Republicanism is a representative form of government organization. It is a political ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic, it ranges from the rule of a representative minority or oligarchy to popular sovereignty. It has had different definitions and interpretations which vary based on historical context and methodological approach. Republicanism may refer to the non-ideological scientific approach to politics and governance; as the republican thinker and second president of the United States John Adams stated in the introduction to his famous Defense of the Constitution, the "science of politics is the science of social happiness" and a republic is the form of government arrived at when the science of politics is appropriately applied to the creation of a rationally designed government. Rather than being ideological, this approach focuses on applying a scientific methodology to the problems of governance through the rigorous study and application of past experience and experimentation in governance.

This is the approach that may best be described to apply to republican thinkers such as Niccolò Machiavelli, John Adams, James Madison. The word "republic" derives from the Latin noun-phrase res publica, which referred to the system of government that emerged in the 6th century BCE following the expulsion of the kings from Rome by Lucius Junius Brutus and Collatinus; this form of government in the Roman state collapsed in the latter part of the 1st century B. C. giving way to what was a monarchy in form, if not in name. Republics recurred subsequently, for example, Renaissance Florence or early modern Britain; the concept of a republic became a powerful force in Britain's North American colonies, where it contributed to the American Revolution. In Europe, it gained enormous influence through the French Revolution and through the First French Republic of 1792–1804. In Ancient Greece, several philosophers and historians analysed and described elements we now recognize as classical republicanism.

Traditionally, the Greek concept of "politeia" was rendered into Latin as res publica. Political theory until recently used republic in the general sense of "regime". There is no single written expression or definition from this era that corresponds with a modern understanding of the term "republic" but most of the essential features of the modern definition are present in the works of Plato and Polybius; these include theories of civic virtue. For example, in The Republic, Plato places great emphasis on the importance of civic virtue together with personal virtue on the part of the ideal rulers. Indeed, in Book V, Plato asserts that until rulers have the nature of philosophers or philosophers become the rulers, there can be no civic peace or happiness. A number of Ancient Greek city-states such as Athens and Sparta have been classified as "classical republics", because they featured extensive participation by the citizens in legislation and political decision-making. Aristotle considered Carthage to have been a republic as it had a political system similar to that of some of the Greek cities, notably Sparta, but avoided some of the defects that affected them.

Both Livy, a Roman historian, Plutarch, noted for his biographies and moral essays, described how Rome had developed its legislation, notably the transition from a kingdom to a republic, by following the example of the Greeks. Some of this history, composed more than 500 years after the events, with scant written sources to rely on, may be fictitious reconstruction; the Greek historian Polybius, writing in the mid-2nd century BCE, emphasized the role played by the Roman Republic as an institutional form in the dramatic rise of Rome's hegemony over the Mediterranean. In his writing on the constitution of the Roman Republic, Polybius described the system as being a "mixed" form of government. Polybius described the Roman system as a mixture of monarchy and democracy with the Roman Republic constituted in such a manner that it applied the strengths of each system to offset the weaknesses of the others. In his view, the mixed system of the Roman Republic provided the Romans with a much greater level of domestic tranquility than would have been experienced under another form of government.

Furthermore, Polybius argued, the comparative level of domestic tranquility the Romans enjoyed allowed them to conquer the Mediterranean. Polybius exerted a great influence on Cicero as he wrote his politico-philosophical works in the 1st century BCE. In one of these works, De re publica, Cicero linked the Roman concept of res publica to the Greek politeia; the modern term "republic", despite its derivation, is not synonymous with the Roman res publica. Among the several meanings of the term res publica, it is most translated "republic" where the Latin expression refers to the Roman state, its form of government, between the era of the Kings and the era of the Emperors; this Roman Republic would, by a modern understanding of the word, still be defined as a true republic if not coinciding entirely. Thus, Enlightenment philosophers saw the Roman Republic as an ideal system because it included features like a systematic separation of powers. Romans still called their state "Res Publica" in the era of the early emperors because, on the surface, the organization of the state had been preserved by the first emperors without significant alteration.

