A political spectrum is a system of classifying different political positions upon one or more geometric axes that symbolize independent political dimensions. Most long-standing spectra include a wing and left wing, which originally referred to seating arrangements in the French parliament after the Revolution. According to the simplest left–right axis and socialism are usually regarded internationally as being on the left, liberalism can mean different things in different contexts, sometimes on the left, sometimes on the right. Those with an intermediate outlook are classified as centrists or moderates, politics that rejects the conventional left–right spectrum is known as syncretic politics. Political scientists have noted that a single left–right axis is insufficient for describing the existing variation in political beliefs. As seen from the Speakers seat at the front of the Assembly, the aristocracy sat on the right, the defining point on the ideological spectrum was the Ancien Régime.
The Right thus implied support for aristocratic or royal interests, and the church, while The Left implied support for republicanism and civil liberties. Because the political franchise at the start of the revolution was relatively narrow, the original Left represented mainly the interests of the bourgeoisie and their political interests in the French Revolution lay with opposition to the aristocracy, and so they found themselves allied with the early capitalists. However, this did not mean that their interests lay with the laissez-faire policies of those representing them politically. As capitalist economies developed, the aristocracy became less relevant and were replaced by capitalist representatives. This evolution has often pulled parliamentary politicians away from laissez-faire economic policies, for almost a century, social scientists have considered the problem of how best to describe political variation. In 1950, Leonard W. Submitting the results to factor analysis and this system was derived empirically, rather than devising a political model on purely theoretical grounds and testing it, Fergusons research was exploratory.
As a result of method, care must be taken in the interpretation of Fergusons three factors, as factor analysis will output an abstract factor whether an objectively real factor exists or not. Although replication of the Nationalism factor was inconsistent, the finding of Religionism and Humanitarianism had a number of replications by Ferguson, shortly afterward, Hans Eysenck began researching political attitudes in Great Britain. He believed that there was something similar about the National Socialists on the one hand. Submitting this value questionnaire to the process of factor analysis used by Ferguson. Such analysis produces a factor whether or not it corresponds to a real-world phenomenon, Eysencks dimensions of R and T were found by factor analyses of values in Germany and Sweden and Japan. According to Eysenck, members of both ideologies were tough-minded, in this context, Eysenck carried out studies on nazism and communist groups, claiming to find members of both groups to be more dominant and more aggressive than control groups
The Argentine Senate is the upper house of the Argentine National Congress. The National Senate was established by the Argentine Confederation on July 29,1854, there are 72 members, three for each province and three for the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. The number of senators per province was raised two to three following the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution, and the change took effect following the May 14,1995. Historically, Senators were indirectly elected to terms by each provincial legislature. These provisions were abrogated by a 1994 constitutional amendment, and direct elections to the Senate took effect in 2001, currently one-third of the members are elected every two years. One-third of the provinces hold senatorial elections every two years, there are no term limits, the Senate is presided over by the Vice President of the Republic, who has the casting vote in the event of ties. The Senate must obtain quorum to deliberate, this being an absolute majority, see List of current members of the Argentine Senate The titular President of the Senate is the Vice President of Argentina.
However, day to day leadership of the Senate is exercised by the Provisional President
Elections in Argentina
This article is about voting and election results in Argentina. For details of Argentine government institutions and political parties, see Politics of Argentina, at the national level, Argentina elects a head of state and a legislature. The franchise extends to all citizens aged 16 and over, before the 1995 election, the President and Vice-President were both elected by an electoral college. The National Congress has two chambers, one-third of the constituencies are renewed every two years. In 2001 the whole senate was renewed, a quota law lays down that at least a third of the candidates on the ballots presented by each party participating in legislative elections must be women. Political parties in Argentina Electoral calendar Electoral system Election Atlas of Argentina from 1983 Adam Carrs Election Archive Argentina Elections 2007 Argentina Elections 101
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina. The city is located on the shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata. The city of Buenos Aires is neither part of Buenos Aires Province nor the Provinces capital, rather, in 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province. The city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Belgrano and Flores, the 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996, Buenos Aires is considered an alpha city by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires quality of life was ranked 81st in the world and one of the best in Latin America in 2012 and it is the most visited city in South America, and the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, and is known for its preserved Spanish/European-style architecture, Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup.
Buenos Aires will host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics and the 2018 G20 summit, Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple ethnic and religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture, the hill was known to them as Buen Ayre, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, which is adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Aragonese built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill, in 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea, the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors, especially Andalusians, venerated this image and frequently invoked the Fair Winds to aid them in their navigation, a sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
Pedro de Mendoza called the city Holy Mary of the Fair Winds, mendoza’s settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, and was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, a second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción. Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form Buenos Aires became the common usage during the 17th century, the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As. It is common as well to refer to it as B. A. or BA /ˌbiːˈeɪ/ bee-AY), while BA is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more often use the abbreviation Baires, in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516 and his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay
Integration and Development Movement
The Integration and Development Movement or MID is a political party in Argentina. The arrangement provided the banned Peronists a voice in government in exchange for their support, balbín was dealt a February surprise when, four days before the election, the exiled leader publicly endorsed Frondizi. Blank votes became Frondizi votes, making him the winner of the 1958 elections, unable to finance these easily, Frondizis predecessors had resorted to printing money to cover the nations yawning current account deficits, causing prices to rise around sixfold. These investments helped make the Argentine economy nearly self-sufficient in its energy and industry needs. Frigerio and Frondizi founded the Movement for Integration and Development on a developmentalist platform, unable to field candidates due to military and conservative opposition, the MID and Perón agreed on a National Popular Front. The alliance was scuttled by military pressure, and the MID endorsed a blank vote option. Following the pragmatic Arturo Illias election, the MID was allowed to participate in the 1965 legislative elections, policy differences over Frondizi-era oil contracts, which Illia rescinded, led the MID to actively oppose him, however.
