The Republic P-47 Thunderbolt was a World War II era fighter aircraft produced by the United States from 1941 through 1945. Its primary armament was eight.50-caliber machine guns, in the fighter-bomber ground-attack role it could carry five-inch rockets or a bomb load of 2,500 pounds. When loaded, the P-47 weighed up to eight tons, making it one of the heaviest fighters of the war; the P-47 was designed around the powerful Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp engine, used by two U. S. Navy/U. S. Marine Corps fighters, the Grumman F6F Hellcat and the Vought F4U Corsair; the Thunderbolt was effective as a short-to medium-range escort fighter in high-altitude air-to-air combat and ground attack in both the European and Pacific theaters. The P-47 was one of the main United States Army Air Forces fighters of World War II, served with other Allied air forces, including those of France, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union. Mexican and Brazilian squadrons fighting alongside the USAAF flew the P-47; the armored cockpit was roomy and comfortable and the bubble canopy introduced on the P-47D offered good visibility.
A present-day U. S. ground-attack aircraft, the Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II, takes its name from the P-47. The P-47 Thunderbolt was a design of Russian immigrant of Georgian ethnicity Alexander Kartveli, was to replace the Seversky P-35, developed earlier by Russian immigrant Alexander P. de Seversky. Both had fled from their homeland to escape the Bolsheviks. In 1939, Republic Aviation designed the AP-4 demonstrator powered by a Pratt & Whitney R-1830 radial engine with a belly-mounted turbocharger. A small number of Republic P-43 Lancers were built but Republic had been working on an improved P-44 Rocket with a more powerful engine, as well as on the AP-10 fighter design; the latter was a lightweight aircraft powered by the Allison V-1710 liquid-cooled V-12 engine and armed with eight.50 in M2 Browning machine guns. The United States Army Air Corps backed the project and gave it the designation XP-47. In the spring of 1940, Republic and the USAAC concluded that the XP-44 and the XP-47 were inferior to Luftwaffe fighters.
Republic tried to improve the design, proposing the XP-47A but this failed. Kartveli designed a much larger fighter, offered to the USAAC in June 1940; the Air Corps ordered a prototype in September as the XP-47B. The XP-47A, which had little in common with the new design, was abandoned; the XP-47B was of all-metal construction with elliptical wings, with a straight leading edge, swept back. The air-conditioned cockpit was roomy and the pilot's seat was comfortable—"like a lounge chair", as one pilot put it; the canopy doors hinged upward. Main and auxiliary self-sealing fuel tanks were placed under the cockpit, giving a total fuel capacity of 305 U. S. gal. Power came from a Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp two-row 18-cylinder radial engine producing 2,000 hp —the same engine that would power the prototype Vought XF4U-1 fighter to just over 400 mph in October 1940—with the Double Wasp on the XP-47B turning a four-bladed Curtiss Electric constant-speed propeller of 146 in in diameter; the loss of the AP-4 prototype to an engine fire ended Kartveli's experiments with tight-fitting cowlings, so the engine was placed in a broad cowling that opened at the front in a "horse collar"-shaped ellipse.
The cowling admitted cooling air for the engine and right oil coolers, the turbosupercharger intercooler system. The engine exhaust gases were routed into a pair of wastegate-equipped pipes that ran along each side of the cockpit to drive the turbosupercharger turbine at the bottom of the fuselage, about halfway between cockpit and tail. At full power, the pipes glowed red at the turbine spun at 21,300 rpm; the complicated turbosupercharger system with its ductwork gave the XP-47B a deep fuselage, the wings had to be mounted in a high position. This was difficult since long-legged main landing gear struts were needed to provide ground clearance for the enormous propeller. To reduce the size and weight of the undercarriage struts and so that wing-mounted machine guns could be fitted, each strut was fitted with a mechanism by which it telescoped out 9 in when extended; the XP-47B was heavy compared with contemporary single-engined fighters, with an empty weight of 9,900 lb, or 65 per cent more than the YP-43.
Kartveli said, "It will be a dinosaur, but it will be a dinosaur with good proportions". The armament was eight.50 caliber "light-barrel" Browning AN/M2 machine guns, four in each wing. The guns were staggered to allow feeding from side-by-side ammunition boxes, each with 350 rounds. All eight guns gave the fighter a combined rate of fire of 100 rounds per second; the XP-47B first flew on 6 May 1941 with Lowry P. Brabham at the controls. Although there were minor problems, such as some cockpit smoke that turned out to be due to an oil drip, the aircraft proved impressive in its early trials, it was lost in an accident on 8 August 1942 but before that mishap, the prototype had achieved a level speed of 412 mph at 25,800 ft altitude and had demonstrated a climb from sea level to 15,000 ft in five minutes. The XP-47B gave the newly reorganized United States Army Air Forces cause for both optimism and apprehension. While possessing good performance and firepower, the XP-47B had its share of teething problems: Its sheer size and limited ground-propeller clearance in a fuselage-level attitude made for challenging takeoffs which required long runways—the pilot had to hold the tail low until considerable speed was attain
Hermann Aron was a German researcher of electrical engineering. Aron was born in modern-day Poland, at the time a shtetl in the Province of Posen, his father was a merchant. The family wanted him to train as a Jewish scholar or scrivener, however wealthy relatives made it possible for him to attend from 1862 the high school at Kölln and after graduating in 1867, to study at the University of Berlin. Aron changed in the 3rd term to mathematics and natural sciences. From 1870 he studied at the University of Heidelberg, with such notable physics lecturers as Helmholtz and Kirchhoff, he obtained his doctorate from Berlin in 1873 and became an assistant at the physical laboratory of the trade academy. He taught at the University of Berlin where he became professor of physics, at the Prussian Army's school for artillery and engineers, he is buried in Berlin. In 1883 he patented the "Pendelzähler" - the first accurate watt-hour meter; the meter contained two pendulum clocks, with coils around their pendulum bobs.
