Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo known as Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic, RotC, or the Congo, is a country located in the western coast of Central Africa. It is bordered by five countries: Gabon to its west; the region was dominated by Bantu-speaking tribes at least 3,000 years ago, who built trade links leading into the Congo River basin. Congo was part of the French colony of Equatorial Africa; the Republic of the Congo was established on 28 November 1958 but gained independence from France in 1960. It was a Marxist-Leninist state from 1969 to 1992, under the name People's Republic of the Congo; the sovereign state has had multi-party elections since 1992, although a democratically elected government was ousted in the 1997 Republic of the Congo Civil War, President Denis Sassou Nguesso, who first came to power in 1979, has ruled for 35 of the past 40 years. The Republic of the Congo has become the fourth-largest oil producer in the Gulf of Guinea, providing the country with a degree of prosperity despite political and economic instability in some areas and unequal distribution of oil revenue nationwide.

Congo's economy is dependent on the oil sector, economic growth has slowed since the post-2015 drop in oil prices. Bantu-speaking peoples who founded tribes during the Bantu expansions displaced and absorbed the earliest inhabitants of the region, the Pygmy people, about 1500 BC; the Bakongo, a Bantu ethnic group that occupied parts of present-day Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formed the basis for ethnic affinities and rivalries among those countries. Several Bantu kingdoms—notably those of the Kongo, the Loango, the Teke—built trade links leading into the Congo River basin; the Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão reached the mouth of the Congo in 1484. Commercial relationships grew between the inland Bantu kingdoms and European merchants who traded various commodities, manufactured goods, people captured from the hinterlands. After centuries as a major hub for transatlantic trade, direct European colonization of the Congo river delta began in the late 19th century, subsequently eroding the power of the Bantu societies in the region.

The area north of the Congo River came under French sovereignty in 1880 as a result of Pierre de Brazza's treaty with King Makoko of the Bateke. This Congo Colony became known first as French Congo as Middle Congo in 1903. In 1908, France organized French Equatorial Africa, comprising Middle Congo, Gabon and Oubangui-Chari; the French designated Brazzaville as the federal capital. Economic development during the first 50 years of colonial rule in Congo centered on natural-resource extraction; the methods were brutal: construction of the Congo–Ocean Railroad following World War I has been estimated to have cost at least 14,000 lives. During the Nazi occupation of France during World War II, Brazzaville functioned as the symbolic capital of Free France between 1940 and 1943; the Brazzaville Conference of 1944 heralded a period of major reform in French colonial policy. Congo benefited from the postwar expansion of colonial administrative and infrastructure spending as a result of its central geographic location within AEF and the federal capital at Brazzaville.

It received a local legislature after the adoption of the 1946 constitution that established the Fourth Republic. Following the revision of the French constitution that established the Fifth Republic in 1958, the AEF dissolved into its constituent parts, each of which became an autonomous colony within the French Community. During these reforms, Middle Congo became known as the Republic of the Congo in 1958 and published its first constitution in 1959. Antagonism between the Mbochis and the Laris and Kongos resulted in a series of riots in Brazzaville in February 1959, which the French Army subdued. New elections took place in April 1959. By the time the Congo became independent in August 1960, the former opponent of Youlou, agreed to serve under him. Youlou became the first President of the Republic of the Congo. Since the political tension was so high in Pointe-Noire, Youlou moved the capital to Brazzaville; the Republic of the Congo received full independence from France on 15 August 1960. Youlou ruled as the country's first president until labour elements and rival political parties instigated a three-day uprising that ousted him.

The Congolese military took charge of the country, installed a civilian provisional government headed by Alphonse Massamba-Débat. Under the 1963 constitution, Massamba-Débat was elected President for a five-year term. During Massamba-Débat's term in office the regime adopted "scientific socialism" as the country's constitutional ideology. In 1965, Congo established relations with the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, North Korea and North Vietnam. On the night between February 14 and 15, 1965, three prominent public officials in the Republic of the Congo were kidnapped; the bodies of two of them were found, mutilated, by the Congo River. Massamba-Débat's regime invited several hundred Cuban army troops into the country to train his party's militia units and these troops helped his government sur


Acentria is a monotypic moth genus of the family Crambidae described by James Francis Stephens in 1829. Its only species, Acentria ephemerella, the watermilfoil moth or water veneer, was described by Michael Denis and Ignaz Schiffermüller in 1775, it is used as an agent of biological pest control against the noxious aquatic plant known as Eurasian watermilfoil. The adult male is a white moth with a wingspan of about 12 millimeters. There are two female morphologies. Most females are live on the surface of the water or just submersed. A few females have longer wings and fly; this is an aquatic insect. The female is fertilized at the surface and dives to lay egg masses on aquatic plants, such as watermilfoil; the larva emerges and bores into the stem of the plant, gluing together plant material to create a shelter. It girdles stems as it feeds, which causes significant damage to the plant as stems and leaves die or break off; the larva pupates inside an underwater cocoon filled with air. Upon emergence and flighted females swim to the water surface and fly away.