Several offices from the Republican era, held by individuals, were combined under the control of a single person. These changes became permanent, conferred sovereignty on the Emperor. Cicero's des

Southern Arkansas Muleriders football

The Southern Arkansas Muleriders football team represents Southern Arkansas University in the sport of American football. The Southern Arkansas Muleriders compete in Division II of the National Collegiate Athletics Association and in the Great American Conference. SAU begin competing in 1911. Early Mulerider teams played local junior college and high school teams; the Muleriders are inaugural members of the Great American Conference. SAU has competed in the NCAA Division II since 1995 after spending 50 years as members of the NAIA. Mulerider football teams have won 8 conference championships, participated in four college bowl games, have made the NCAA Division II Playoffs in two seasons. SAU has produced 172 First Team All-Conference players; the Muleriders' home stadium is Wilkins Stadium which opened in 1949. Wilkins Stadium features dual grandstands with seating for 6,000. Several renovations have been done to Wilkins Stadiums over the past few years. Artificial turf was installed and new ticket booths and concessions stands were added.

On site at Wilkins Stadium is the Auburn Smith Field House which houses the SAU coaches offices, locker room, training room. Southern Arkansas has won a total of 8 conference championships, including 2 in an early conference that included Arkansas junior colleges and high schools, 5 AIC Championships and 1 GSC Championships. Conference affiliations: 1911–1925, Unknown 1926–1995, Arkansas Intercollegiate Conference 1995–2011, Gulf South Conference 2011–present, Great American Conference Prior to joining NCAA Division II football, the Muleriders were an inaugural member of the Arkansas Intercollegiate Conference which featured several non-scholarship programs from the state of Arkansas. Six of these programs continue to be conference mates today. SAU saw varying periods of success during their years in the AIC. SAU left the conference with a 309 -- 270 -- 25 record; the late 1920s were good to the Muleriders as the team won the AIC Championship in 1926, 1927, 1929. The 1929 squad is the last team to finish a season unbeaten.

The 1930s and 1940 saw years. Many schools took off the World War II years due to the demands. However, by 1946 football was back at SAU to stay. Elmer Smith was hired to lead the program. Elmer Smith was able to duplicate the success of the late 1920s winning AIC Championships in 1948, 1951, & 1952. Coach Smith left the university to join Paul "Bear" Bryant's staff at the University of Alabama following the 1953 season. Coach Smith finished at SAU with a 54–27–2 record. In 1954, Auburn Smith was promoted from assistant football coach to the head coaching position; this began the longest tenured coach in SAU history. Auburn Smith guided the Mulerider program for 15 seasons and retired with the most wins in school history. Upon his retirement, Smith served as the athletic director for several years; the field house at Wilkins Stadium was named in his honor in 1995. Raymond "Rip" Powell was named as Smith's replacement and proceeded to lead SAU into the best five-year period in the programs history.

From 1971 -- 1975, Powell's squads won the 1972 AIC Championship. Powell wasn't able to continue the success that he found at the beginning of his career and he retired following the 1978 season. Following Powell's retirement, SAU's program entered into a period of instability. Coaches stayed more than a couple years and 8 win seasons were followed by 1 win seasons. There were bright spots; the 1981 squad, coached by Jimmy "Red" Parker reached the No. 1 ranking before finishing the season 7–3. In 1990, the Muleriders traveled to the Aztec Bowl in Mexico where they beat the Mexican All-Star team 41–31. At the conclusion of the 1994–1995 season, the AIC folded. Most of the schools had moved from the NAIA to the NCAA ranks. SAU joined several other Arkansas institutions to form the Western Division of the Gulf South Conference. While this ended a wonderful period of SAU's athletic history, good things were just around the corner for the SAU football team. SAU was in a transitional period during 1996 seasons.

