USS Castle Rock (AVP-35)
USS Castle Rock was a United States Navy Barnegat-class small seaplane tender in commission from 1944 to 1946 which saw service in the late months of World War II. After the war, she was in commission in the United States Coast Guard as the Coast Guard cutter USCGC Castle Rock WHEC-383, from 1948 to 1971, seeing service in the Vietnam War during her Coast Guard career. Transferred to South Vietnam in 1971, she served in the Republic of Vietnam Navy as the frigate RVNS Trần Bình Trọng and fought in the Battle of the Paracel Islands in 1974; when South Vietnam collapsed at the end of the Vietnam War in 1975, Trần Bình Trọng fled to the Philippines, where she served in the Philippine Navy from 1979 to 1985 as the frigate RPS Francisco Dagohoy. Castle Rock was laid down on 12 July 1943 at Houghton, Washington, by the Lake Washington Shipyard, was launched on 11 March 1944, sponsored by Mrs. R. W. Cooper, she commissioned on 8 October 1944 with Jr. in command. Castle Rock stood out of San Diego, California, on 18 December 1944 bound for Pearl Harbor and Eniwetok, where she arrived on 28 January 1945.
Assigned to escort convoys between Saipan and Ulithi Atoll until 20 March 1945, Castle Rock took up duties of tending seaplanes at Saipan. Her seaplanes carried out varied air operations, including reconnaissance and antisubmarine warfare activities, while Castle Rock herself performed local escort duties. On 28 November 1945, Castle Rock sailed from Saipan for Guam, where she embarked a group assigned to study Japanese defenses on Chichi Jima and Truk; this continued until 5 January 1946, when Castle Rock returned to seaplane tender operations at Saipan. Castle Rock left Saipan on 9 March 1946, arriving at San Francisco, California, on 27 March 1946, she was decommissioned there on 6 August 1946 Barnegat-class ships were reliable and seaworthy and had good habitability, the Coast Guard viewed them as ideal for ocean station duty, in which they would perform weather reporting and search and rescue tasks, once they were modified by having a balloon shelter added aft and having oceanographic equipment, an oceanographic winch, a hydrographic winch installed.
After World War II, the U. S. Navy transferred 18 of the ships to the Coast Guard, in which they were known as the Casco-class cutters; the U. S. Navy loaned Castle Rock to the Coast Guard on 16 September 1948. After undergoing conversion for use as a weather-reporting ship, she was commissioned into Coast Guard service as USCGC Castle Rock on 18 December 1948 at Mare Island Navy Yard, California. Castle Rock was stationed at Boston, after her commissioning, her primary duty was to serve on ocean stations in the Atlantic Ocean to gather meteorological data. While on duty in one of these stations, she was required to patrol a 210-square-mile area for three weeks at a time, leaving the area only when physically relieved by another Coast Guard cutter or in the case of a dire emergency. While on station, she acted as an aircraft check point at the point of no return, a relay point for messages from ships and aircraft, as a source of the latest weather information for passing aircraft, as a floating oceanographic laboratory, as a search-and-rescue ship for downed aircraft and vessels in distress, she engaged in law enforcement operations.
In March 1956, Castle Rock towed the Finnish merchant ship Sunnavik from 300 nautical miles south of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, to safety. Castle Rock reported to Guantanamo Bay, for service during the blockade of Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. Castle Rock took part in the United States Coast Guard Academy cadet cruise in May 1961, May 1963 and again in August 1965; these cadet cruises were in company with the Coast Guard Training sailing ship, the CGC Eagle and at least one other Coast Guard cutter. On 1 May 1966, Castle Rock was reclassified as a high endurance cutter and redesignated WHEC-383. On 26 September 1966 her period on loan to the Coast Guard ended when she was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register and transferred permanently to the Coast Guard. Castle Rock was stationed at Portland, beginning in 1967, with the same duties she had as during her years at Boston. On 22 and 23 February 1967 she rescued eight people from the sinking fishing vessel Maureen and Michael 90 nautical miles southwest of Cape Race, Canada.