This moth is used as a biocontrol agent on watermilfoil, but because it lacks host specificity and will attack other plant species, including natives. It tends to prefer M. spicatum over other plants. This is a European moth, but it was found in Canada in the 1920s, having been introduced accidentally, it is established in much of the northeastern United States, where it appears to have the ability to reduce watermilfoil infestations. Coombs, E. M. et al. Eds.. Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the United States. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 171. Cornell Species Profile Photo gallery

Robert Coe (colonist)

Robert Coe was an early English settler and the progenitor in New England of many Coes in America. Robert Coe was born at Thorpe Morieux, Suffolk and baptised there on October 26, 1596, as recorded in parish registers, his father, Henry Coe, had been a yeoman a clothmaker, for several years was church warden. In 1625 Robert Coe is shown as living in Boxford, Suffolk a thriving rural and manufacturing parish eight miles south of Thorpe Morieux, where he lived until leaving for America in 1634. Robert Coe and his family took passage from Ipswich aboard the Francis, commanded by Capt. John Cutting. Once in New England and his family located for a brief time in Watertown, where several other Puritan families from Boxford had located. In June 1635 Robert Coe joined a few others in starting a new plantation at Wethersfield, Connecticut, in the fertile Connecticut River Valley, he lived there for about five years where his house was situated at what is now the northwest corner of East Main and Broad Streets.

A division within the church caused Robert Coe and his adherents to purchase lands for a new plantation at Stamford, Connecticut. While in Stamford he rose to become a magistrate on 5 April 1643, to serve as a deputy to the General Court at New Haven the same year and in 1644. Once again a dispute within the church caused Robert Coe and the Rev. Richard Denton to cross the Long Island Sound in 1644 to Long Island under Dutch rule. There Coe helped to establish a new settlement called Hempstead. A church was established, with Robert Coe chosen as the elder, he remained there for eight years, acquired extensive land, was magistrate of the town under the Dutch government. Coe helped to form another new settlement, a few miles west on Long Island at a place known as Mespat, settled in 1642 but destroyed in an Indian attack the following year. A new church was formed with Robert Coe the elder; the settlement took on the name of Hastings before being permanently named Newtown. Mr. Coe remained there for four years, being the most prominent man and local magistrate his whole time there.

In 1653 he went to Boston as a deputy of the town to ask for protection from the Massachusetts Bay Colony against Indians, who were threatening attack. In November of the same year he was sent as deputy to New Amsterdam to confer with the Dutch on the same issue. From Middleburg, Robert Coe, his youngest son Benjamin Coe, several others purchased a large tract of land south of Newtown, today Jamaica and settled there; the Dutch appointed Robert Coe magistrate for Jamaica in 1658, an office which he held until 1664. When the English population on Long Island revolted from the Dutch at New Amsterdam and transferred their allegiance to Connecticut, Coe went along as well serving as deputy for Jamaica to the General Court at Hartford by which he was appointed commissioner for Jamaica, he last served as high-sheriff of Yorkshire after governance of this portion of Long Island fell under the jurisdiction of New York. Near the end of his life, Robert Coe settled his estate among his three sons, he married a third wife, Jane Rouse, when over 80 years of age.

He bought a farm of fifty acres at Foster's Meadow in Hempstead on 29 November 1678, where he lived until his death. His home on Long Island stood until 1930 when it was demolished to accommodate the construction of LaGuardia Airport. Henry Waldo Coe, an early doctor in The Dakotas, an influential person in Portland, Oregon and politics and a friend of Theodore Roosevelt British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill Country music singer David Allan Coe U. S. President George W. Bush Barbara Bush is the great-granddaughter of Daniel and Mary Coe's daughter Sarah. In 1855 Sarah Coe married a Marysville area farmer. Barbara's grandfather, Judge James E. Robinson of Union County, served on the Ohio Supreme Court. Vern Centennial Gorst, "Grandad of United Airlines"