However, any fears that Mulerider fans has about SAU's ability to compete at the NCAA Division II level were put to rest during the 1997 season. Coach Steve Roberts led SAU to the Gulf South Conference Championship in 1997 with an overall record of 9–2; the 1998 & 1999 seasons were successful as SAU finished 8–2 & 9–1. The 1999 squad lost their final contest to eventual GSC Champions Arkansas Tech in overtime. A win would have earn SAU their first unbeaten season in 70 years and would have given SAU their 2nd GSC Conference championship in their first three years in the league. Following the 1999 season, Coach Roberts was hired by Northwestern State. Following Roberts at SAU was John Bland who coached the Muleriders to a 5–5 record in 2000, his only season at the helm. Steve Quinn led the Muleriders for the next 8 seasons; the 2003 squad was Quinn's most successful. The 2003 squad finished 9–3 and made the NCAA Division II playoffs where they lost to GSC conference foe North Alabama. After three consecutive losing seasons to finish his tenure at SAU, current head coach Bill Keopple was hired to replace Quinn.

Keopple's first season in Magnolia was SAU's final season in the Gulf South Conference. In 2011, SAU, five other Arkansas colleges, four Oklahoma colleges joined forces to become the Great American Conference. Leading the SAU team into the new conference was 3rd year head coach Bill Keopple. Keopple came to SAU after several years as a college assistant as well as a successful

Chesham Place

Chesham Place is a street in Belgravia, London UK, running between Belgrave Square and Pont Street. It has had many distinguished residents, it was first laid out in 1831, includes a number of listed buildings. Chesham Place and nearby Chesham Street take their name from the town of Chesham in Buckinghamshire, were named by William Lowndes who owned the leases on this and nearby land, it gives its name to Chesham Amalgamations, founded at number 36 in 1962. 7 Chesham Place, High Commission of Lesotho. 9 Chesham Place, former studio of the milliner Simone Mirman. 10 Chesham Place, birthplace of Douglas Hogg, 1st Viscount Hailsham. 17 Chesham Place was converted to the Chesham Court apartments in the 1930s. Its residents have included Robin and Angela Fox, Peter Yates, Kenneth Hurren, Greta van Rantwyk, Michael Wilding. 20 Chesham Place is the Thomson Belgravia Hotel, including the Hix Belgravia restaurant, operated by Mark Hix. 21 Chesham Place is a former British Telecom telephone exchange, converted into luxury flats by Foster + Partners for the Candy brothers.

25 Chesham Place, former home of Sir Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax. 27 Chesham Place, former home of the Marquess of Waterford. 28 Chesham Place, former home of the Conservative MP Malcolm St Clair. 34 Chesham Place, former home of the Conservative MP Christopher Turnor, Sir William Richmond Brown, 2nd Baronet. 36 Chesham Place, site of Mrs Thatcher’s office after leaving Downing Street. 37 Chesham Place, former home of the Duke of Bedford. A blue plaque marks it as the former home of the first Earl Russell 1792-1878.38 Chesham Place is the Embassy of Finland. A Grade II listed building, it was known as Belgrave House and Herbert House. Former residents include: Major General James Ahmuty William Russell, a member of the family of Lord John Russell Elizabeth Herbert, Baroness Herbert of Lea, widow of Sidney Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Lea died at Herbert House in 1911 Aldred Lumley, 10th Earl of Scarbrough Irwin Boyle Laughlin secretary of the American Embassy in London and Counselor. Gustavus William Hamilton-Russell, 9th Viscount Boyne.

The British Red Cross and St John's War Organisation used the house during World War 2 and the Victoria League for Commonwealth Friendship leased 38 Chesham Place until 1975 when it became the Embassy of Finland. 39 Chesham Place is the Embassy of SpainThe entrance to the Embassy of Germany in Belgrave Square fronts on to Chesham Place. Chesham House was the home of the Russian Embassy from 1853 until the formation of the USSR in May 1927