Republic of Korea Air Force

The Republic of Korea Air Force known as the ROK Air Force, is the aerial warfare service branch of South Korea, operating under the South Korean Ministry of National Defense. Shortly after the end of World War II, the South Korean Air Construction Association was founded on August 10, 1946, to publicize the importance of air power. Despite the then-scanty status of Korean armed forces, the first air unit was formed on May 5, 1948, under the direction of Dong Wi-bu, the forerunner to the modern South Korean Ministry of National Defense. On September 13, 1949, the United States contributed 10 L-4 Grasshopper observation aircraft to the South Korean air unit. An Army Air Academy was founded on January 1949, the ROKAF was founded on October 1949; the 1950s were a critical time for the ROKAF. At the outbreak of the war, the ROKAF consisted of 1,800 personnel but was equipped with only 20 trainers and liaison aircraft, including 10 North American T-6 Texan advanced trainers purchased from Canada.

The North Korean air force had acquired a considerable number of Yak-9 and La-7 fighters from the Soviet Union, dwarfing the ROKAF in terms of size and strength. However, during the course of the war, the ROKAF acquired 110 aircraft: 79 fighter-bombers, three fighter squadrons, one fighter wing; the first combat aircraft received were North American F-51D Mustangs, along with a contingent of US Air Force instructor pilots under the command of Major Dean Hess, as part of Bout One Project. The ROKAF flew independent sorties. After the war, the ROKAF Headquarters was moved to Seoul. Air Force University was founded in 1956. To counter the threat of possible North Korean aggression, the ROKAF underwent a substantial capability enhancement; the ROKAF acquired North American T-28 Trojan trainers, North American F-86D Sabre night- and all-weather interceptors, Northrop F-5 fighters and McDonnell Douglas F-4D Phantom fighter bombers. Air Force Operations Command was established in 1961 to secure efficient command and control facilities.

Air Force Logistics Command was established in 1966, emergency runways were constructed for emergency use during wartime. The Eunma Unit was founded in 1966 to operate Curtiss C-46 Commando transport aircraft used to support Republic of Korea Army and Republic of Korea Marine Corps units serving in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War; the ROKAF was posed with a security risk, with an belligerent North Korea throughout the 1970s. The South Korean government increased its expenditure on the ROKAF, resulting in the purchase of Northrop F-5E Tiger II fighters in August 1974 and F-4E fighter-bombers. Support aircraft, such as Fairchild C-123 Providers and Grumman S-2 Trackers were purchased at the time. Great emphasis was placed in the flight training program; the ROKAF concentrated on qualitative expansion of aircraft to catch up to the strength of the North Korean Air Force. In 1982, Korean variants of the F-5E, the Jegong-ho were first produced; the ROKAF gathered a good deal of information on the North Korean Air Force when Captain Lee Woong-pyeong, a North Korean pilot, defected to South Korea.

The Korean Combat Operations Information center was soon formed and the Air Defence System was automated to attain air superiority against North Korea. When the 1988 Seoul Olympics was held in South Korea, the ROKAF contributed to the success of this event by helping to oversee the entire security system; the ROKAF moved its headquarters and the Air Force Education & Training Command to other locations. Forty General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon fighters were purchased in 1989. South Korea committed its support for coalition forces during the Persian Gulf War, forming the "Bima Unit" to fight in the war; the ROKAF provided airlift support for peacekeeping operations in Somalia in 1993. The increased participation in international operations depicted the ROKAF's elevated international position. Over 180 KF-16 fighters of F-16 Block 52 specifications were introduced as part of the Peace Bridge II & III program from 1994. In 1997, for the first time in Korean aviation history, female cadets were accepted into the Korean Air Force Academy.

The last of the old South Korean 60 F-5A/B fighters were all retired in August 2007, they were replaced with the F-15K and F/A-50. On October 20, 2009, Bruce S. Lemkin, deputy undersecretary of the U. S. Air Force said that the ROKAF's limited intelligence and reconnaissance capabilities increased the risk of instability on the Korean Peninsula and suggested the purchase of American systems such as the F-35 Lightning II to close this gap; the South Korean Air Force expressed interests in acquiring the RQ-4 Global Hawk remotely piloted vehicle and a number of Joint Direct Attack Munition conversion kits to further improve its intelligence and offensive capabilities. The South Korean Airforce acquired 40 F-35s and +20 additional F-35 Republic of Korea Air Force Headquarters Air Force Operations Command Air Combat Command 1st Fighter Wing, based at Gwangju 8th Fighter Wing, based at Wonju 10th Fighter Wing, based at Suwon 11th Fighter Wing, based at Daegu 16th Fighter Wing, based at Yecheon 17th Fighter Wing, based at Cheongju 18th Fighter Wing, based at Gangneung 19th Fighter Wing, based at Chungju 20th Fighter Wing, based at Seosan 38th Fighter Group, based at Gunsan Air Mobility & Reconnaissance Command 3rd Flying Training Wing, based at Sacheon 5th Air Mobility Wing, based


Retterath is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Vulkaneifel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Kelberg; the municipality lies in the Vulkaneifel, a part of the Eifel known for its volcanic history and geological features, ongoing activity today, including gases that sometimes well up from the earth. In 954, Retterath had its first documentary mention in some documents from Archbishop of Trier Ruotbert. From the Middle Ages until the late 18th century, Retterath belonged to the County of Virneburg. Up above Retterath runs a hiking trail around the Hochkelberg; the twelve-kilometre-long path leads by places that are steeped in both blood. In the village, there was on Electoral-Trier-held lands a Virneburg high court occupied by 3 Heimburgen – equivalent to “mayors” – from Retterath and Lirstal and 7 Schöffen, according to a Weistum from 1468; the reconstructed gallows remind one that this County of Virneburg blood court held its executions here in the woods.

