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Simulator sickness

Simulator sickness is a subset of motion sickness, experienced by pilots who undergo training for extended periods of time in flight simulators. Due to the spatial limitations imposed on these simulators, perceived discrepancies between the motion of the simulator and that of the vehicle can occur and lead to simulator sickness, it is similar to motion sickness in many ways, but occurs in simulated environments and can be induced without actual motion. Symptoms of simulator sickness include discomfort, drowsiness, fatigue and many more; these symptoms can reduce the effectiveness of simulators in flight training and result in systematic consequences such as decreased simulator use, compromised training, ground safety, flight safety. Pilots are less to want to repeat the experience in a simulator if they have suffered from simulator sickness and hence can reduce the number of potential users, it can compromise training in two safety-critical ways: It can distract the pilot during training sessions.

It can cause the pilot to adopt certain counterproductive behaviors to prevent symptoms from occurring. Simulator sickness can have post-training effects that can compromise safety after the simulator session, such as when the pilots drive away from the facility or fly while experiencing symptoms of simulator sickness. Though human-piloted aviation has existed since the early 20th century, simulator sickness did not arise as an issue for pilots until much when the first fixed-base simulators were created. Bell Aircraft Corporation created a helicopter simulator for the Navy during the 1950s, it was found "that a large number of observers experienced some degree of vertigo during these demonstrations". Navy psychologists performed further study on the pilots who participated in these simulator exercises, found that 28 out of 36 respondents to their evaluations experienced sickness. Additionally, psychologists found. In fact, 60% of the instructors reported simulator sickness symptoms compared to only 12% of the students.

"The SS occurred in the first ten minutes of a training session and lasted for several hours afterward."Two main theories exist about the causes of simulator sickness. The first is sensory conflict theory. Optical flow patterns generated in virtual environments induces perception of self-motion. Sensory conflict theory holds that, when this perception of self-motion is not corroborated by inertial forces transmitted through the vestibular system, simulator sickness is to occur. Thus, sensory conflict theory predicts that keeping the visual and vestibular inputs in agreement can reduce the likelihood of simulator sickness experienced by users. Additionally, according to this theory, people who do not have a functioning vestibular component of their nervous system should not show either simulator sickness or motion sickness; the second theory for simulator sickness identifies postural instability as the determinant of simulator sickness. This theory notes that situations producing simulator sickness are denoted by their unfamiliarity to the participant more than the degree of sensory conflict.

Thus, the novelty of the motion cues is hypothesized to lead to an inability to maintain postural control and this lack of control causes simulator sickness until the participant adapts. Key attributes here include the notation that the motions causing simulator sickness are in a nauseogenic low frequency range that overlaps with the frequency of motion within the human body as it maintains control over its posture. Experiments have measured markers of the onset of postural instability, found that it precedes signs and symptoms of simulator sickness. At present, it is accurate to say that both—and neither—of these theories are yet adequate to explain and predict simulator sickness. Although it is clear which types of pilots are affected by it, both sensory conflict theory and postural instability theory relate its onset with certain physiological conflicts, neither theory suffices to predict why these specific conflicts elicit sickness in the subject. Additional possibilities for elicitation of motion sickness in general include gaze destabilization, disrupted if the vestibuloocular reflex gain in the nervous system is altered, moving patterns of visual stimuli, motions that stimulate the otoliths and semicircular canals of the inner ear.

It is unclear whether or not these stimuli are encountered in significant amounts in a simulator to induce sickness in the expert pilots. However, since laboratory studies have shown the removal of the vestibular projection areas of the cerebellum to result in insusceptibility to motion sickness, it is certainly probable that the first of these theories holds the most promise with regard to research into the direct physiological causes of the phenomenon. While anyone can experience simulator sickness, studies in flight simulators have found a correlation between the appearance of symptoms and the flight experience of the pilot. Studies conducted independently by the US Navy, US Coast Guard, US Army during the 1980s all came to the same conclusion: the greater experience of the pilot, higher the likelihood of sickness symptoms during simulation training exercises. In 1989, the US Army released a report detailing the results of a study examining simulator sickness in UH-60 Blackhawk flight simulators, confirming the above hypothesis.