Castle Rock was assigned to Coast Guard Squadron Three in South Vietnam in 1971. While on an R & R visit from South Vietnam, she suffered an engineering casualty and sank at her pier in Singapore, but returned to duty with the squadron upon completion of repairs. Castle Rock arrived in Vietnam on 30 July 1971. Coast Guard Squadron Three was tasked to operate in conjunction with U. S. Navy forces in Operation Market Time, the interdiction of North Vietnamese arms and munitions traffic along the coastline of South Vietnam during the Vietnam War; the squadron's other Vietnam War duties included fire support for ground forces, resupplying Coast Guard and Navy patrol boats, search-and-rescue operations. Castle Rock served in this capacity until 21 December 1971. Castle Rock was awarded two campaign stars for her Vietnam War service, for: Consolidation I 9 July 1971 – 30 November 1971 Consolidation II 1 December 1971 – 21 December 1971 After her antisubmarine warfare equipment had been removed, the Coast Guard decommissioned Castle Rock in South Vietnam on 21 December 1971, the day her Vietnam War tour ended.
On 21 December 1971, Castle Rock was transferred to South Vietnam, which commissioned her into the Republic of Vietnam Navy as the frigate RVNS Trần Bình Trọng. was a South Vietnamese frigate of the Republic of Vietnam
Cao Văn Viên
Cao Văn Viên was one of only two, South Vietnamese 4 star Army Generals in the history of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam during the Vietnam War. He rose to the position of Chairman of the South Vietnamese Joint General Staff. Considered one of "the most gifted" of South Vietnam's military leaders, he was called an "absolute key figure" and one of "the most important Vietnamese military leaders" in the U. S.-led fighting during the Vietnam War. Along with Trần Thiện Khiêm he was one of only two four-star generals in the entire history of South Vietnam. Viên was born to Vietnamese parents in Vientiane, Laos, in December 1921, his father was a merchant. Hearing rumors of a gold rush in the Mekong Delta, he moved to what was called Cochinchina to become a prospector. Although he became a follower of Ho Chi Minh and fought as a guerrilla against French colonial rule, he soon concluded that Hồ's movement was more communist than nationalist, joined independent fighter groups, he was captured by the French and enrolled at the University of Saigon where he obtained a bachelor's degree in French literature.
His schoolmate was Lâm Quang Thi. Viên attended the French-run Cap Saint Jacques Military School, graduating with a commission in the Vietnamese National Army as a second lieutenant in 1949, he rose through the ranks, becoming a battalion commander in 1953 and major in 1954. He attended the Vietnamese National Military Academy as a lieutenant, where he met and became friendly with many of South Vietnam's military leaders, he twice served in military intelligence, twice as a military logistics officer. After the formation of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam in 1955, he was appointed chief of military logistics for the ARVN Joint General Staff, he graduated from the United States Army Command and General Staff College in 1957. By 1960, he had completed parachute training with both the Vietnamese and American military, earned his Vietnamese combat pilot's license, earned his American combat helicopter pilot's license. Viên was promoted to lieutenant colonel and appointed Chief of Staff of the Special Military Staff in the office of the President of the Republic in 1956.
He and his family moved to a modest home in the Cholon neighborhood of Saigon. He was promoted to colonel in 1960 and named Commander of the Vietnamese Airborne Division in November 1960; this came after Colonel Nguyễn Chánh Thi and Lieutenant Colonel Vương Văn Đông, the two highest-ranking paratroopers led a failed coup attempt against Diem and fled into exile in Cambodia. Based on his experiences, Viên concluded in 1961 that the Viet Cong were no longer acting alone but were being led and reinforced by regular units of the People's Army of Vietnam. Viên refused to participate in the 1963 coup against South Vietnamese President Ngô Đình Diệm, he was one of several military leaders. When called to a lunchtime meeting with other senior officers and informed of the coup d'état, he broke down in tears and resigned, refusing to go along with the putsch. Vien was not aware of the plot, the generals had discussed whether to assassinate him during their planning phase because they knew he was a Diem admirer.
