his subjects. Both the Rajah and Ranee were received in private audience by George V and Queen Mary at Buckingham Palace in 1920 and subsequently attended by Royal command all Court functions until the Rajah's death; the Rajah had been an close friend of King George V's father, Edward VII, attended his coronation in 1902. Sydney was not baptised. Sydney was educated at the Institut Le Rosey and the Clare College, Cambridge from where he graduated in history. At Le Rosey, his closest friend was Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who sent Sydney a special invitation for his coronation in 1967. In 1938, while travelling between Cannes and Paris, Sydney met with a road accident and was left with a limp, which allowed him to use a Faberge cane that enhanced his elegant appearance.
Sydney moved to the United States and became a U. S. citizen on September 1, 1943. In 1945, Sydney was arrested in New York for theft; the New York Times reported on February 18, 1945 that the prince had stated that his own "considerable funds were unavailable" to him, that he had "only a couple of thousand dollars in the bank, not nearly enough to maintain my usual style of living". Despite the request of his accuser that he be freed on probation, Sydney was convicted and imprisoned at City Prison, it was reported in the New York Times on April 2, 1946 that after aiding in the recovery of some of the property, spending nine months of a one-year term in prison and after his mother had made full restitution, that he was released from prison. In 1946, he was invited by Ramon Grau, President of Cuba, to reside in Havana and went there upon his release; as a result of his conviction, his U. S. citizenship was revoked. However, in 1980, by Act of Congress, his U. S. citizenship was reinstated, he died a United States citizen.
In 1948, he lived between London, Cannes and St. Moritz, his company was eagerly sought after by the highest echelons of international society. In 1967 his mother died and left him a wealthy man. Sydney himself died sixteen years on January 20, 1984, at the Hotel de la Ville, Florence, of heart failure, his body was cremated at the Golders Green Crematorium and his ashes were interred beside those of his parents. "Pudukkottai 4". Tondaiman Dynasty. Christopher Buyers. Younger, Coralie. "Molly Fink". Wicked women of the Raj. Harper Collins. Pp. 115–137. ISBN 978-81-7223-454-6. Kandel, Clive. "The Prince, Cartier and I". New York Jewelry Diary. Retrieved July 16, 2014. Papers of Pudukkottai archives, collection of Clive Kandel, legatee of the Will and Testament of Prince Martanda of Pudukkottai
Drömmen om julen was released on 28 October 2016 and is a Christmas album by Carola Häggkvist. The album release was followed up with a Christmas tour throughout Norway. One of the concerts, the one inside the Philadelphia Church in Stockholm on 1 December 2016, was broadcast over P4 Live. on 23 December the same year Carola Häggkvist – vocals Peter Nordahl – piano, arranger, producer Mikael Wenhov – violin Johanna Tafvelin – violin Magnus Ivarsson – violin Sonja Vrieze – violin Gunnar Enbom – viola Crista Bergendahl – viola Jan Duda – double bass HC Green – percussion
Mycosphaerella angulata is a fungal plant pathogen infecting muscadine grapes. This pathogen causes the common disease angular leaf spot. Mycosphaerella angulate is a ascomycete in the fungi kingdom. Mycosphaerella angulata is a major pathogen affecting the muscadine grape. Infection occurs after midseason; the primary symptoms of this disease are faint chlorotic spots on the leaves. The chlorotic spots continue to grow in size during the growing season, forming angular brown lesions in the center; the irregular lesions on the leaves inhibit normal photosynthesis, which results in leaf loss and exposure of the grapes to sun scald. This makes them more susceptible to cold damage; the pre-harvest infection of this pathogen can stop berry development before maturity. The symptoms of the angular leaf spot disease are easy to recognize late in the season. Mycosphaerella angulate is found in Southeastern United States and around the coastal regions where their host, muscadine grapes, are grown. A case study was done by researchers from Florida A&M University looking at the effects of angular leaf spot on muscadine grapes.
It was observed that in years that are wet early in the year and mild over the rest of the growing season caused worse disease symptoms than years that were dry in the spring and wet and stormy in the growing season. Showing that the pathogen thrives in conditions that are warm and humid - earlier in the growing season of the grape, when initial infection occurs. Although important, this disease and pathogen has not had much research done on it, making it difficult to determine what environmental factors are key for the pathogen's spread and development. Mycosphaerella angulate is part of the ascomycete division, so it is a fungus with a sexual and an asexual stage; the asexual stage of this pathogen was first found in 1902, while the sexual stage was discovered in 1942. The asexual stage produces conidiophores with conidia, the sexual stage is an ascus with ascospores - produced by meiosis. Starting with the primary inoculum, the spores get disseminated by the wind; these spores infect the leaves by penetration through wounds or stomata penetration.
Inter- and intracellular hyphae infect into the leaf and a conidiophore tuft gets formed on the lower leaf surface. These conidiophore tufts produce conidia which are the second inoculum that go out and infect other leaves; the infected grape leaf produces pseudothecium's, a certain type of ascocarp that shoots out the ascospores when conditions are right. They infected grape leaves produce conidiophores with conidia; these ascospores and conidia start the life cycle over again with the primary inoculum. Muscadine grapes are an important source of dietary fiber and ellagic acid, an anticancer compound. An increase in the use of muscadine grapes in the wine industry and production is expected, making this pathogen economically important; the pre-harvest infection of this pathogen can stop berry development before maturity. Muscadine wines have a fruity flavor and the quality of these wines/grapes is dependent upon the growth and maturation of the grapes - which angular leaf spot has a direct effect on.
Yield loss due to angular leaf spot disease has not been studied much, but it is thought to be one of the most severe of all of the diseases affecting muscadine grapes. There are a few management practices used to control angular leaf spot; these include: destroying crop residue, removing nearby wild muscadine vines, applying fungicides, keep vines healthy, trimming the canopy cover. Some muscadine plants have been observed to have some degree of resistance to Mycosphaerella angulate. List of Mycosphaerella species Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database
Dorset Council is the local authority for the Dorset unitary authority, England. It was created on 1 April 2019 to administer most of the area administered by Dorset County Council, subdivided into the districts of Weymouth and Portland, West Dorset, North Dorset and East Dorset. Statutory Instruments for local government reorganisation in the ceremonial county of Dorset were made in May 2018. Under the plans, dubbed "Future Dorset", all existing councils within the county were to be abolished and replaced by two new unitary authorities. One was formed from the unitary authorities of Bournemouth and Poole which merged with the non-metropolitan district of Christchurch to create a unitary authority known as Bournemouth and Poole Council; the other, Dorset Council, was created from most of the area administered by Dorset County Council and the non-metropolitan districts of Weymouth and Portland, West Dorset, North Dorset and East Dorset. Statutory instruments for the creation of the new authority were made on behalf of the Secretary of State for Housing and Local Government on 25 May 2018, a shadow authority was formed the following day.
The Shadow Dorset Council consisted of all elected councillors from Weymouth and Portland Borough Council, West Dorset District Council, North Dorset District Council, East Dorset District Council, Purbeck District Council and all councillors from Dorset County Council with the exception of the five that were elected from divisions within Christchurch. The first meeting of the shadow authority was held on Thursday 7 June 2018 where Hilary Cox was elected to be Chair of the shadow authority and Peter Shoreland was elected as Vice-Chair; the Local Government Boundary Commission for England recommended that the new council should have eighty-two councillors representing a mix of single-member, two-member and three-member wards. 2019 structural changes to local government in England Official website Shadow Dorset Council