The condemned were not only hanged from the gallows, but according to each one's sentence, broken on the wheel and quartered or beheaded. A stone's throw from the gallows lies the Grüner Weiher, a pond where once women who had killed their child were drowned. In those days, women were deemed guilty if they had become pregnant by rape or if they were too poor to raise their child. In 1809, the village together with Arbach and Salcherath, its own municipal area. Under Prussian administration, Retterath was a municipality in the Bürgermeisterei of Kelberg in the Adenau district. In the 1820s, a killer was on the loose around Retterath. Five people fell victim to the one-armed fiend who throughout the region was known as Stumpfarm – “Stump-Arm”. In the course of administrative restructuring in Rhineland-Palatinate in 1970, the municipality, along with the others in the Amt of Kelberg, was assigned to the Daun district, which has since been given the name Vulkaneifel; the council is made up of 8 council members, who were elected by majority vote at the municipal election held on 7 June 2009, the honorary mayor as chairman.

Retterath's mayor is Hermann Hay, his deputies are Leo Schüller and Franz-Josef Simon. The German blazon reads: Durch Wellenschnitt von Blau über Gold geteilt, oben eine fliegende weiße Taube mit weißem Ölkrug im Schnabel, unten 7 rote Rauten balkenweise; the municipality's arms might in English heraldic language be described thus: Per fess wavy, azure a dove volant bearing an oil jug in its beak argent, Or seven lozenges gules and three. The municipality's and the church's patron saint is Saint Remigius, whose attribute is the dove bearing an oil jug in its beak, thus explaining the charge above the line of partition. In feudal times, Retterath belonged, to the County of Virneburg; the charge below the line of partition is from the arms borne by the Counts of Virneburg. An 18th-century court seal from Retterath bore this device. Saint Remigius’s Catholic Parish Church, Kirchstraße – Gothic Revival basilica of slate quarrystone, 1862. At Brunnenstraße 1 – plastered building from 1880. Hauptstraße 18 – one-and-a-half-floor timber-frame house solid, from 18th century.

Hauptstraße 27 a – timber-frame house solid, left half from 18th century, right half newer. Hauptstraße/corner of Lindenstraße – wayside cross, basalt shaft cross from 1751. Kirchstraße 1 – timber-frame house solid or slated, latter half of 19th century. Kirchstraße 8 a – solid house from 1743. Lindenstraße/corner of Hauptstraße – wayside cross, basalt shaft cross from 1748. Retterath in the collective municipality’s Web pages

TNL Onstage

TNL Onstage is an annual music talent competition based in Colombo, Sri Lanka, organised by the TNL Radio Network. It is in its seventeenth season; the competition takes place over a four-month period, during which the participants undergo a training programme inclusive of workshops, training sessions and one-on-one work with established musicians. TNL Onstage commenced in 1999; the inaugural winners of the competition was roll band, Independent Square. In 2013 the competition won the'Most Fashionable Contest' award at the Fashion Asia Awards held in China. A category assessing events from Malaysia, Cambodia and China; the 2014 finale of TNL Onstage took place on 13 September 2014 at the Viharamahadevi Amphitheater, with the winner of the soloist category, Constellation winning the best band category and DJ Hiranya winning the spin off category. Each year, musicians from around Sri Lanka submit recorded demos to TNL Radio Network. Station staff make their first selections; those chosen are given the opportunity to compete in the first round of Onstage.

Judges evaluate musicians during each round on the basis of musicality. At the end of Onstage, one winner is selected for each of the following categories: Best Band, Best Soloist, Best Musician; the winners are awarded cash prizes. Independent Square won the title for Best Band at the first TNL Onstage competition in 1999. Soul Skinner won the title of Best Band at TNL Onstage 2004; the band subsequently released their debut EP titled'River Flow' to a receptive audience, resulting in a sold out release. Their debut album'Gateway to Eternity' was released in 2005 and featured original tracks including Illusions, War at mind, Angel Dust, Chaotic Symphony and the title track Gateway to Eternity. Tantrum the Colombo based heavy metal band, won Best Band at TNL Onstage 2005. In 2006, they released The Destruction Begins. Magic Box Mixup got their start in 2005, went on to win the People’s Choice Award at TNL Onstage in 2006; the band is one of the most popular English language bands in Sri Lanka. The Rebels were named a runner-up at TNL Onstage 2008.

Road Kill won Best Band at TNL Onstage in 2011. Magician’s Toolbox won best band at TNL Onstage in 2012; the band won for Best Original Song. Audacity won the title of Best Band in 2013, they were the first female band to do so in the history of the competition. Constellation won best band TNL Onstage in 2014. One band member won the title of Best Musician. TNL Onstage has become a major staple of the music industry in Sri Lanka. Many professional musicians see Onstage as a perfect means of jumpstarting a local music career. In an article for the Sunday Times, keyboardist for the Rebels, Sandeep Milan John said of the experience, "We didn't win, but being placed runners-up has been enough to keep the gigs coming in." TNL first began broadcasting in 1993. The Network was the first in Asia to stream online, now comprises three stations — TNL Radio, Lite FM, Rhythm FM. TNL Radio includes a news department focusing on local coverage of the latest events in Sri Lankan politics and culture