Republic of Korea Navy

The Republic of Korea Navy known as the ROK Navy or South Korean Navy, is the naval warfare service branch of the South Korean armed forces, responsible for naval and amphibious operations. The ROK Navy includes the Republic of Korea Marine Corps; the ROK Navy has about 70,000 regular personnel including 29,000 Republic of Korea Marines. There are about 150 commissioned ships with the ROK Navy; the naval aviation force consists of about 70 rotary-wing aircraft. The ROK Marine Corps has about 300 tracked vehicles including assault amphibious vehicles; the Republic of Korea Navy was established as the Marine Defense Group on November 11, 1945 after Korea was liberated from the Empire of Japan on August 15, 1945. Since the Korean War, the South Korean navy had concentrated its efforts on building naval forces to counteract the North Korean navy; as South Korea's economy grew, the ROK Navy was able to locally build larger and better equipped fleets to deter aggression, to protect the sea lines of communication, to support the nation's foreign policy.

As part of its mission, the ROK Navy has engaged in several peacekeeping operations since the turn of the 21st century. The ROK Navy aims to become a blue-water navy in the 2020s; the main duties of the Navy shall be operations on the sea, including landing operations, the main duties of the Marine Corps shall be landing operations, the Navy and Marine Corps shall be formed and equipped for that purpose and shall provide education and training necessary therefor. The objectives of the ROK Navy as core strength for the National Security are: Establishing self-reliant naval forces to deter war Securing maritime superiority to gain victory Promoting national interests through protection of maritime activities Enhancing the national prestige through naval presence Korea has a long history of naval activity. In the late 4th century during the Three Kingdoms Period, Goguryeo defeated Baekje, fielding amphibious forces of 40,000 men in the process. In the 9th century, Commissioner Chang Bogo of Unified Silla established a maritime base called Cheonghaejin on an island to foster trading with China and Japan, to eradicate pirates.

In 1380, naval forces of the Goryeo Dynasty defeated 500 invading Japanese pirate vessels by deploying shipboard guns, devised by Choi Moosun. This is the first use of shipboard guns in naval history. In 1389 and 1419, Korean naval forces invaded Tsushima Island to suppress Japanese piracy. In the early years of the Joseon Dynasty, the naval force reached its peak of 50,000 personnel, in order to combat the ongoing piracy issue. During the Japanese invasions of Korea, the Korean naval force commanded by Admiral Yi Sunshin, who became the head of the Navy, cut off the invaders' naval lifeline and defeated the Japanese fleet, reversing the war in favor of Joseon. Admiral Yi is credited with the creation of the Turtle Ship. By the end of the 19th century, the Joseon Navy had no significant naval force other than coastal defense fortresses. Although there was an attempt to modernize the navy by establishing a royal naval school, the Joseon Navy was brought to an end in 1895. In 1903, the government of the Korean Empire purchased KIS Yangmu.

Korean naval tradition was disrupted after Korea was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. During the Japanese occupation period, the Imperial Japanese Navy built a considerable naval base - Chinkai Guard District in southern Korea; the Republic of Korea Navy was established as the Marine Defense Group on November 11, 1945. After Korea was liberated from the Empire of Japan on August 15, 1945, Sohn Won-yil, a former merchant mariner and son of the Methodist minister and independence activist Sohn Jung-do, organized the Marine Defense Group in Seoul; the Group formed the Korean Coast Guard and Coast Guard Academy at Jinhae, the Korean Coast Guard acquired 36 patrol boats through the United States Army Military Government in Korea. After the South Korean government government was established on August 15, 1948, the Korean Coast Guard became the Republic of Korea Navy, Sohn was appointed as the first Chief of Naval Operations of the ROK Navy. On April 15, 1949, the Republic of Korea Marine Corps was founded at Jinhae.

In October 1949, the ROK Navy purchased a 600-ton submarine chaser, the former USS PC-823 with funds raised among its personnel. She was renamed ROKS Baekdusan after Paektu Mountain, became "the first significant warship of the newly independent nation"; the Korean War started with the North Korean army's surprise attack on Sunday, June 25, 1950. The ROK Navy confronted threats from the North Korean navy: "Perhaps the most aggressive and effective, if smallest, member of the South Korean armed services during the first year of the Korean War was the Republic of Korea Navy. At the outset of the conflict, the 6,956-man ROKN, with naval vessels of various types, was outnumbered by the 13,700 men and 110 naval vessels of the North Korean navy." With its UN allies, dominated by U. S. forces, the ROK Navy was able to gain control in the seas surrounding the country, as a task group of the UN Blockading and Escort Force. On July 27, 1953, the three-year-long war was brought to an end when an armistice agreement was signed.