His loyalty to the conspirators now suspect, a rifle was thrust into his back and he was moments from being killed. But Major General Tôn Thất Đính had spoken with General Dương Văn Minh during the planning for the coup and convinced Minh to save Viên's life. Dinh played mahjong with Vien's wife, had convinced Minh that Vien would not oppose the coup. Vien had planned with Diem to allow the president to take refuge at his home in the event of a coup, but the offer could not be taken up because the rebels surrounded Vien's house after taking him into custody. Another account has him accepting the coup after being informed of it. General Lâm Quang Thi recalled that Viên was a Diem loyalist, but remained neutral during the coup. Viên was imprisoned and stripped of his command, but reinstated a month later. Col. Viên was a critical supporter of the 1964 South Vietnamese coup in which President Dương Văn Minh was toppled by General Nguyễn Khánh, plotting with him to overthrow Minh and ordering his Airborne Division troops to help secure the capital.
By March 14, Viên had been promoted by the new regime to brigadier general. Viên was named Commander of III Corps. While commanding troops during action in Kiến Phong Province in March 1964, his unit was ambushed and surrounded on three sides. Viên was wounded in the upper arm and shoulder, was decorated by the United States with the Silver Star and by the Republic of Vietnam with the National Order of Vietnam; the Silver Star citation said that while leading his men in an anti-communist assault, despite "the confusion and inferno of enemy fire" from both sides and an arm and shoulder wound, Vien "continued to exercise command vigorously and until the enemy had been routed". Viên was the first senior South Vietnamese military officer, his actions won him widespread respect from American military officers. Viên was appointed Chief of Staff of the Joint General Staff on September 11, 1964, after President Khanh dismissed General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu in order to win Buddhist support for his government.
As Chief of Staff of the JGS, he controlled troop movements around the capital and assigned officers to a few critical positions. He supported Khanh and helped suppress a counter-coup by Major General Dương Văn Đức on September 14, 1964, he helped put down another coup on September 27. Along with General Nguyễn Chánh Thi, Air Commodore Ngu
Paris Peace Accords
The Paris Peace Accords titled the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam, was a peace treaty signed on January 27, 1973, to establish peace in Vietnam and end the Vietnam War. The treaty included the governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, the Republic of Vietnam, the United States, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Government that represented indigenous South Vietnamese revolutionaries. US ground forces up to that point had been sidelined with deteriorating morale and withdrawn to coastal regions, not partaking in offensive operations or much direct combat for the preceding two-year period; the Paris Agreement Treaty would in effect remove all remaining US Forces, including air and naval forces in exchange for Hanoi's POWs. Direct U. S. military intervention was ended, fighting between the three remaining powers temporarily stopped for less than a day. The agreement was not ratified by the United States Senate; the negotiations that led to the accord began after various lengthy delays.
As a result of the accord, the International Control Commission was replaced by the International Commission of Control and Supervision to fulfill the agreement. The main negotiators of the agreement were United States National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger and North Vietnamese politburo member Lê Đức Thọ; the agreement's provisions were frequently broken with no response from the United States. Fighting broke out in March 1973, North Vietnamese offenses enlarged their control by the end of the year. Two years a massive North Vietnamese offensive conquered South Vietnam; the agreement called for: The withdrawal of all U. S. and allied forces within sixty days. The return of prisoners of war parallel to the above; the clearing of mines from North Vietnamese ports by the U. S. A cease-fire in place in South Vietnam followed by precise dilineations of communist and government zones of control; the establishment of a “National Council of National Reconciliation and Concord” composed of a communist and neutralist side to implement democratic liberties and organize free elections in South Vietnam.
The establishment of “Joint Military Commissions” composed of the four parties and an “International Commission of Control and Supervision” composed of Canada, Hungary and Poland to implement the cease-fire. Both operate by unanimity; the withdrawal of foreign troops from Laos and Cambodia. A ban on the introduction of war materials in South Vietnam unless on a replacement basis. A ban on introducing further military personnel into South Vietnam. U. S. financial contributions to “healing the wounds of war” throughout Indochina. Following the success of anti-war candidate Eugene McCarthy in the New Hampshire primary, in March 1968 U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson halted bombing operations over the northern portion of the North Vietnam, in order to encourage Hanoi to begin negotiations. Although some sources state that the bombing halt decision announced on March 31, 1968 was related to events occurring within the White House and the Presidents counsel of Secretary of Defense Clark Clifford and others rather than the events in New Hampshire.