The report also

Reynolds Peak (Washington)

Reynolds Peak is an 8,517-foot mountain summit located in the Methow Mountains, a sub-range of the North Cascades in Washington State. It is protected by the Lake Chelan-Sawtooth Wilderness within the Okanogan National Forest. Reynolds Peak has North Peak, which is.3 miles north of the summit. The nearest higher peak is 8.55 miles to the southeast. Precipitation runoff on the east side of the mountain drains into the Twisp River via Reynolds Creek, whereas the west side of the mountain drains into the Stehekin River via Boulder Creek. Lying east of the Cascade crest, the area around Reynolds Peak is a bit drier than areas to the west. Summers can bring occasional thunderstorms. With its impressive height, Reynolds Peak can have snow on it in late-Spring and early-Fall, can be cold in the winter; the North Cascades features some of the most rugged topography in the Cascade Range with craggy peaks and deep glacial valleys. Geological events occurring many years ago created the diverse topography and drastic elevation changes over the Cascade Range leading to the various climate differences.

These climate differences lead to vegetation variety defining the ecoregions in this area. The history of the formation of the Cascade Mountains dates back millions of years ago to the late Eocene Epoch. With the North American Plate overriding the Pacific Plate, episodes of volcanic igneous activity persisted. In addition, small fragments of the oceanic and continental lithosphere called terranes created the North Cascades about 50 million years ago. During the Pleistocene period dating back over two million years ago, glaciation advancing and retreating scoured the landscape leaving deposits of rock debris; the "U"-shaped cross section of the river valleys are a result of recent glaciation. Uplift and faulting in combination with glaciation have been the dominant processes which have created the tall peaks and deep valleys of the North Cascades area. List of Highest Mountain Peaks in Washington Geography of Washington Geology of the Pacific Northwest

Thomas Goddard (jurist)

Thomas George Goddard was a New Zealand jurist. He served as chief judge of the Employment Court of New Zealand from 1989 to 2005. Goddard was born Tomasz Goldwag in Warsaw, Poland, on 20 May 1937, the son of Naum Goldwag and Estera Goldwag, they came to New Zealand in 1947, changing their surname to Goddard. Thomas Goddard became a naturalised New Zealand citizen in 1952, he was educated at Wellington College, went on to study at Victoria University College, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts majoring in French and Latin in 1958, a Master of Arts in French the following year, a Bachelor of Laws in 1962. Goddard was called to the bar as a barrister and solicitor of the Supreme Court in 1962, specialised in employment law, equity law, administrative law, the law of torts, contract law, jurisprudence, he practised either in partnership or in sole practice until 1989, in 1982 acted as counsel for the successful plaintiff in a cited case regarding exemplary damages in tort, Taylor v Beere. In 1989, he was appointed chief judge of the Labour Court, when that court became the Employment Court in 1991, he continued as chief judge, retiring from that role in 2005.

Not long after his retirement, Goddard was appointed by the Tongan government in August 2005 to review the pay claims of Tongan public servants who were on strike. When the District Court judge Ian Borrin died in 2016, he left a $30 million legacy for the establishment of a charitable trust, the Michael and Suzanne Borrin Foundation, in memory of his parents, Goddard was appointed as a member of its grants and scholarship committee. Goddard died at his home in Wellington on 14 March 2019. In 1990, Goddard was awarded the New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal, he was appointed a Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit, for services to the Employment Court, in the 2006 New Year Honours

Ficus Ruminalis

The Ficus Ruminalis was a wild fig tree that had religious and mythological significance in ancient Rome. It stood near the small cave known as the Lupercal at the foot of the Palatine Hill and was the spot where according to tradition the floating makeshift cradle of Romulus and Remus landed on the banks of the Tiber. There they were discovered by Faustulus; the tree was sacred to Rumina, one of the birth and childhood deities, who protected breastfeeding in humans and animals. St. Augustine mentions a Jupiter Ruminus; the wild fig tree was thought to be the male, wild counterpart of the cultivated fig, female. In some Roman sources, the wild fig is caprificus "goat fig"; the fruit of the fig tree is pendulous, the tree exudes a milky sap if cut. Rumina and Ruminalis were connected by some Romans to rumis or ruma, "teat, breast," but some modern linguists think it is more related to the names Roma and Romulus, which may be based on rumon a word for "river" or an archaic name for the Tiber; the tree is associated with the legend of Romulus and Remus, stood where their cradle came to rest on the banks of the Tiber, after their abandonment.