One was accelerated and the other slowed in proportion to the current used. A differential gear mechanism measured the difference in speed between the two clocks and counted this on a series of dials; the first meters used clockwork clocks. Models were self-winding by electricity; this meter was introduced into Great Britain by Hugo Hirst, made and sold by his General Electric Company from 1888. He invented another Wattmeter, the eponymous'Aronschaltung'; this is a circuit for measuring total power in three-phase AC circuits, whilst requiring only two direct measurements of power. These inventions expanded into a business with factories in Paris, London and Schweidnitz, Silesia. By the time of his death in 1913, it employed over 1,000 people, his son continued the business of H. Aron, watthour meter factory GmbH, changing its name in 1929 to Aron electricity company ltd. Berlin Charlottenburg; the company had diversified into the new market for radios, sold under the name "Nora". This was "Aron" spelled backwards: in the increasing atmosphere of anti-semitism, it was prudent to avoid using a name, so Jewish.
In 1933 the company was renamed again, to the fashionably Modernist and anonymous "Heliowatt". At this time Nora had around 3,000 employees and a market share of around 8%, making them the fourth-largest manufacturer after Telefunken, SABA and Mende. Anti-semitism continued to grow in Germany, in 1935 the family sold the business to Siemens-Schuckert and fled to the USA; the Charlottenburg factory was bombed in 1943. After a series of advertisements promising their imminent return, they returned to manufacturing in 1947. Heliowattwerke GmbH closed in 1996. TU intern Oktober 2005 at www.tu-berlin.de Hermann Aron at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Katzir, Shaul. "Hermann Aron's Electricity Meters: Physics and Invention in Late Nineteenth-Century Germany". Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 39: 444–481. Doi:10.1525/hsns.2009.39.4.444. Katzir, Shaul. "From academic physics to invention and industry: the course of Hermann Aron's career". Preprint / Max-Planck-Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte
Crystal Lake is a town in Marquette County, United States. The population was 513 at the 2000 census; the unincorporated community of Budsin is located in the town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 35.9 square miles, of which, 35.3 square miles of it is land and 0.6 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 513 people, 231 households, 167 families residing in the town; the population density was 14.5 people per square mile. There were 442 housing units at an average density of 12.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.25% White, 0.39% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.58% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.19% of the population. There were 231 households out of which 16.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.7% were married couples living together, 3.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.3% were non-families.
20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.50. In the town, the population was spread out with 15.8% under the age of 18, 3.9% from 18 to 24, 22.2% from 25 to 44, 28.3% from 45 to 64, 29.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 54 years. For every 100 females, there were 112.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $38,304, the median income for a family was $43,000. Males had a median income of $30,781 versus $25,000 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,824. About 1.3% of families and 6.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 8.9% of those age 65 or over
Huberta was a hippopotamus and one of the most famous animals in South African history. In November 1928, Huberta left her waterhole in the St. Lucia Estuary in Zululand and set off on the 1,600 kilometres journey to the Eastern Cape, a journey which took her three years. In that time, Huberta became a minor celebrity in South Africa and attracted crowds wherever she went, she was thought to be a male and was nicknamed Hubert by the press. The first report in the press was on 23 November 1928 in the Natal Mercury and reported the appearance of a hippo in Natal; the report was accompanied by the only photograph of Huberta in life. Huberta stopped for a while at the mouth of the Mhlanga River about 15 kilometres north of Durban and a failed attempt was made to capture her and put her in Johannesburg Zoo. After this, she headed south to Durban where she visited a country club. Moving on to the Umgeni River, she became revered by Xhosas alike. Huberta arrived in East London in March 1931. Despite her having been declared royal game by the Natal Provincial Council, she was shot by farmers a month later.
After a public outcry, the farmers were arrested and fined £25. Huberta's body was sent to a taxidermist in London. Upon her return to South Africa in 1932, she was greeted by 20,000 people and was displayed at the Amathole Museum in King William's Town. Huberta is the subject of the children's book Hubert The Traveling Hippopotamus by Edmund Lindop and illustrated by Jane Carlson; the book was published in 1961 by Little and Company. Hippo page.
Reunion Blues is a 1971 album by Oscar Peterson and Milt Jackson. " Satisfaction" – 4:04 "Dream of You" – 4:17 "Some Day My Prince Will Come" – 6:11 "A Time for Love" – 5:28 "Reunion Blues" – 6:39 "When I Fall in Love" – 5:14 "Red Top" – 8:45 Oscar Peterson – piano Milt Jackson – vibraphone Ray Brown – double bass Louis Hayes - drums
Axel Frederik Preben Schmidt was a Brazilian sailor from Rio de Janeiro who competed in the Summer Olympic Games, the Pan American Games, the Snipe World Championships, the Star World Championships and the Lightning World Championships. He is the son of Preben Tage Axel Schmidt and Helene Margrete Jelinski and brother of Ingrid and Erik Schmidt competitive Brazilian sailors. Ingrid is the mother of Lars Grael, he and his twin brother Erik were known as "the sea twins" after winning 3 Snipe Worlds in a row. They won the 1959 Pan American Games and finished 2nd in the 1963 Pan American Games in Lightning and third in the 1961 Lightning World Championships. In the Star class, they were 9th at the 1967 Star World Championships, Axel was 22nd at the 1980 Star World Championships with Luiz Amaro as a crew. Axel Schmidt sailed at 2 different Pan American Games: 1st place in Lightning at Chicago 1959. 2nd place in Lightning at São Paulo 1963. Axel Schmidt sailed at 2 different Olympic Games: 7th place in Star at Acapulco 1968.