Shortly thereafter, Hanoi agreed to discuss a complete halt of the bombing, a date was set for representatives of both parties to meet in Paris, France. The sides first met on May 10, with the delegations headed by Xuân Thuỷ, who would remain the official leader of the North Vietnamese delegation throughout the process, U. S. ambassador-at-large W. Averell Harriman. For five months, the negotiations stalled as North Vietnam demanded that all bombing of North Vietnam be stopped, while the U. S. side demanded. One of the largest hurdles to effective negotiation was the fact that North Vietnam and the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam in the South, refused to recognize the government of South Vietnam. Harriman resolved this dispute by developing a system by which North Vietnam and U. S. would be the named parties. S. allies. A similar debate concerned the shape of the table to be used at the conference; the North favored a circular table, in which all parties, including NLF representatives, would appear to be "equal"' in importance.
The South Vietnamese argued that only a rectangular table was acceptable, for only a rectangle could show two distinct sides to the conflict. A compromise was reached, in which representatives of the northern and southern governments would sit at a circular table, with members representing all other parties sitting at individual square tables around them. Bryce Harlow, a former White House staff member in the Eisenhower administration, claimed to have "a double agent working in the White House.... I kept Nixon informed." Harlow and Henry Kissinger separately predicted Johnson's "bombing halt". Democratic senator George Smathers informed President Johnson that "the word is out that we are making an effort to throw the election to Humphrey. Nixon
Riverine Assault Craft
Riverine combatant crafts named Riverine Assault Craft were first procured from "SeaArk" by the US Marine Corps as early as 1990. SeaArk RAC A "second generation" RAC was built by Swift Shifts. Swiftships RAC RACs saw combat in Iraq with the U. S. Marine Corps' Small Craft Company as they were being replaced by Small Unit Riverine Crafts, both crafts being turned over to the United States Navy Riverine Squadrons. RAC replaced by the SURC
United States Coast Guard Cutter
United States Coast Guard Cutter is the term used by the U. S. Coast Guard for its commissioned vessels, they are 65 feet or greater in length and have a permanently assigned crew with accommodations aboard. They carry the ship prefix USCGC; the Revenue Marine and the Revenue Cutter Service, as it was known variously throughout the late 18th and the 19th centuries, referred to its ships as cutters. The term is English in origin and refers to a specific type of vessel, namely, "a small, decked ship with one mast and bowsprit, with a gaff mainsail on a boom, a square yard and topsail, two jibs or a jib and a staysail." With general usage, that term came to define any vessel of the United Kingdom's HM Customs and Excise and the term was adopted by the U. S. Treasury Department at the creation of what would become the Revenue Marine. Since that time, no matter what the vessel type, the service has referred to its vessels with permanently assigned crews as cutters. In 1790, Congress authorized the Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, to create a maritime service to enforce customs laws.
Alternatively known as the system of cutters, Revenue Service, Revenue-Marine this service was named the Revenue Cutter Service in 1863. This service was placed under the control of the Treasury Department; the first ten cutters were: USRC Vigilant USRC Active USRC General Green USRC Massachusetts USRC Scammel USRC Argus USRC Virginia USRC Diligence USRC South Carolina USRC Eagle 420' Icebreaker Healy 418' National Security Cutter 399' Polar-class icebreaker 378' High endurance cutter 295' USCGC Eagle 282' Medium Endurance Cutter 270' Medium Endurance Cutter 240' USCGC Mackinaw 230' Medium Endurance Cutter 225' Seagoing buoy tender 213' Medium Endurance Cutter 210' Medium Endurance Cutter 179-foot Cyclone-class coastal patrol ships 175' Keeper-class cutter 160' Inland Construction Tender 154' Sentinel-class cutter 140' Bay-class icebreaking tug 110' Island-class patrol boat 100' Inland Buoy Tender 100' Inland Construction Tender 87' Marine Protector-class coastal patrol boat 75' River Buoy Tender 75' Inland Construction Tender 65' River Buoy Tender 65' Inland Buoy Tender 65' Small Harbor Tug 327' Treasury-class cutter 311' Casco-class cutter 306' Edsall-class cutter 269' Wind-class icebreaker 255' Owasco-class cutter 250' Lake-class cutter 240' Tampa-class cutter 213' Diver-class rescue and salvage ship 205' Cherokee-class fleet tug, converted to cutter, redesignated 180' Seagoing buoy tender 180' Oceanographic vessel 165' Thetis-class patrol boat 165' Algonquin-class patrol boat 165' Tallapoosa-class boat 157' Red-class coastal buoy tender 133' White-class coastal buoy tender 125' Active-class patrol boat 123' Patrol boat 110' Calumet-class harbor tug 110' Apalachee-class harbor tug 110' Manitou-class harbor tug 95' Cape-class cutter 82' Point-class cutter