During the war, Canada, Philippines, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States contributed naval vessels as UN allies. During the Korean War, the ROK Navy acquired 28 ex-USN ships including five Tacoma-class frigates. In September 1953, the ROK Navy established the Republic of Korea Fl

Barbara Creecy

Barbara Dallas Creecy is a South African politician and previous anti-apartheid activist. A member of the African National Congress, she is serving as Minister of Environment and Fisheries, a Member of the National Assembly of South Africa, she served as a Member of the Gauteng Provincial Legislature, having been elected in 1994. In 2004, she was named Gauteng MEC for Sports, Recreation and Culture, she served until 2009. Newly-elected Premier David Makhura moved Creecy to the Gauteng Finance portfolio in 2014. In May 2019, Creecy was sworn in as a Member of Parliament. On 29 May 2019, President Cyril Ramaphosa named her the new Minister of Environment and Fisheries. Barbara Creecy was born in Johannesburg, she obtained an Honours degree in Political Science. On, she completed a Master's degree in Public Policy and Management with the University of London. Creecy was an anti-apartheid activist and worked in the underground structures of the African National Congress whilst a student at the Witwatersrand University.

She worked for the Civic Desk of the United Democratic Front and soon joined an NGO that provided training and organisational development support to trade unions and community structures. She had been a member of the Provincial Executive Committee of the ANC. Creecy was one of the longest-serving Members of the Gauteng Provincial Legislature, having been elected in 1994. During her first two terms, she served as the Deputy Chief Whip as well as Chairperson of both the Social Development and Education Committees. In 2004, Premier Mbhazima Shilowa appointed her as MEC for Sports, Recreation and Culture. Paul Mashatile retained Creecy in her post. In May 2009, Creecy moved to the Education portfolio and served in that post until May 2014, when Premier David Makhura selected her as the new Gauteng Finance MEC. Following the May 2019 elections, Creecy took office as a Member of the National Assembly; the media speculated that she would be appointed to the National Finance Department, as either Minister or Deputy Minister.

On 29 May 2019, President Cyril Ramaphosa appointed her to the post of Minister of Environment and Fisheries. People's Assembly profile Barbara Creecy - 1976, being brought up by a single mother & being a career mom BEHIND THE POLITICS: Creecy on student activism, juggling career and family life

Deborah Grabien

Deborah Grabien is an American novelist and essayist. Her works cross several genres, including murder mysteries, supernatural thrillers, utopian fantasies, etc, her novel Plainsong is a religious fantasy featuring a female Messiah. Grabien is a reviewer and guest editor for Green Man Review, she was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in 2002. She has used her own experiences in dealing with the disease to illuminate character traits in her characters. P. Kinkaid, the protagonist in the Kinkaid Chronicles mystery series. Still Life With Devils Woman of Fire released as Eyes in the Fire The Kinkaid Chronicles Rock and Roll Never Forgets While My Guitar Gently Weeps London Calling Graceland Book of Days Uncle John's Band Dead Flowers Comfortably Numb The Haunted Ballads The Weaver and the Factory Maid Famous Flower of Serving Men Matty Groves Cruel Sister New Slain Knight Fire Queen Plainsong Dark's Tale released as Dark e i fantasmi del parco And Then Put Out the Light Tales From the House Band Chuck Leavell: Back To The Woods: A tribute to the pioneers of blues piano The Thing About Movements… Goodnight, dazzling stranger The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus Nicky Hopkins Ladies and Gentlemen: the Rolling Stones Rolling Stones: Exile on Main Street Ronnie Penque: Only Road Home Comfort and the Unexpected: In Conversation with Maddy Prior An Unkindness of Authors Ghost, in the Key of B Dear Richard, Please Will You Play...?

Three shows, three settings, one happy woman Truth, in the Middle The Boys in the Barroom Sunrise Love and Crit and the Whole Damned Thing—Finding the Fulcrum point between heart and head Talkin' About that Unbroken Circle—Deborah Grabien on Music in 2007 Edge I Am the Lion ) Author's website on Red Room Deborah Grabien at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Deborah Grabien @