This led the MID to abandon its support for the regime and particularly for its chief economist, José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz. Frigerio fared poorly on election night, garnering 4th place and electing no congressmen, elected by an ample margin, UCR leader Raúl Alfonsín left Frigerio out of the economic policy discussions he held before taking office. Frigerio succeeded the ailing Frondizi as President of the MID in 1986, the MID maintained a considerable following in a number of Argentine provinces, such as in Formosa Province, where voters had fond memories of the Frondizi administrations development projects. These two city districts gave Justicialist Mayoral candidate Néstor Kirchner the deciding margin of victory in elections in 1987. Mayor Kirchner went on become governor and, in 2003, President of Argentina, the party, which kept a presence in Congress from 1985 to 1995, endorsed Peronist candidate Carlos Menem in 1989, though their support soured when Menem turned to neo-liberal and free trade policies.
Frigerio died in 2006, by distanced from his former party and he was succeeded by a longtime collaborator, Carlos Zaffore, who was succeeded in 2012 by Gustavo Puyó
National Congress of Argentina
The Congress of the Argentine Nation is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina. Its composition is bicameral, constituted by a 72-seat Senate and a 257-seat Chamber of Deputies, the Congressional Palace is located in Buenos Aires, at the western end of Avenida de Mayo. The Kilometre Zero for all Argentine National Highways is marked on a milestone at the Congressional Plaza, the Argentine National Congress is bicameral, composed of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The ordinary sessions span is from March 1 to November 30, senators and deputies enjoy parliamentary immunity during their mandates, which may be revoked by their peers if a senator or deputy is caught in flagrante, in the midst of committing a crime. The Congress is in charge of setting taxes and customs, which must be uniform across the country and it rules the Central Bank of Argentina, manages internal and external debt payment, and the value of national currency. It rules the legal codes on Civil, Penal, Minery and Social Welfare affairs, any changes on national or provincial limits, or the creation of new provinces, ought to be allowed by the Congress.
The Congress is entitled to approve or reject every international treaty that Argentina signs with other states or international organizations, when approved, the treaties acquire priority over ordinary legislation. Declarations of war and the signing of peace, as well as the mobilization of the national troops, from 1976 to 1983, the Congressional Palace of Argentina housed the CAL, a group of officers from the three Armed Forces. Commissioned to review and discuss laws before they were issued by the Executive Branch, in practice, this became a mechanism to detect and discuss the differences between the three commanders-in-chief of the Army and Air Force regarding a specific project. The CAL was established by the Acta del Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, the official website of Congress Satellite picture by Google Maps
Mauricio Macri is the current President of Argentina, in office since 2015. A former civil engineer, Macri won the first presidential runoff ballotage in Argentinas history and is the first democratically elected non-Radical or Peronist President since 1916, figuring prominently in Macris agenda is the objective to reintegrate Argentina in the international community. Son of Francesco Macri, a prominent Italian businessman in the industrial and construction sectors and he gained recognition when in 1995 he became President of Boca Juniors, one of the two most popular football clubs in the country. In 2005 he created the electoral front Republican Proposal, known as PRO. He was considered a candidate for the 2011 general elections. He got nearly 47% of the vote in the election, leading to a runoff vote on 31 July 2011 against candidate Daniel Filmus. On 22 November 2015, after a tie in the first round of elections on 25 October, he obtained 51. 34% of the votes. He was inaugurated on 10 December 2015 in the National Congress of Argentina, in 2016, Macri was named one of the Worlds 100 Most Influential People and the Most Powerful President in Latin America by U. S.
news magazine Time. Mauricio Macri was born in Tandil, in the province of Buenos Aires, as the son of the Italian-born tycoon Francisco Macri and Alicia Blanco Villegas, the family moved to Buenos Aires a short time later, and kept the houses in Tandil as vacation properties. His father influenced him to be a businessman, as well as his uncle Jorge Blanco Villegas, Franco expected Mauricio to eventually succeed him as leaders of his firms. Macri preferred the company of his uncle, to avoid the constant scrutiny of his father, Macri was educated at Colegio Cardenal Newman and studied at the Catholic University of Argentina, where he received a degree in civil engineering. During this time he became interested in neoliberalism, and joined a tank led by the former minister Álvaro Alsogaray. As a result, he affiliated to the now defunct Union of the Democratic Centre party, in 1985, he attended short courses at Columbia Business School, Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and the local Universidad del CEMA.
In 1984, he worked in the department of Citibank Argentina. He joined Socma the same year, and from 1985 onward he served as general manager, in 1992 he became the vice president of Sevel Argentina, climbing to the presidency in 1994. In 1991, he was kidnapped for 12 days by officers of the Argentine Federal Police and he was kept inside a very small room, with a chemical bathroom and a hole in the roof to receive food. He was freed after his family paid a multimillion-dollar ransom. He has since said that the ordeal led him to decide to enter politics and his first wife was Ivonne Bordeu, daughter of the racecar driver Juan Manuel Bordeu