Fall of Saigon
The Fall of Saigon, or the Liberation of Saigon, was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam and the Viet Cong on 30 April 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; the PAVN, under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũng, began their final attack on Saigon on April 29, 1975, with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam forces commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Toàn suffering a heavy artillery bombardment. This bombardment at the Tan Son Nhat International Airport killed the last two American servicemen killed in combat in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge. By the afternoon of the next day, the PAVN had occupied the important points of the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace; the city was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City, after the late North Vietnamese President Hồ Chí Minh. The capture of the city was preceded by Operation Frequent Wind, the evacuation of all the American civilian and military personnel in Saigon, along with tens of thousands of South Vietnamese civilians, associated with the southern regime.
The evacuation was the largest helicopter evacuation in history. In addition to the flight of refugees, the end of the war and the institution of new rules by the communists contributed to a decline in the city's population. Various names have been applied to these events; the Vietnamese government calls it the "Day of liberating the South for national reunification" or "Liberation Day", but the term "Fall of Saigon" is used in Western accounts. It is called the "Ngày mất nước", "Tháng Tư Đen", "National Day of Shame" or "National Day of Resentment". by many Overseas Vietnamese who were refugees from communism. The rapidity with which the South Vietnamese position collapsed in 1975 was surprising to most American and South Vietnamese observers, to the North Vietnamese and their allies as well. For instance, a memo prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and U. S. Army Intelligence and published on March 5 indicated that South Vietnam could hold out through the current dry season—i.e. At least until 1976.
These predictions proved to be grievously in error. As that memo was being released, General Dũng was preparing a major offensive in the Central Highlands of Vietnam, which began on 10 March and led to the capture of Buôn Ma Thuột; the ARVN began a disorderly and costly retreat, hoping to redeploy its forces and hold the southern part of South Vietnam an enclave south of the 13th parallel. Supported by artillery and armor, the PAVN continued to march towards Saigon, capturing the major cities of northern South Vietnam at the end of March—Huế on the 25th and Đà Nẵng on the 28th. Along the way, disorderly South Vietnamese retreats and the flight of refugees—there were more than 300,000 in Đà Nẵng—damaged South Vietnamese prospects for a turnaround. After the loss of Đà Nẵng, those prospects had been dismissed as nonexistent by American CIA officers in Vietnam, who believed that nothing short of B-52 strikes against Hanoi could stop the North Vietnamese. By April 8, the North Vietnamese Politburo, which in March had recommended caution to Dũng, cabled him to demand "unremitting vigor in the attack all the way to the heart of Saigon."
On April 14, they renamed the campaign the "Hồ Chí Minh campaign", after revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh, in hopes of wrapping it up before his birthday on May 19. Meanwhile, South Vietnam failed to garner any significant increase in military aid from the United States, snuffing out President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu’s hopes for renewed American support. On April 9, PAVN forces reached Xuân Lộc, the last line of defense before Saigon, where the ARVN 18th Division made a last stand and held the city through fierce fighting for 11 days; the PAVN overran Xuân Lộc on April 20 despite heavy losses, on April 21 President Thiệu resigned in a tearful televised announcement in which he denounced the United States for failing to come to the aid of the South. The North Vietnamese front line was now just 26 miles from downtown Saigon; the victory at Xuân Lộc, which had drawn many South Vietnamese troops away from the Mekong Delta area, opened the way for PAVN to encircle Saigon, they soon did so, moving 100,000 troops in position around the city by April 27.