The tree offered the twins shade and shelter in their suckling by a she-wolf, just outside the nearby Lupercal cave, until their discovery and fostering by the shepherd Faustulus and his wife Acca Larentia. Remus was killed by Romulus, who went on to found Rome on the Palatine Hill, above the cave. A statue of the she-wolf was supposed to have stood next to the Ficus Ruminalis. In 296 BC, the curule aediles Gnaeus and Quintus Ogulnius placed images of Romulus and Remus as babies suckling under her teats, it may be this sculpture group, represented on coins. The Augustan historian Livy says that the tree still stood in his day, but his younger contemporary Ovid observes only vestigia, "traces," the stump. A textually problematic passage in Pliny seems to suggest that the tree was miraculously transplanted by the augur Attus Navius to the Comitium; this fig tree, was the Ficus Navia, so called for the augur. Tacitus refers to the Ficus Navia as the Arbor Ruminalis, an identification that suggests it had replaced the original Ficus Ruminalis, either symbolically after the older tree's demise, or having been cultivated as an offshoot.

The Ficus Navia grew from a spot, struck by lightning and was thus regarded as sacred. Pliny's obscure reference may be to the statue of Attus Navius in front of the Curia Hostilia: he stood with his lituus raised in an attitude that connected the Ficus Navia and the accompanying representation of the she-wolf to the Ficus Ruminalis, "as if" the tree had crossed from one space to the other; when the Ficus Navia drooped, it was taken as a bad omen for Rome. When it died, it was replaced. In 58 AD, it withered, but revived and put forth new shoots. In the archaeology of the Comitium, several irregular stone-lined shafts in rows, dating from Republican phases of pavement, may have been apertures to preserve venerable trees during rebuilding programs. Pliny mentions other sacred trees in the Roman Forum, with two additional figs. One fig was removed with a great deal of ritual fuss because its roots had undermined a statue of Silvanus. A relief on the Plutei of Trajan depicts Marsyas the satyr, whose statue stood in the Comitium, next to a fig tree, placed on a plinth, as if it too were a sculpture.

It is unclear whether this representation means that sacred trees might be replaced with artificial or pictorial ones. The apertures were paved over in the time of an event that may explain Ovid's vestigia. Sacred fig Caprotinia "Romulus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23. 1911. Ficus Ruminalis. In: Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby: A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Oxford University Press, London 1929

HNLMS Guinea

HNLMS Guinea was an Buffel-class monitor built for the Royal Netherlands Navy in the early 1870s. Rearmed in 1887 with more modern ordnance, she was sold for scrap in 1897. Guinea was 62.68 meters long overall with a beam of 12.25 meters. The ship had a draft of 4.75 meters. She displaced 2,198 metric tons, her crew consisted of 117 officers and enlisted men, but increased to 159 crewmen. The Buffel-class monitors had two 2-cylinder compound-expansion steam engines, each driving a single propeller shaft. Steam for the engines was provided by four boilers and the engines were rated at a total of 2,000 indicated horsepower for a designed speed of 12.4 knots. The ships carried up to 150 metric tons of coal; the Buffel class was armed with two Armstrong 9-inch rifled muzzle-loading guns mounted in a single turret and four 30-pounder 4.7-inch smoothbore guns on the deck. In 1887 her armament was modernized; the 9-inch guns were replaced by a single 280-millimeter Krupp breech-loading gun and the 30-pounders were superseded by a pair of 75-millimeter, four quick-firing 37-millimeter Hotchkiss guns and two QF 37-millimeter Hotchkiss 5-barrel revolving guns.

The ship had a complete waterline armored belt that ranged in thickness from 152 millimeters amidships to 76 millimeters at the ends. The deck armor was 19 to 25 millimeters thick; the armor of the turret and its supporting structure was 203 millimeters thick, except around the gun ports where it increased to 280 millimeters. The conning tower was protected by 144 millimeters of armor. Unlike her sister ship, Guinea was built in the Netherlands, she was ordered in 1867 from the Rijkswerf in Amsterdam and was laid down that same year with the name of Matador. Renamed Guinea, after the African colony of Guinea, while under construction, she was launched on 5 May 1870 and completed on 16 October 1873. Guinea was broken up and scrapped at Bolnes in 1897. Gardiner, Robert, ed.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905. Greenwich: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 978-0-8317-0302-8. "Dutch Ironclad Rams". Warship International. IX: 302–04. 1972. Silverstone, Paul H.. Directory of the World's Capital Ships.

New York: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 978-0-88254-979-8