With the ARVN having few defenders, the fate of the city was sealed. The ARVN III Corps commander, General Toàn, had organized five centers of resistance to defend the city; these fronts were so connected as to form an arc enveloping the entire area west and east of the capital. The Cu Chi front, to the northwest, was defended by the 25th Division. South Vietnamese defensive forces around Saigon totaled 60,000 troops. However, as the exodus made it into Saigon, along with them were many ARVN soldiers, which swelled the "men under arms" in the city to over 250,000; these units were battered and leaderless, which threw the city into further anarchy. The rapid PAVN advances of March and early April led to increased concern in Saigon that the city, peaceful throughout the war and wh
Cần Thơ is the fourth largest city in Vietnam, the largest city in the Mekong Delta. It is noted for its floating market, rice paper-making village, picturesque rural canals, it had a population of 1.2 million as of 2011, it has population of 1,520,000 until June 2018, is located on the south bank of the Hau River, a distributary of the Mekong River. In 2007, about 50 people died when the Cần Thơ Bridge collapsed, causing Vietnam's worst engineering disaster. In 2011, Can Tho International Airport opened; the city is nicknamed the "western capital", is located 169 kilometres from Ho Chi Minh City. The city is an independent municipality at the same level as provinces of Vietnam, it was created in the beginning of 2004 by a split of the former Cần Thơ Province into two new administrative units: Cần Thơ City and Hậu Giang Province. Cần Thơ is subdivided into nine district-level sub-divisions: 5 urban districts: 4 rural districts: They are further subdivided into five commune-level towns, 36 communes, 44 wards.
Ninh Kiều, which has the well-known port Ninh Kiều port, is the center district and the most populated and wealthiest of these districts. The city borders the provinces of Hậu Giang, Kiên Giang, Vĩnh Long and Đồng Tháp. Cần Thơ is connected to the rest of the country by National Route 1A and Can Tho International Airport; the city's bridge, now completed, is the longest cable-stayed bridge in south-east Asia. The six-lane Saigon–Cần Thơ Expressway is being built in parts from Hồ Chí Minh City to Mỹ Tho; the hydrofoil express boat links this city with Ho Chi Minh City.. There are many vehicles here such as: taxi, grab bikes, van, coaches and so on; the Mekong Delta is considered to be the "rice basket of Vietnam", contributing more than half of the nation's rice production. People say of Cần Thơ: Cần Thơ is famous for its floating markets, where people sell and buy things on the river, as well as the bird gardens and the port of Ninh Kiều; the city offers a wide range of tropical fruits such as pomelo, jackfruit, guava, rambutan, dragon fruit and durian.
The Cần Thơ City Museum has exhibits on the city's history. Tourist attractions Cần Thơ Bridge Thiền viện Trúc Lâm Phương Nam - Buddhist Temple Nam Nhã Pagoda Bình Thủy Temple BInh Thuy Ancient House Ninh Kiều Quay Cần Thơ pedestrian bridge Cái Răng Floating Market, Phong Điền Floating Market Bằng Lăng Stork Sanctuary Canal Tour Cantho Cathedral Ông Chinese Pagoda Pitu Khôsa Răngsey Khmer Pagoda Quang Duc Pagoda Long Quang Pagoda Phat Hoc Pagoda My Khanh tourist village Can Tho seminary Academic institutions in the city are Cần Thơ University, Cần Thơ Department of Education and Training, Cần Thơ University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Tây Đô University, Nam Cần Thơ University, Cần Thơ College, College of Foreign Economic Relations – Cần Thơ Branch, Medical College, Can Tho Technical Economic College and Vocational College, with its well-known College of Agriculture and Mekong Delta Rice Research Institute, Cần Thơ University of Technology Cần Thơ's climate is tropical and monsoonal with two seasons: rainy, from May to November.
Average annual humidity is 83%, rainfall 1,635 mm and temperature 27 °C. After 120 years of development, the city now is the delta's most important center of economics, culture and technology, it has two industrial parks. Nice, France Shantou, China Phnom Penh, Cambodia Amol, Iran Riverside, California Jeollanamdo, Korea